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211 .ZIZ 
cop. 2 

I • H • S , 




Coles County. 



A History of the County — its Cities, Towns, &c. ; a Directory of its 
Tax-Payers; Portraits of Early Settlers and Prominent 
Men; General and Local Statistics; Map of Coles 
County; History of Illinois, Illustrated; 
History of the North >A/-est, Illustrated; 
Constitution of the United States, 
Miscellaneous Matters, 
&c., <&c. 





TN presenting our History of Coles County, we deem a few prefatory words 
necessary. We have spared neither pains nor expense to fulfill our engagement with 
our patrons and make the work as complete as possible. We have acted upon the 
principle that justice to those who have subscribed, be they few or many, requires that 
the work should be as well done as if it was patronized by every citizen in the county. 
We do not claim that our work is entirely free from errors ; such a result could not. be 
attained by the utmost care and foresight of ordinary mortals. The County History was 
compiled by our historians, W. H. Perrin, A. A. Graham and D. M. Blair, and received 
much material and assistance from Judge William E. Adams. Some of the Town- 
ship Histories are indeed longer than others, as the townships are older, containing 
larger cities and towns, and have been the scenes of more important and interesting 
events. While fully recognizing this important difference, the historians have sought to 
write up each township with equal fidelity to the facts and information within their 
reach. We take this occasion to present our thanks to all our numerous subscribers 
for their patronage and encouragement in the publication of the work. In this confident 
belief, we submit it to the enlightened judgment of those for whose benefit it has been 
prepared, believing that it will be received as a most valuable and complete work. 




lit ud lao MoQto* BmrL 








History North west Territory 19 

Geographical 19 

Early Exploration 20 

Discovery of the Ohio 33 

English Explorations and Settle- 
ments 35 

American Settlements 60 

Division of the Northwest Terri- 
tory 66 

Tecumseh and the war of 1812 70 

Black Hawk and the Black Hawk 
War 74 


Other Indian Troubles 79 

Present Condition of the Northwest 87 

Illinois 99 

Indiana 101 

Iowa 102 

Michigan 103 

Wisconsin 104 

Minnesota 106 

Nebraska 107 

History of Illinois 109 

Goal 125 

Compact of 1787 117 


History of Chicago 132 

Early Discoveries 109 

Early Settlements 115 

Education 129 

First French Occupation 112 

Genius of La Salle 113 

Material Resources 124 

Massacre of Fort Dearborn 141 

Physical Features 121 

Progress of Development 123 

Religion and Morals 128 

War Record of Illinois 130 



Source of the Mississippi 21 

Mouth of the Mississippi 21 

Wild Prairie 23 

La Salle Landing on the Shore of 

Green Bay 25 

Buffalo Hunt 27 

Trapping 29 

Hunting 32 

Iroquois Chief. 34 

Pontiac, the Ottawa Chieftain 43 

Indians Attacking Frontiersmen... 56 

A Prairie Storm 59 

A Pioneer Dwelling 61 

Breakiug Prairie 63 

Tecumseh, the Shawnee Chieftain... 69 

Indians Attacking a Stockade 72 

Black Hawk, the Sac Chieftain 75 

Big Eagle 80 

Captain Jack, the Modoc Chieftain.. 83 

Kinzie House 85 

Village Residence 86 

A Representative Pioneer 87 

Lincoln Monument, Springfield, 111. 88 

A Pioneer School House 89 

Farm View in the Winter 90 

High Bridge and Lake Bluff 94 

Great Iron Bridge of Chicago, Rock 
Island & Pacific Railroad, Cross- 


ing the River at Davenport, Iowa 96 • 

A Western Dwelling 109 

Hunting Prairie Wolves at an 

Early Day lOS 

Starved Rock, on the Illinois River, 

La Salle County, 111 110 

An Early Settlement , 116 

Chicago in 1833 133 

Old Fort Dearbron in 1830 136 

Present site of Lake Street Bridge, 

Chicago, in 1833 136 

Pioneers' First Winter 142 

View of the City of Chicago 144 

Shabbona 149 


General History of Coles County. ...223 

Ashmore Township 391 

Charleston " 289 

East Oakland Township 443 

Hutton Township 430 


Humbolt Township 469 

La Fayette " 478 

Maftoon " 324 

Morgan " 456 


North Okaw Township .489 

Pleasant Grove " 407 

Paradise " 496 

Seven Hickory " 463 




-^^Adams, W. E 239 

-<^ Adams, J. J.. 221 

-^Cunningham, J. T 257 



Cash, L. S 293 

Gordon, John 275 


Pemberton, J. J :U1 

Kutherford, H a29 



''> Ashmore Township 592 




^^ast Oakland " 
iwHutton " 

Humbolt Township 633 

La Fayette 





North Okaw Township 646 

Pleasant Grove " 682 

Paradise " 649 

Seven Hickory " 639 



^ Page. 

"^ivAsbmore Township 669 

i^ Charleston " 657 

^East Oakland " 777 

--Hutton " 675 


Humbolt Township 684 

La Fayette " 689 

Mattoon " 663 

Morgan " 680 

Page , 

North Okaw Township 687 

Pleasant Grove " 673 

Paradise " 691 

Seven Hickory " r 682 





Adoption of Children ICO 

Bills of Exchange and Promissory 

Notes 151 

County Courts 155 

Conveyances 164 

Church Organizations 189 

Descent 151 

Deeds and Mortgages 157 

Drainage 163 

Damages from Trespass 169 

Definition of Commercial Terms 173 

Exemptions from Forced Sale 156 

Estrays 157 

Fences 168 


Articles of Agreement 175 

Bills of Purchase 174 

Bills of Sale 176 

Bonds 176 

Forms : 

Chattel Mortgages 177 

Codicil 189 

Lease of Farm and Build- 
ings 179 

Lease of House 180 

Landlord's Agreement 180 

Notes 174 

Notice Tenant to Quit 181 

Orders 174 

Quit Claim Deed 185 

Receipt 174 

Real Estate Mortgaged to Secure 

Payment of Money 181 

Release 186 

Tenant's Agreement 180 

Tenant's Notice to Quit 181 

Warranty Deed 182 

Will 187 


Game 158 

Interest 155 

Jurisdiction of Courts 151 

Limitation of Action 151 

Landlord and Tenant 165 

Liens 179 

Married Women 152 

Millers 159 

Marks and Brands 159 

Paupers 104 

Roads and Bridges 161 

Surveyors and Surveys ICO 

Suggestions to Persons Purchasing 

Books by Subscription 190 

Taxes 154 

Wills and Estates 152 

Weights and Measures 158 

Wolf Scalps 164 



Map of Coles County Front 

Constitution of the U. S 192 

Electors of President and Vice Pres- 
ident 206 

Practical Rules for Every Day Use.207 
U. S. Government Land Measure. ..210 
Agricultural Productions of Illi- 
nois by Counties, 1870 210 

Surveyors" Measure 211 

How to Keep Accounts 211 


Interest Table 212 

Miscollaneoua Tables ^12 

Names of the States of the Union 

and their Signification 213 

Population of the United States 214 

Population of Fifty Principal Cities 

of the United States 214 

Population and Area of the United 

States 215 

Population of the Principal Coun- 
tries in the World 215 


Population of Illinois 216-217 

State Laws Relating to Interest 218 

State Laws Relating to Limitations 

of Actions 219 

Productions of Agriculture of Illi- 
nois 220 

Population of Coles Co 699 

Business Directory 693 

Errata.... 656 

mKl QT (Di ® IL ® i 


R. 7 C 




rt II E 

R /♦ W. 



The Northwest Territory. 


When the Northwestern Territory was ceded to the United States 
by Virginia in 1784, it embraced only the territory lying between the 
Ohio and the Mississippi Rivers, and north to the northern limits of the 
United States, It coincided with the area now embraced in the States 
of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, and that portion of 
Minnesota lying on the east side of the Mississippi River. The United 
States itself at that period extended no farther west than the Mississippi 
River ; but by the purchase of Louisiana in 1803, the western boundary 
of the United States was extended to the Rocky Mountains and the 
Northern Pacific Ocean. The new territory thus added to the National 
domain, and subsequently opened to settlement, has been called the 
" New Northwest," in contradistinction from the old " Northwestern 
Territory. " 

In comparison with the old Northwest this is a territory of vast 
magnitude. It includes an area of 1,887,850 square miles ; being greater 
in extent than the united areas of all the Middle and Southern States, 
including Texas. Out of this magnificent territory have been erected 
eleven sovereign States and eight Territories, with an aggregate popula- 
tion, at the present time, of 13,000,000 inhabitants, or nearly one third of 
the entire population of the United States. 

Its lakes are fresh-water seas, and the larger rivers of the continent 
flow for a thousand miles through its rich alluvial valleys and far- 
stretching prairies, more acres of which are arable and productive of the 
highest percentage of the cereals than of any other area of like extent 
on the globe. 

For the last twenty years the increase of population in the North- 
west has been about as three to one in any other portion of the United 




In the year 1541, DeSoto first saw the Great West in the New 
World. He, however, penetrated no farther north than the 35th parallel 
of latitude. The expedition resulted in his death and that of more than 
half his army, the remainder of whom found their way to Cuba, thence 
to Spain, in a famished and demoralized condition. DeSoto founded no 
settlements, produced no results, and left no traces, unless it were that 
he awakened the hostility of the red man against the white man, and 
disheartened such as might desire to follow up the career of discovery 
for better purposes. The French nation were eager and ready to seize 
upon any news from this extensive domain, and were the first to profit by 
DeSoto's defeat. Yet it was more than a century before any adventurer 
took advantage of these discoveries. 

In 1616, four years before the pilgrims " moored their bark on the 
wild New England shore," Le Caron, a French Franciscan, had pene- 
trated through the Iroquois and Wyandots (Hurons) to the streams which 
run intq Lake Huron ; and in 1634, two Jesuit missionaries founded the 
first mission among the lake tribes. It was just one hundred years from 
the discovery of the Mississippi by DeSoto (1541) until the Canadian 
envoys met the savage nations of the Northwest at the Falls of St. Mary, 
below the outlet of Lake Superior. This visit led to no permanent 
result; yet it was not until 1659 that any of the adventurous fur traders 
attempted to spend a Winter in the frozen wilds about the great lakes, 
nor was it until 1660 that a station was established upon their borders by 
Mesnard, who perished in the woods a few months after. In 1665, Claude 
Allouez built the earliest lasting habitation of the white man among the 
Indians of the Nortliwest. In 1668, Claude Dablon and James Marquette 
founded the mission of Sault Ste. Marie at the Falls of St. Mary, and two 
years afterward, Nicholas Perrot, as agent for M. Talon, Governor Gen- 
eral of Canada, explored Lake Illinois (Michigan) as far south as the 
present City of Chicago, and invited the Indian nations to meet him at a 
grand council at Sault Ste. Marie the following Spring, where they were 
taken under the protection of the king, and formal possession was taken 
of the Northwest. This same year Marquette established a mission at 
Point St. Ignatius, where was founded the old town of Michillimackinac. 

During M. Talon's explorations and Marquette's residence at St. 
Ignatius, they learned of a great river away to the west, and fancied 
— as all others did then — that upon its fertile banks whole tribes of God's 
children resided, to whom the sound of the Gospel had never come. 
Filled with a wish to go and preach to them, and in compliance with a 


















request of M. Talon, who earnestly desired to extend the domain of his 
king, and to ascertain whether the river flowed into the Gulf of Mexico 
or the Pacific Ocean, Marquette with Joliet, as commander of the expe- 
dition, prepared foV the undertaking. 

On the 13th of May, 1673, the explorers, accompanied by five assist- 
ant French Canadians, set out from Mackinaw on their daring voyage of 
discovery. The Indians, who gathered to witness their departure, were 
astonished at the boldness of the undertaking, and endeavored to dissuade 
them from their purpose by representing the tribes on the Mississippi as 
exceedingly savage and cruel, and the river itself as full of all sorts of 
frightful monsters ready to swallow them and their canoes together. But, 
nothing daunted by these terrific descriptions, Marquette told them he 
was willing not only to encounter all the perils of the unknown region 
they were about to explore, but to lay down his life in a cause in which 
the salvation of souls was involved ; and having prayed together they 
separated. Coasting along the northern shore of Lake Michigan, the 
adventurers entered Green Bay, and passed thence up the Fox River and 
Lake Winnebago to a village of the Miamis and Kickapoos. Here Mar- 
quette was delighted to find a beautiful cross planted in the middle of the 
town ornamented with white skins, red girdles and bows and arrows, 
which these good people had offered to the Great Manitou, or God, to 
thank him for the pity he had bestowed on them during the Winter in 
giving them an abundant " chase." This was the farthest outpost to 
which Dablon and Allouez had extended their missionary labors the 
year previous. Here Marquette drank mineral waters and was instructed 
in the secret of a root which cures the bite of the venomous rattlesnake. 
He assembled the chiefs and old men of the village, and, pointing to 
Joliet, said : " My friend is an envoy of France, to discover new coun- 
tries, and I am an ambassador from God to enlighten them with the truths 
of the Gospel." Two Miami guides were here furnished to conduct 
them to the Wisconsin River, and they set out from the Lidian village on 
the 10th of June, amidst a great crowd of natives who had assembled to 
witness their departure into a region where no white man had ever yet 
ventured. The guides, having conducted them across the portage, 
returned. The explorers launched their canoes upon the Wisconsin, 
which they descended to the Mississippi and proceeded down its unknown 
waters. What emotions must have swelled their breasts as they struck 
out into the broadening current and became conscious that the}^ were 
now upon the bosom of th3 Father of Waters. The mystery was about 
to be lifted from the long-sought river. The scenery in that locality is 
beautiful, and on that deliiihtful seventeenth of June must have been 
clad in all its primeval loveliness as it had been adorned by the hand of 



Nature. Drifting rapidly, it is said that the bold bluffs on either hand 
'^ reminded them of the castled shores of their own beautiful rivers of 
France." By-and-by, as they drifted along, great herds of buffalo appeared 
on the banks. On going to the heads of the valley they could see a 
country of the greatest beauty and fertility, apparently destitute of inhab- 
itants yet presenting the appearance of extensive manors, under the fas- 
tidious cultivation of lordly proprietors. 

-~ •««=—;, 


On June 25, they went ashore and found some fresh traces of men upon 
the sand, and a path which led to the prairie. The men remained in the 
boat, and Marquette and Joliet followed the path till they discovered a 
village on the banks of a river, and two other villages on a hill, within a 
half league of the first, inhabited by Indians. They were received most 
hospitably by these natives, who had never before seen a white person. 
After remaining a few days they re-embarked and descended the river to 
about latitude 33°, where they found a village of the Arkansas, and being 
satisfied that the river flowed into the Gulf of Mexico, turned their course 


up the river, and ascending the stream to the mouth of the Illinois, 
rowed up that stream to its source, and procured guides from that point 
to the lakes. " Nowhere on this journey," says Marquette, •' did we see 
such grounds, meadows, woods, stags, buffaloes, deer, wildcats, bustards, 
swans, ducks, parroquets, and even beavers, as on the Illinois River." 
The party, without loss or injury, reached Green Bay in September, and 
reported their discovery — one of the most important of the age, but of 
which no record was preserved save Marquette's, Joliet losing his by 
the upsetting of his canoe on his way to Quebec. Afterward Marquette 
returned to the Illinois Indians by their request, and ministered to them 
until 1675. On the 18th of May, in that year, as he was passing the 
mouth of a stream — going with his boatmen up Lake Michigan — he asked 
to land at its mouth and celebrate Mass. Leaving his men with the canoe, 
he retired a short distance and began his devotions. As much time 
passed and he did not return, his men went in search of him, and found 
him upon his knees, dead. He had peacefull}'- passed away while at 
prayer. He was buried at this spot. Charlevoix, who visited the place 
fifty years after, found the waters had retreated from the grave, leaving 
the beloved missionary to repose in peace. The river has since been 
called Marquette. 

While Marquette and his companions were pursuing their labors in 
the West, two men, differing widely from him and each other, were pre- 
paring to follow in his footsteps and perfect the discoveries so well begun 
by hira. These were Robert de La Salle and Louis Hennepin. 

After La Salle's return from the discovery of the Ohio River (see 
the narrative elsewhere), he established himself again among the French 
trading posts in Canada. Here he mused long upon the pet project of 
those ages — a short way to China and the East, and was busilj^ planning an 
expedition up the great lakes, and so across the continent to the Pacific, 
when Marquette returned from the Mississippi. At once the vigorous mind 
of LaSalle received from his and his companions' stories the idea that by fol- 
lowing the Great River northward, or by turning up some of the numerous 
western tributaries, the object could easily be gained. He applied to 
Frontenac, Governor General of Canada, and laid before him the plan, 
dim but gigantic. Frontenac entered warmly into his plans, and saw that 
LaSalle's idea to connect the great lakes by a chain of forts with the Gulf 
of Mexico would bind the country so wonderfully together, give un- 
measured power to France, and glory to himself, under whose adminis- 
tration he earnestly hoped all would be realized. 

LaSalle now repaired to France, laid his plans before the King, who 
warmly approved of them, and made him a Chevalier. He also received 
from all the noblemen the warmest wishes for his success. The Chev- 



alier returned to Canada, and busily entered upon his work. He at 
once rebuilt Fort Frontenac and constructed the first ship to sail on 
these fresh-water seas. On the 7th of August, 1679, having been joined 
by Hennepin, he began his voyage in the Griffin up Lake Erie. He 
passed over this lake, through the straits beyond, up Lake St. Clair and 
into Huron. In this lake they encountered heavy storms. They were 
some time at Michillimackinac, where LaSalle founded a fort, and passed 
on to Green Bay, the " Baie des Puans" of the French, where he found 
a large quantity of furs collected for him. He loaded the Griffin with 
these, and placing her under the care of a pilot and fourteen sailors, 


started her on her return voyage. The vessel was never afterward heard 
of. He remained about these parts until early in the Winter, when, hear- 
ing nothing from the Griffin, he collected all the men — thirty working 
men and three monks — and started again upon his great undertaking. 

By a short portage they passed to the Illinois or Kankakee, called by 
the Indians, "Theakeke," wolf, because of the tribes of Indians called 
by that name, commonly known as the Mahingans, dwelling there. The 
French pronounced it KiakiTci, which became corrupted to Kankakee. 
"Falling down the said river by easy journeys, the better to observe the 
country," about the last of December tliey reached a village of the Illi- 
nois Indians, containing some five hundred cabins, but at that moment 


no inhabitants. The Seur de LaSalle being in want of some breadstuffs, 
took advantage of the absence of the Indians to help himself to a suffi- 
ciency of maize, large quantities of which he found concealed in holes 
under the wigwams. This village was situated near the present village 
of Utica in LaSalle County, Illinois. The corn being securely stored, 
the voyagers again betook themselves to the stream, and toward evening, 
on the 4th day of January, 1680, they came into a lake which must have 
been the lake of Peoria. This was called by the Indians Fim-i-te-wi, that 
is, a place ivhere there are tnanr/ fat beasts. Here the natives were met 
with in large numbers, but they were gentle and kind, and having spent 
some time with them, LaSalle determined to erect another fort in that 
place, for he had heard rumors that some of the adjoining tribes were 
trying to disturb the good feeling which existed, and some of his men 
were disposed to complain, owing to the hardships and perils of the travel. 
He called this fort "' Crevecoeur^' (broken-heart), a name expressive of the 
very natural sorrow and anxiet}'- which the pretty certain loss of his ship, 
Griffin, and his consequent impoverishment, the danger of hostility on the 
part of the Indians, and of mutiny among his own men, might well cause 
him. His fears were not entirely groundless. At one time poison was 
placed in his food, but fortunately was discovered. 

While building this fort, the Winter wore away, the prairies began to 
look green, and LaSalle, despairing of any reinforcements, concluded to 
return to Canada, raise new means and new men, and embark anew in 
the enterprise. For this purpose he made Hennepin the leader of a party 
to explore the head waters of the Mississippi, and he set out on his jour- 
ney. This journey was accomplished with the aid of a few persons, and 
was successfully made, though over an almost u iknown route, and in a 
bad season of the year. He safely reached Cana ia, and set out again for 
the object of his search. 

Hennepin and his party left Fort Crevecoeur on the last of February, 
1680. When LaSalle reached this place on his return expedition, he 
found the fort entirely deserted, and he was obliged to return again to 
Canada. He embarked the third time, and succeeded. Seven days after 
leaving the fort, Hennepin reached the Mississippi, and paddling up the 
icy stream as best he could, reached no higher than the Wisconsin River 
by the 11th of April. Here he and his followers were taken prisoners by a 
band of Northern Indians, who treated them with great kindness. Hen- 
nepin's comrades were Anthony Auguel and Michael Ako. On this voy- 
age they found several beautiful lakes, and " saw some charming prairies." 
Their captors were the Isaute or Sauteurs, Chippewas, a tribe of the Sioux 
nation, who took them up the river until about the first of May, when 
they reached some falls, which Hennepin christened Falls of St. Anthony 



in honor of his patron saint. Here they took the land, and traveling 
nearly two hundred miles to the northwest, brought them to their villages. 
Here they were kept about three months, were treated kindly by their 
captors, and at the end of that time, were met by a band of Frenchmen, 


headed by one Seur de Luth, who, in pursuit of trade and game, had pene- 
crated thus far by the route of Lake Superior ; and with these fellow- 
countrymen Hennepin and his companions were allowed to return to the 
borders of civilized life in November, 1680, just after LaSalle had 
returned to the wilderness on his second trip. Hennepin soon after went 
to France, where he published an account of his adventures. 



The Mississippi was first discovered by De Soto in April, 1541, in his 
vain endeavor to find gold and precioas gems. In the following Spring, 
De Soto, weary with hope long deferred, and worn out with his wander- 
ings, he fell a victim to disease, and on the 21st of May died. His followers, 
reduced by fatigue and disease to less than three hundred men, wandered 
about the country nearly a year, in the vain endeavor to rescue them- 
selves by land, and finally constructed seven small vessels, called brigan- 
tines, in which they embarked, and descending the river, supposing it 
would lead them to the sea, in July they came to the sea (Gulf of 
Mexico), and by September reached the Island of Cuba. 

They were the first to see the great outlet of the Mississippi ; but, 
being so weary and discouraged, made no attempt to claim the country, 
and hardly had an intelligent idea of what they had passed through. 

To La Salle, the intrepid explorer, belongs the honor of giving the 
first account of the mouths of the river. His great desire was to possess 
this entire country for his king, and in January, 1682, he and his band of 
explorers left the shores of Lake Michigan on their third attempt, crossed 
the portage, passed down the Illinois River, and on the 6th of February, 
reached the banks of the Mississippi. 

On the 13th they commenced their downward course, which they 
pursued with but one interruption, until upon the 6th of March they dis- 
covered the three great passages by which the river discharges its waters 
into the gulf. La Salle thus narrates the event : 

" We landed on the bank of the most western channel, about three 
leagues (nine miles) from its mouth. On the seventh, M. de LaSalle 
went to reconnoiter the shores of the neighboring sea, and M. de Tonti 
meanwhile examined the great middle channel. They found the main 
outlets beautiful, large and deep. On the 8th we reascended the river, a 
little above its confluence with the sea, to find a dry place beyond the 
leMih. of inundations. The elevation of the North Pole was here about 
twenty-seven degrees. Here we prepared a column and a cross, and to 
the column were affixed the arms of France with this inscription : 

Louis Le Grand, Roi De France et de Navarre, regne ; Le neuvieme Avril, 1682. 

The Avhole party, under arms, chanted the Te Beum, and then, after 
a salute and cries of " Vive le Roi," the column was erected by M. de 
LaSalle, wlio, standing near it, proclaimed in a loud voice the authority of 
the King of France. LaSalle returned and laid the foundations of the Mis- 
sissippi settlements in Illinois, thence he proceeded to France, where 
another expedition was fitted out, of which he was commander, and in two 
succeeding voyages failed to find the outlet of the river by sailing along 
the shore of the gulf. On his third voyage he was killed, through the 



treachery of his followers, and the object of his expeditions was not 
accomplished until 1699, when D'Iberville, under the authority of the 
crown, discovered, on the second of March, by way of the sea, the mouth 
of the " Hidden River." This majestic stream was called by the natives 
*'' Malhoucliia,'" and by the Spaniards, ''la Palissade,'' from the great 

-St Cl-^-" " 




number of trees about its mouth. After traversing the several outlets, 
and satisfying himself as to its certainty, he erected a fort near its western 
outlet, and returned to France. 

An avenue of trade was now opened out which was fully improved. 
In 1718, New Orleans was laid out and settled by some European colo- 
nists. In 1762, the colony was made over to Spain, to be regained by 
France under the consulate of Napoleon. In 1803, it was purchased by 


the United States for the sum of fifteen million dollars, and the territory 
of Louisiana and commerce of the Mississippi River came under the 
charge of the United States. Although LaSalle's labors ended in defeat 
and death, he had not worked and suffered in vain. He had thrown 
open to France and the world an immense and most valuable country ; 
had established several ports, and laid the foundations of more than one 
settlement there. " Peoria, Kaskaskia and Cahokia, are to this day monu- 
ments of LaSalle's labors ; for, though he had founded neither of them 
(unless Peoria, which was built nearly upon the site of Fort Crevecoeur,) 
it was by those whom he led into the West that these places were 
peopled and civilized. He was, if not the discoverer, the first settler of 
the Mississippi Valley, and as such deserves to be known and honored." 

The French early improved the opening made for them. Before the 
year 1698, the Rev. Father Gravier began a mission among the Illinois, 
and founded Kaskaskia. For some time this was merely a missionary 
station, where none but natives resided, it being one of three such vil- 
lages, the other two being Cahokia and Peoria. What is known of 
these missions is learned from a letter written by Father Gabriel Marest, 
dated " Aux Cascaskias, autrement dit de I'lmmaculate Conception de 
la Sainte Vierge, le 9 Novembre, 1712." Soon after the founding of 
Kaskaskia, the missionary, Pinet, gathered a flock at Cahokia, while 
Peoria arose near the ruins of Fort Crevecoeur. This must have been 
about the year 1700. The post at Vincennes on the Oubache river, 
(pronounced Wa-ba, meaning summer cloud moving siviftly^ was estab- 
lished in 1702, according to the best authorities.* It is altogether prob- 
able that on LaSalle's last trip he established the stations at Kaskaskia 
and Cahokia. In July, 1701, the foundations of Fort Ponchartrain 
were laid by De la Motte Cadillac on the Detroit River. These sta- 
tions, with those established further north, were the earliest attempts to 
occupy the Northwest Territory. At the same time efforts were being 
made to occupy the Southwest, which finally culminated in the settle- 
ment and founding of the City of New Orleans by a colony from England 
in 1718. This was mainly accomplished through the efforts of the 
famous Mississippi Company, established by the notorious John Law, 
who so quickly arose into prominence in France, and who with his 
scheme so quickly and so ignominiously passed away. 

From the time of the founding of these stations for fifty years the 
French nation were engrossed with the settlement of the lower Missis- 
sippi, and the war with the Chicasaws, who had, in revenge for repeated 

• There is considerable dispute about tliis date, some asserting it was founded as late as 1742. Wlien 
the new court liouse at Vincennes was erected, all authorities on the subject were carefully examined, and 
AV03 fixed upou as the correct date. It was accordingly engraved on the corner-stone of the court house. 



injuries, cut off the entire colony at Natchez, Although the company- 
did little for Louisiana, as the entire West was then called, yet it opened 
the trade through the Mississippi River, and started the raising of grains 
indigenous to that climate. Until the year 1750, but little is known of 
the settlements in the Northwest, as it was not until this time that the 
attention of the English was called to the occupation of this portion of the 
New World, which they then supposed they owned. Vivier, a missionary 
among the Illinois, writing from " Aux Illinois," six leagues from Fort 
Chartres, June 8, 1750, says: "We have here whites, negroes and 
Indians, to say nothing of cross-breeds. There are five French villages, 
and three villages of the natives, within a space of twenty-one leagues 
situated between the Mississippi and another river called the Karkadaid 
(Kaskaskias). In the five French villages are, perhaps, eleven hundred 
whites, three hundred blacks and some sixty red slaves or savages. The 
three Illinois towns do not contain more than eight hundred souls all 
told. Most of the French till the soil; they raise wheat, cattle, pigs and 
horses, and live like princes. Three times as much is produced as can 
be consumed; and great quantities of grain and flour are sent to New 
Orleans." This city was now the seaport town of the Northwest, and 
save in the extreme northern part, where only furs and copper ore were 
found, almost all the products of the country found their way to France 
by the mouth of the Father of Waters. In another letter, dated Novem- 
ber 7, 1750, this same priest says : " For fifteen leagues above the 
mouth of the Mississippi one sees no dwellings, the ground being too low 
to be habitable. Thence to New Orleans, the lands are only partially 
occupied. New Orleans , contains black, white and red, not more, I 
think, than twelve hundred persons. To this point come all lumber, 
bricks, salt-beef, tallow, tar, skins and bear's grease ; and above all, pork 
and flour from the Illinois. These things create some commerce, as forty 
vessels and more have come hither this year. Above New Orleans, 
plantations are again met with ; the most considerable is a colony of 
Germans, some ten leagues up the river. At Point Coupee, thirty -five 
leagues above the German settlement, is a fort. Along here, within five 
or six leagues, are not less than sixty habitations. Fifty leagues farther 
up is the Natchez post, where we have a garrison, who are kept prisoners 
through fear of the Chickasaws. Here and at Point Coupee, they raise 
excellent tobacco. Another hundred leagues brings us to the Arkansas, 
where we have also a fort and a garrison for the benefit of the river 
traders. * * * From the Arkansas to the Illinois, nearly five hundred 
leagues, there is not a settlement. There should be, however, a fort at 
the Oubache (Ohio), the only path by which the English can reach the 
Mississippi. In the Illinois country are numberless mines, but no one to 



work them as they deserve." Father Marest, writing from the post at 
Vinceniies in 1812, makes the same observation. Vivier also says : " Some 
individuals dig lead near the surface and supply the Indians and Canada. 
Two Spaniards now here, who claim to be adepts, say that our mines are 
like those of Mexico, and that if we would dig deeper, we should find 
silver under the lead ; and at any rate the lead is excellent. There is also 
in this country, beyond doubt, copper ore, as from time to time large 
pieces are found in the streams." 

'^^'^m^^v^j^^^^'' -' 



At the close of the year 1750, the French occupied, in addition to the 
lower Mississippi posts and those in Illinois, one at Du Quesne, one at 
the Maumee in the country of the Miamis, and one at Sandusky in what 
may be termed the Ohio Valley. In the northern part of the Northwest 
they had stations at St. Joseph's on the St. Joseph's of Lake Michigan, 
at Fort Ponchartrain (Detroit), at Michillimackanac or Massillimacanac, 
Fox River of Green Bay, and at Sault Ste. Marie. The fondest dreams of 
LaSalle were now fully realized. The French alone were possessors of 
this vast realm, basing their claim on discovery and settlement. Another 
nation, however, was now turning its attention to this extensive country, 


and hearing of its wealth, began to lay plans for occupying it and for 
securing the great profits arising therefrom. 

The French, however, had another claim to this country, namely, the 


This " Beautiful" river was discovered by Robert Cavalier de La- 
Salle in 1669, four years before the discovery of the Mississippi by Joliet 
and Marquette. 

While LaSalle was at his trading post on the St. Lawrence, he found 
leisure to study nine Indian dialects, the chief of which was the Iroquois. 
He not only desired to facilitate his intercourse in trade, but he longed 
to travel and explore the unknown regions of the West. An incident 
soon occurred which decided hira to fit out an exploring expedition. 

While conversing with some Senecas, he learned of a river called the 
Ohio, which rose in their country and flowed to the sea, but at such a 
distance that it required eight months to reach its mouth. In this state- 
ment the Mississippi and its tributaries were considered as one stream. 
LaSalle believing, as most of the French at that period did, that the great 
rivers flowing west emptied into the Sea of California, was anxious to 
embark in the enterprise of discovering a route across the continent to 
the commerce of China and Japan. 

He repaired at once to Quebec to obtain the approval of the Gov- 
ernor. His eloquent appeal prevailed. The Governor and the Intendant, 
Talon, issued letters patent authorizing the enterprise, but made no pro- 
vision to defray the expenses. At this juncture the seminary of St. Sul- 
pice decided to send out missionaries in connection with the expedition, 
and LaSalle offering to sell his improvements at LaChine to raise money, 
the offer was accepted by the Superior, and two thousand eight hundred 
dollars were raised, with which LaSalle purchased four canoes and the 
necessary supplies for the outfit. 

On the 6th of Jul}^ 1669, the party, numbering twenty-four persons, 
embarked in seven canoes on the St. Lawrence ; two additional canoes 
carried the Indian guides. In three days they were gliding over the 
bosom of Lake Ontario. Their guides conducted them directly to the 
Seneca village on the bank of the Genesee, in the vicinity of the present 
City of Rochester, New York. Here they expected to procure guides to 
conduct tliem to the Ohio, but in this they were disappointed. 

The Indians seemed unfriendly to the enterprise. LaSalle suspected 
that the Jesuits had prejudiced their minds against his plans. After 
waiting a month in the hope of gaining their object, they met an Indian 



from the Iroquois colony at the head of Lake Ontario, who assured them 
that they could there find guides, and offered to conduct them thence. 

On their way they passed the mouth of the Niagara River, when they 
heard for the first time the distant thunder of the cataract. AiTiving 


among the Iroquois, they met with a friendly reception, and learned 
from a Shawanee prisoner that they could reach the Ohio in six weeks. 
Delighted with the unexpected good fortune, they made ready to resume 
their journey ; but just as they were about to start they heard of the 
arrival of two Frenchmen in a neighboring village. One of them proved 
to be Louis Joliet, afterwards famous as an explorer in the West. He 


had been sent by the Canadian Government to explore the copper mines 
on Lake Superior, but had failed, and was on his way back to Quebec. 
He gave the missionaries a map of the country he had explored in the 
lake region, together with an account of the condition of the Indians in 
that quarter. This induced the priests to determine on leaving the 
expedition and going to Lake Superior. LaSalle warned them that the 
Jesuits were probably occupying that field, and that they would meet 
with a cold reception. Nevertheless they persisted in their purpose, and 
after worship on the lake shore, parted from LaSalle. On arriving at 
Lake Superior, they found, as LaSalle had predicted, the Jesuit Fathers, 
Marquette and Dablon, occupying the field. 

These zealous disciples of Loyola informed them that they wanted 
no assistance from St. Sulpice, nor from those who made him their patron 
saint ; and thus repulsed, they returned to Montreal the following June 
without having made a single discovery or converted a single Indian. 

After parting with the priests, LaSalle went to the chief Iroquois 
village at Onondaga, where he obtained guides, and passing thence to a 
tributary of the Ohio south of Lake Erie, he descended the latter as far 
as the falls at Louisville. Thus was the Ohio discovered by LaSalle, the 
persevering and successful French explorer of the West, in 1669. 

The account of the latter part of his journey is found in an anony- 
mous paper, which purports to have been taken from the lips of LaSalle 
himself during a subsequent visit to Paris. In a letter written to Count 
Frontenac in 1667, shortly after the discovery, he himself says that he 
discovered the Ohio and descended it to the falls. This was regarded as 
an indisputable fact by the French authorities, who claimed the Ohio 
Valley upon another ground. When Washington was sent by the colony 
of Virginia in 1753, to demand of Gordeur de St. Pierre why the French 
had built a fort on the Monongahela, the haughty commandant at Quebec 
replied : " We claim the country on the Ohio by virtue of the discoveries 
of LaSalle, and will not give it up to the English. Our orders are to 
make prisoners of every Englishman found trading in the Ohio Valley." 


When the new year of 1750 broke in upon the Father of Waters 
and the Great Northwest, all was still wild save at the French posts 
already described. In 1749, when the English first began to think seri- 
ously about sending men into the West, the greater portion of the States 
of Indiana, Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota were yet 
under the dominion of the red men. The English knew, however, pretty 


conclusively of the nature of the wealth of these wilds. As early as 
1710, Governor Spotswood, of Virginia, had commenced movements to 
secure the country west of the Alleghenies to the English crown. In 
Pennsylvania, Governor Keith and James Logan, secretary of the prov- 
ince, from 1719 to 1731, represented to the powers of England the neces- 
sity of seciu'ing the Western lands. Nothing was done, however, by that 
power save to take some diplomatic steps to secure the claims of Britain 
to this unexplored wilderness. 

England had from the outset claimed from the Atlantic to the Pacific, 
on the ground that the discovery of the seacoast and its possession was a 
discovery and possession of the country, and, as is well known, her grants 
to the colonies extended " from sea to sea." This was not all her claim. 
She had purchased from the Indian tribes large tracts of land. This lat- 
ter was also a strong argument. As early as 1684, Lord Howard, Gov- 
ernor of Virginia, held a treaty with the six nations. These were the 
great Northern Confederacy, and comprised at first the Mohawks, Onei- 
das, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas. Afterward the Tuscaroras were 
taken into the confederacy, and it became known as the Six Nations. 
They came under the protection of the mother country, and again in 
1701, they repeated the agreement, and in September, 1726, a formal deed 
was drawn up and signed by the chiefs. The validity of this claim has 
often been disputed, but never successfully. In 1744, a purchase was 
made at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, of certain lands within the " Colony of 
Virginia," for which the Indians received <£200 in gold and a like sum in 
goods, with a promise that, as settlements increased, more should be paid. 
The Commissioners from Virginia were Colonel Thomas Lee and Colonel 
William Beverly. As settlements extended, the promise of more pay was 
called to mind, and Mr. Conrad Weiser was sent across the mountains with 
presents to appease the savages. Col. Lee, and some Virginians accompa- 
nied him with the intention of sounding the Indians upon their feelings 
regarding the English. They were not satisfied with their treatment, 
and plainly told the Commissioners why. The English did not desire the 
cultivation of the country, but the monopoly of the Indian trade. In 
1748, the Ohio Company was formed, and petitioned the king for a grant 
of land beyond the Alleghenies. This was granted, and the government 
of Virginia was ordered to grant to them a half million acres, two hun- 
dred thousand of which were to be located at once. Upon the 12th of 
June, 1749, 800,000 acres from the line of Canada north and west was 
made to the Loyal Company, and on the 29th of October, 1751, 100,000 
acres were given to the Greenbriar Company. All this time the French 
were not idle. They saw that, should the British gain a foothold in the 
West, especially upon the Ohio, they might not only prevent the French 


settling upon it, but in time would come to the lower posts and so gain 
possession of the whole country. Upon the 10th of May, ITT-i, Vaud- 
reuil, Governor of Canada and the French possessions, well knowing the 
•consequences that must arise from allowing the English to build trading 
posts in the Northwest, seized some of their frontier posts, and to further 
secure the claim of the French to the West, he, in 1749, sent Louis Cel- 
eron with a party of soldiers to plant along the Ohio River, in the mounds 
and at the mouths of its principal tributaries, plates of lead, on which 
were inscribed the claims of France. These were heard of in 1752, and 
within the memory of residents now living along the "• Oyo," as the 
beautiful river was called by the French. One of these plates was found 
with the inscription partly defaced. It bears date August 16, 1749, and 
a copy of the inscription with particular account of the discovery of the 
plate, was sent by DeWitt Clinton to the American Antiquarian Society, 
among whose journals it may now be found.* These measures did not, 
however, deter the English from going on with their explorations, and 
though neither party resorted to arms, yet the conflict was gathering, and 
it was only a question of time when the storm would burst upon the 
frontier settlements. In 1750, Christopher Gist was sent by the Ohio 
■Company to examine its lands. He went to a village of the Twigtwees, 
on the Miami, about one hundred and fifty miles above its mouth. He- 
afterward spoke of it as very populous. From there he went down 
the Ohio River nearly to the falls at the present City of Louisville, 
and in November he commenced a survey of the Company's lands. Dur- 
ing the Winter, General Andrew Lewis performed a similar work for the 
Greenbriar Company. Meanwhile the French were busy in preparing 
their forts for defense, and in opening roads, and also sent a small party 
of soldiers to keep the Ohio clear. This party, having heard of the Eng- 
lish post on the Miami River, early in 1652, assisted by the Ottawas and 
Chippewas, attacked it, and, after a severe battle, in which fourteen of 
the natives were killed and others wounded, captured the garrison. 
(They were probably garrisoned in a block house). The traders were 
carried away to Canada, and one account says several were burned. This 
fort or post was called by the English Pickawillany. A memorial of the 
king's ministers refers to it as " Pickawillanes, in the center of the terri- 
tory between the Ohio and the Wabash. The name is probably some 
variation of Pickaway or Picqua in 1773, written by Rev. David Jones 

* Tlie following is a translation of the inscription on tlie plate: "In the year 1749. reign of Louis XV., 
King of France, we, Celeron, commandant of a detachment l)y Monsieur the Marquis of Gallisoniere, cum- 
mander-in-chief of New France, to establish tranquility in certain Indian villages of these cantons, have 
buried this plate at the confluence of the Toradalioin, this twenty-ninth of July, near the river Oliio, otherwise 
Beautiful River, as a monument of renewal of possession whicli we have taken of the said river, and all its 
tributaries; inasmuch as the preceding Kings of France have enjoyed it, and maintained it by their arms and 
'treaties; especially by those of Ryswick, Utrecht, ami Aix La Chapelle." 


This was the first blood shed between the French and English, and 
occurred near the present City of Piqua, Ohio, or at least at a point about 
forty-seven miles north of Dayton. Each nation became now more inter- 
ested in the progress of events in the Northwest. The English deter- 
mined to purchase from the Indians a title to the lands they Avished to 
occupy, and Messrs. Fry (afterward Commander-in-chief over Washing- 
ton at the commencement of the French War of 1775-1763), Lomax and 
Patton were sent in the Spring of 1752 to hold a conference with the 
natives at Logstown to learn what they objected to in the treaty of Lan- 
caster already noticed, and to settle all difficulties. On the 9th of June^ 
these Commissioners met the red men at Logstown, a little village on the 
north bank of the Ohio, about seventeen miles below the site of Pitts- 
burgh. Here had been a trading point for many years, but it was aban- 
doned by the Indians in 1750. At first the Indians declined to recognize 
the treaty of Lancaster, but, the Commissioners taking aside Montour,^ 
the interpreter, who was a son of the famous Catharine Montour, and a 
chief among the six nations, induced him to use his influence in their 
favor. This he did, and upon the loth of June they all united in signing- 
a deed, confirming the Lancaster treaty in its full extent, consenting to a 
settlement of the southeast of the Ohio, and guaranteeing that it should 
not be disturbed by them. These were the means used to obtain the first 
treaty Avith the Indians in the Ohio Valle3^ 

Meanwhile the powers beyond the sea were trying to out-manoeuvre 
each other, and were professing to be at peace. The English generally 
outwitted the Indians, and failed in many instances to fulfill their con- 
tracts. They thereby gained the ill-will of the red men, and further 
increased the feeling by failing to provide them with arms and ammuni- 
tion. Said an old chief, at Easton, in 1758: " The Indians on the Ohio 
left you because of your own fault. When we heard the French were 
coming, we asked you for help and arms, but we did not get them. The 
French came, they treated us kindly, and gained our affections. The 
Governor of Virginia settled on our lands for his own benefit, and, when 
we wanted help, forsook us." 

At the beginning of 1653, the English thought they had secured by 
title the lands in the West, but the French had quietly gathered cannoa 
and military stores to be in readiness for the expected blow. The Eng- 
lish made other attempts to ratify these existing treaties, but not until 
the Summer could the Indians be gathered together to discuss the plans 
of the French. They had sent messages to the French, warning them 
away ; but they replied that they intended to complete the chain of forts- 
alread}' begun, and would not abandon the field. 

Soon after this, no satisfaction being obtained from the Ohio regard- 


ang the positions and purposes of the French, Governor Dinwiddie of 
Virginia determined to send to them another messenger and learn from 
them, if possible, their intentions. For this purpose he selected a young 
man, a surveyor, who, at the early age of nineteen, had received the rank 
of major, and who was thoroughly posted regarding frontier life. This 
personage was no other than the illustrious George Washington, who then 
held considerable interest in Western lands. He was at this time just 
twenty-two years of age. Taking Gist as his guide, the two, accompanied 
by four servitors, set out on their perilous march. They left Will's 
Creek on the 10th of November, 1753, and on the 22d reached the Monon- 
gahela, about ten miles above the fork. From there they went to 
Logstown, where Washington had a long conference with the chiefs of 
the Six Nations. From them he learned the condition of the French, and 
also heard of their determination not to come down the river till the fol- 
lowing Spring. The Indians were non-committal, as they were afraid to 
turn either way, and, as far as they could, desired to remain neutral. 
Washington, finding nothing could be done with them, went on to 
Venango, an old Indian town at the mouth of French Creek. Here the 
French had a fort, called Fort Machault. Through the rum and flattery 
of the French, he nearly lost all his Indian followers. Finding nothing 
•of importance here, he pursued his way amid great privations, and on the 
11th of December reached the fort at the head of French Creek. Here 
he delivered Governor Dinwiddle's letter, received his answer, took his 
observations, and on the 16th set out upon his return journey with no one 
but Gist, his guide, and a few Indians who still remained true to him, 
notwithstanding the endeavors of the French to retain them. Their 
homeward journe}^ was one of great peril and suffering from the cold, yet 
they reached home in safety on the 6th of January, 1754. 

From the letter of* St. Pierre, commander of the French fort, sent by 
Washington to Governor Dinwiddie, it was learned that the French would 
not give up without a struggle. Active preparations were at once made 
in all the English colonies for the coming conflict, while the French 
finished the fort at Venango and strengthened their lines of fortifications, 
and gathered their forces to be in readiness. 

The Old Dominion was all alive. Virginia was the center of great 
activities ; volunteers were called for, and from all the neighboring 
colonies men rallied to the conflict, and everywhere along the Potomac 
men were enlisting under the Governor's proclamation — which promised 
two hundred thousand acres on the Ohio. Along this river they were 
gathering as far as Will's Creek, and far beyond this point, whither Trent 
had come for assistance for his little band of forty-one men, who were 


working away in hiint^er and want, to fortify tliat point at the fork of 
the Ohio, to which both parties were looking with deep interest. 

" The first birds of Spring filled the air with their song ; the swiffc 
river rolled l)y tlie Allegheny hillsides, swollen by the melting snows of 
Spring and the April showers. The leaves were appearing ; a few Indian 
scouts were seen, but no enemy seemed near at hand ; and all was so quiet,, 
that Frazier, an old Indian scout and trader, Avho had been left by Trent 
in command, ventured to his home at the mouth of Turtle Creek, ten 
miles up the Mouongahela. But, though all was so quiet in that wilder- 
ness, keen eyes had seen the low intrenchment rising at the fork, and. 
swift feet had borne the news of it up the river ; and upon the morning- 
of the 17th of April, Ensign Ward, -who then had charge of it, saw 
upon the Allegheny a sight that made his heart sink — sixty batteaux and 
three hundred canoes filled with men, and laden deep with cannon and 
stores, * * * That evening he supped with his captor, Contrecoeur^ 
and the next day he was bowed off by the Frenchman, and with his men 
and tools, marched up the Monongahela." 

The French and Indian war had begun. The treaty of Aix la 
Chapelle, in 1748, had left the boundaries between the French and 
English possessions imsettled, and the events already narrated show the 
French were determined to hold the country watered by the Mississippi 
and its tributaries ; while the English laid claims to the country by virtue 
of the discoveries of the Cabots, and claimed all the country from New- 
foundland to Florida, extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The 
first decisive blow had now been struck, and the first attempt of the 
English, through the Ohio Company, to occupy these lands, had resulted 
disastrously to them. The French and Indians immediately completed 
the fortifications begun at the Fork, which they ha^ so easily captured,, 
and when completed gave to the fort the name of DuQuesne. Washing- 
ton was at Will's Creek when the news of the capture of the fort arrived. 
He at once departed to recapture it. On his way he entrenched him- 
self at a place called the " Meadows," where he erected a fort called 
by him Fort Necessity. From there he surprised and captured a force of 
French and Indians marching against him, but was soon after attacked 
in liis fort by a much superior force, and was obliged to yield on the 
morning of July 4th. He was allowed to return to Virginia. 

The English Government immediately planned four campaigns; one 
against Fort DuQuesne ; one against Nova Scotia ; one against Fort 
Niagara, and one against Crown Point. These occurred during 1755-6» 
and were not successful in driving the French from their possessions. 
The expedition against Fort DuQuesne was led by the famous General 
Braddock, who, refusing to listen to the advice of Washington and those 


acquainted with Indian warfare, suffered such an inglorious defeat. This 
occurred on the morning of July 9th, and is generally known as the battle 
of Monongahela, or " Braddock's Defeat." The war continued with 
various vicissitudes through the years 1756-7 ; when, at the commence- 
ment of 1758, in accordance with the plans of William Pitt, then Secre- 
tary of State, afterwards Lord Chatham, active preparations were made to 
carry on the war. Three expeditious were planned for this year : one, 
under General Amherst, against Louisburg ; another, under Abercrombie, 
against Fort Ticonderoga ; and a third, under General Forbes, against 
Fort DuQuesne. On the 26th of July, Louisburg surrendered after a 
desperate resistance of more than forty days, and the eastern part of the 
Canadian possessions fell into the hands of the British. Abercrombie 
captured Fort Frontenac, and when the expedition against Fort DuQuesne, 
of which Washington had the active command, arrived there, it was 
found in flames and deserted. The English at once took possession, 
rebuilt the fort, and in honor of their illustrious statesman, changed the 
name to Fort Pitt. 

The great object of the campaign of 1759, was the reduction of 
Canada. General Wolfe was to lay siege to Quebec ; Amherst was to 
reduce Ticonderoga and Crown Point, and General Prideaux was to 
capture Niagara. This latter place was taken in July, but the gallant 
Prideaux lost his life in the attempt. Amherst captured Ticonderoga 
and Crown Point without a blow ; and Wolfe, after making the memor- 
able ascent to the Plains of Abraham, on September 13th, defeated 
Montcalm, and on the 18th, the city capitulated. In this engagement 
Montcolm and Wolfe both lost their lives. De Levi, Montcalm's successor, 
marched to Sillery, three miles above the city, with the purpose of 
defeating the English, and there, on the 28th of the following April, was 
fousht one of the bloodiest battles of the French and Indian War. It 
resulted in the defeat of the French, and the fall of the City of Montreal. 
The Governor signed a capitulation by which the whole of Canada was 
surrendered to the English. This practically concluded the war, but it 
was not until 1763 that the treaties of peace between France and England 
were signed. This was done on the 10th of February of that year, and 
under its provisions all the country east of the Mississippi and north of 
the Iberville River, in Louisiana, were ceded to England. At the same 
time Spain ceded Florida to Great Britain. 

On the 13th of September, 1760, Major Robert Rogers v/as sent 
from Montreal to take charge of Detroit, the only remaining French post 
in the territory. He arrived there on the 19th of November, and sum- 
moned the place to surrender. At first the commander of the post, 
Beletre, refused, but on the 29tli, hearing of the continued defeat of the 


French arms, surrendered. Rogers remained there until December 23d 
under the personal protection of the celebrated chief, Pontiac, to whom, 
no doubt, he owed his safety. Pontiac had come here to inquire the 
purposes of the EngUsh in taking possession of the country. He was 
assured that they came simply to trade with the natives, and did not 
desire their country. This answer conciliated the savages, and did much 
to insure the safety of Rogers and his party during their stay, and while 
on their journey home. 

Rogers set out for Fort Pitt on December 23, and was just one 
month on the way. His route was from Detroit to Maumee, thence 
across the present State of Ohio directly to the fort. This was the com- 
mon trail of the Indians in their journeys from Sandusky to the fork of 
the Ohio. It went from Fort Sandusky, where Sandusky City now is, 
crossed the Huron river, then called Bald Eagle Creek, to " Mohickon 
John's Town" on Mohickon Creek, the northern branch of White 
Woman's River, and thence crossed to Beaver's Town, a Delaware town 
on what is now Sandy Creek. At Beaver's Town were probably one 
hundred and fifty warriors, and not less than three thousand acres of 
cleared land. From there the track went up Sandy Creek to and across 
Big Beaver, and up the Ohio to Logstown, thence on to the fork. 

The Northwest Territory was now entirely under the English rule. 
New settlements began to be rapidly made, and the promise of a large 
trade was speedily manifested. Had the British carried out their promises 
with the natives none of those savage butcheries would have been perpe- 
trated, and the country would have been spared their recital. 

The renowned chief, Pontiac, was one of the leading spirits in these 
atrocities. We will now pause in our narrative, and notice the leading 
events in his life. The earliest authentic information regarding this 
noted Indian chief is learned from an account of an Indian trader named 
Alexander Henry, who, in the Spring of 1761, penetrated his domains as 
far as Missillimacnac. Pontiac was then a great friend of the French, 
but a bitter foe of the English, whom he considered as encroaching on his 
hunting grounds. Henry was obliged to disguise himself as a Canadian 
to insure safety, but was discovered by Pontiac, who bitterly reproached 
him and the English for their attempted subjugation of the West. He 
declared that no treaty had been made with them ; no presents sent 
them, and that he would resent any possession of the West by that nation. 
He was at the time about fifty years of age, tall and dignified, and was 
civil and military ruler of the Ottawas, Ojibwas and Pottawatamies. 

The Indians, from Lake Michigan to the borders of North Carolina, 
were united in this feeling, and at the time of the treaty of Paris, ratified 
February 10, 1763, a general conspiracy was formed to fall suddenly 





upon the frontier British posts, and with one blow strike every man dead. 
Pontiac was the marked leader in all this, and was the commander 
of the Chippewas, Ottawas, Wyandots, Miamis, Shawanese, Delawares- 
and Minn-oes, who had, for the time, laid aside their local quarrels to unit© 
in this enterprise. 

The blow came, as near as can now be ascertained, on May 7, 1768. 
Nine British posts fell, and the Indians drank, " scooped up in the hollow 
of joined hands," the blood of many a Briton. 

Pontiac's immediate field of action was the garrison at Detroit. 
Here, however, the plans were frustrated by an Indian woman disclosing 
the plot the evening previous to his arrival. Everything was carried out, 
however, according to Pontiac's plans until the moment of action, when 
Major Gladwyn, the commander of the post, stepping to one of the Indian 
chiefs, suddenly drew aside his blanket and disclosed the concealed 
musket. Pontiac, though a brave man, turned pale and trembled. He 
saw his plan was known, and that the garrison were prepared. He 
endeavored to exculpate himself from any such intentions ; but the guilt 
was evident, and he and his followers were dismissed with a sever© 
reprimand, and warned never to again enter the walls of the post. 

Pontiac at once laid siege to the fort, and until the treaty of peace 
between the British and the Western Indians, concluded in August, 1764» 
continued to harass and besiege the fortress. He organized a regular 
commissariat department, issued bills of credit written out on bark» 
which, to his credit, it may be stated, were punctually redeemed. At 
the conclusion of the treaty, in which it seems he took no part, he went 
further south, living many years among the Illinois. 

He had given up all hope of saving his country and race. After a 
time he endeavored to unite the Illinois tribe and those about St. Louis 
in a war with the whites. His efforts were fruitless, and only ended in a 
quarrel between himself and some Kaskaskia Indians, one of whom soon 
afterwards killed him. His death was, however, avenged by the northern 
Indians, who nearly exterminated the Illinois in the wars which followed. 
Had it not been for the treachery of a few of his followers, his plan 
for the extermination of the whites, a masterly one, would undoubtedly 
have been carried out. 

It was in the Spring of the year following Rogers' visit that Alex- 
ander Henry went to Missillimacnac, and everywhere found the strongest 
feelings against the English, who had not carried out their promises, and 
were doing nothing to conciliate the natives. Here he met the chief, 
Pontiac, who, after conveying to him in a speecli the idea that their 
French father would awake soon and utterly destroy his enemies, said : 
" Englishman, although you have conquered the French, you have not 


yet conquered us ! We are not your slaves! These lakes, these woodsy 
these mountains, were left us by our ancestors. They are our inheritance, 
and we will part with them to none. Your nation supposes that we, lik& 
the white people, can not live without bread and pork and beef. But you 
ought to know that He, the Great Spirit and Master of Life, has provided 
food for us upon these broad lakes and in these mountains." 

He then spoke of the fact that no treaty had been made with them, 
no presents sent them, and that he and his people were yet for war. 
Such were the feelings of the Northwestern Indians immediately after 
the English took possession of their country. These feelings were no 
doubt encouraged by the Canadians and French, who hoped that yet the 
French arms might prevail. The treaty of Paris, however, gave to the 
English the right to this vast domain, and active preparations were going 
on to occupy it and enjoy its trade and emoluments. 

In 1762, France, by a secret treaty, ceded Louisiana to Spain, to pre- 
vent it falling into the hands of the English, who were becoming masters 
of the entire West. The next year the treaty of Paris, signed at Fon- 
tainbleau, gave to the English the domain of the country in question. 
Twenty years after, by the treaty of peace between the United States 
and England, that part of Canada lying south and west of the Great 
Lakes, comprehending a large territory which is the subject of these 
sketches, was acknowledged to be a portion of the United States ; and 
twenty years still later, in 1803, Louisiana was ceded by Spain back to- 
France, and by France sold to the United States. 

In the half century, from the building of the Fort of Crevecceur by 
LaSalle, in 1680, up to the erection of Fort Chartres, many French set* 
tlements had been made in that quarter. These have already been 
noticed, being those at St. Vincent (Vincennes), Kohokia or Cahokia, 
Kaskaskia and Prairie du Rocher, on the American Bottom, a large tract 
of rich alluvial soil in Illinois, on the Mississippi, opposite the site of St^ 

By the treaty of Paris, the regions east of the Mississippi, including 
all these and other towns of the Northwest, were given over to England^ 
but they do not appear to have been taken possession of until 1765, when 
Captain Stirling, in the name of the Majesty of England, established him- 
self at Fort Chartres bearing with him the proclamation of General Gage, 
dated December 30, 1764, which promised religious freedom to all Cath- 
olics who worshiped here, and a right to leave the country with their 
effects if they wished, or to remain with the privileges of Englishmen. 
It was shortly after the occupancy of the West by the British that the 
war with Pontiac opened. It is already noticed in the sketch of that 
chieftain- By it many a; Briton lost his life, and many a frontier settle- 


ment in its infancy ceased to exist. This was not ended until the year 
17G4, when, failing to capture Detroit, Niagara and Fort Pitt, his confed- 
■eracy became disheartened, and, receiving no aid from the French, Pon- 
tiac abandoned the enterprise and departed to the Illinois, among whom 
he afterward lost his life. 

As soon as these difficulties were definitely settled, settlers began 
rapidly to survey the country and prepare for occupation. During the 
3'ear 1770, a number of persons from Virginia and other British provinces 
explored and marked out nearly all the valuable lands on the Mononga- 
hela and along the banks of the Ohio as far as the Little Kanawha. This 
was followed by another exploring expedition, in which George Washing- 
ton was a party. The latter, accompanied by Dr. Craik, Capt. Crawford 
and others, on the 20th of October, 1770, descended the Ohio from Pitts- 
bursfh to the mouth of the Kanawha ; ascended that stream about fourteen 
miles, marked out several large tracts of land, shot several buffalo, which 
were then abundant in the Ohio Valley, and returned to the fort. 

Pittsburgh was at this time a trading post, about which was clus- 
tered a village of some twenty houses, inhabited by Indian traders. This 
same year, Capt. Pittman visited Kaskaskia and its neighboring villages. 
He found there about sixty-five resident families, and at Cahokia only 
forty-five dwellings. At Fort Chartres was another small settlement, and 
at Detroit the garrison were quite prosperous and strong. For a year 
or two settlers continued to locate near some of these posts, generally 
Fort Pitt or Detroit, owing to the fears of the Indians, who still main- 
tained some feelings of hatred to the English. The trade from the posts 
was quite good, and from those in Illinois large quantities of pork and 
ilour found their way to the New Orleans market. At this time the 
policy of the British Government was strongly opposed to the extension 
of the colonies west. In 1763, the King of England forbade, by royal 
proclamation, his colonial subjects from making a settlement beyond the 
sources of the rivers which fall into the Atlantic Ocean. At the instance 
of the Board of Trade, measures were taken to prevent the settlement 
without the limits prescribed, and to retain the commerce within easy 
reach of Great Britain. 

The commander-in-chief of the king's forces wrote in 1769 : " In the 
course of a few years necessity will compel the colonists, should they 
extend their settlements west, to provide manufactures of some kind for 
themselves, and when all connection upheld by commerce with the mother 
country ceases, an independency in their government will soon follow." 

In accordance with this policy. Gov. Gage issued a proclamation 
in 1772, commanding the inhabitants of Vincennes to abandon their set- 
tiements and join some of the Eastern Eugiifl' colonies. To this they 


strenuously objected, giving good reasons therefor, and were allowed to 
remain. The strong opposition to this policy of Great Britain led to its 
change, and to such a course as to gain the attachment of the French 
population. In December, 1773, influential citizens of Quebec petitioned 
the king for an extension of the boundary lines of that province, which 
was granted, and Parliament passed an act on June 2, 1774, extend- 
ing the boundary so as to include the territory lying within the present 
States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Michigan. 

In conseciuence of the liberal policy pursued by the British Govern- 
ment toward the French settlers in the West, they were disposed to favor 
that nation in the war which soon followed with the colonies ; but the 
early alliance between France and America soon brought them to the side 
of the war for independence. 

In 1774, Gov. Dunmore, of Virginia, began to encourage emigration 
to the Western lands. He appointed magistrates at Fort Pitt under the 
pretense that the fort was under the government of that commonwealth. 
One of these justices, John Connelly, who possessed a tract of land in the 
Ohio Valley, gathered a force of men and garrisoned the fort, calling it 
Fort Dunmore. This and other parties were formed to select sites for 
settlements, and often came in conflict with the Indians, who yet claimed 
portions of the valley, and several battles followed. These ended in the 
famous battle of Kanawha in July, where the Indians were defeated and 
driven across the Ohio. 

During the years 1775 and 1776, by the operations of land companies 
and the perseveranceof individuals, several settlements were firmly estab- 
lished between the Alleghanies and the Ohio River, and western land 
speculators were busy in Illinois and on the Wabash. At a council held 
in Kaskaskia on July 5, 1773, an association of English traders, calling- 
themselves the " lUinois Land Company," obtained from ten chiefs of the 
Kaskaskia, Cahokia and Peoria tribes two large tracts of land lying on 
the east side of the Mississippi River south of the Illinois. In 1775, a mer- 
chant from the Illinois Country, named Viviat, came to Post Vincenne& 
as the agent of the association called the " Wabash Land Company." On 
the 8th of October he obtained from eleven Piankeshaw chiefs, a deed for 
37,497,600 acres of land. This deed was signed by the grantors, attested 
by a number of the inhabitants of Vincennes, and afterward recorded in 
the office of a notary public at Kaskaskia. This and other land com- 
panies had extensive schemes for the colonization of the West ; but all 
were frustrated by the breaking out of the Revolution. On the 20th of 
April, 1780, the two companies named consohdated under the name of the 
" United Illinois and Wabash Land Company." They afterward made 


strenuous efforts to have these grants sanctioned by Congress, but all 
signally failed. 

When the War of the Revolution commenced, Kentucky w^as an unor- 
ganized country, though there were several settlements within her borders. 

In Hutchins' Topography of Virginia, it is stated thac at that time 
" Kaskaskia contained 80 houses, and nearly 1,000 white and black in- 
habitants — the whites being a little the more numerous. Cahokia con- 
tains 50 houses and 300 white inhabitants, and 80 negroes. There were 
-east of the Mississippi River, about the year 1771 " — when these observa- 
tions were made — " 300 white men capable of bearing arms, and 230 

From 1775 until the expedition of Clark, nothing is recorded and 
nothing known of these settlements, save what is contained in a report 
made by a committee to Congress in June, 1778. From it the following 
extract is made : 

" Near the mouth of the River Kaskaskia, there is a village which 
appears to have contained nearly eighty families from the beginning of 
the late revolution. There are twelve families in a small village at la 
Prairie du Rochers, and near fifty families at the Kahokia Village. There 
are also four or five families at Fort Chartres and St. Philips, which is five 
miles further up the river." 

St. Louis had been settled in February, 1764, and at this time con- 
tained, including its neighboring towns, over six hundred whites and one 
hundred and fifty negroes. It must be remembered that all the country 
west of the Mississippi was now under French rule, and remained so until 
■ceded again to Sjjain, its original owner, who afterwards sold it and the 
country including New Orleans to the United States. At Detroit there 
were, according to Capt. Carver, who was in the Northwest from 1766 to 
1768, more than one hundred houses, and the river was settled for more 
than twenty miles, although poorly cultivated — the people being engaged 
in the Indian trade. This old town has a history, which we will here 

It is the oldest town in the Northwest, having been founded by 
Antoine de Lamotte Cadillac, in 1701. It was laid out in the form of an 
oblong square, of two acres in length, and an acre and a half in width. 
As described by A. D. Frazer, who first visited it and became a permanent 
resident of the place, in 1778, it comprised within its limits that space 
between Mr. Palmer's store (Conant Block) and Capt. Perkins' house 
{near the Arsenal building), and extended back as far as the public barn, 
and was bordered in front by the Detroit River. It was surrounded by 
oak and cedar pickets, about fifteen feet long, set in the ground, and had 
four gates — east, west, north and south. Over the first tlu-ee of these 


gates were block houses provided with four guns apiece, each a six- 
pounder. Two six-gun batteries were planted fronting the river and in a 
parallel direction with the block houses. There were four streets running 
€ast and west, the main street being twenty feet wide and the rest fifteen 
feet, while the four streets crossing these at right angles were from ten 
to fifteen feet in width. 

At the date spoken of by Mr. Frazer, there was no fort within the 
enclosure, but a citadel on the ground corresponding to the present 
northwest corner of Jefferson Avenue and Wayne Street. The citadel was 
inclosed by pickets, and within it were erected barracks of wood, two 
stories high, sufficient to contain ten officers, and also barracks sufficient 
to contain four hundred men, and a provision store built of brick. The 
citadel also contained a hospital and guard-house. The old town of 
Detroit, in 1778, contained about sixty houses, most of them one story, 
with a few a story and a half in height. They were all of logs, some 
hewn and some round. There was one building of splendid appearance, 
called the " King's Palace," two stories high, which stood near the east 
gate. It was built for Governor Hamilton, the first governor commissioned 
by the British. There were two guard-houses, one near the west gate and 
the other near the Government House. Each of the guards consisted of 
twenty-four men and a subaltern, who mounted regularly every morning 
between nine and ten o'clock, Each furnished four sentinels, who were 
relieved every two hours. There was also an officer of the day, who pjr- 
formed strict dut3% Each of the gates was shut regularly at sunset ; 
even wicket gates were shut at nine o'clock, and all the keys were 
delivered into the hands of the commanding officer. They were opened 
in the morning at sunrise. No Indian or squaw was permitted to enter 
town with any weapon, such as a tomahawk or a knife. It was a stand- 
ing order that the Indians should deliver their arms and instruments of 
every kind before they were permitted to pass the sentinel, and they were 
restored to them on their return. No more than twenty-five Indians were 
allowed to enter the town at any one time, and they were admitted only 
at the east and west gates. At sundown the drums beat, and all the 
Indians were required to leave town instantly. There was a council house 
near the water side for the purpose of holding council with the Indians. 
The population of the town was about sixty families, in all about two 
hundred males and one hundred females. This town was destroyed by 
fire, all except one dwelling, in 1805. After which the present " new " 
town was laid out. 

On the breaking out of the Revolution, the British held every post of 
importance in the West. Kentucky was formed as a com]3onent part of 
Virginia, and the sturdy pioneers of the West, alive to their interests, 


and recogrnizinsf the areat benefits of obtaininsr the control of the trade in 
this part of the New World, held steadily to their purposes, and those 
within the commonwealth of Kentucky proceeded to exercise their 
civil privileges, by electing John Todd and Richard Gallaway, 
burgesses to represent them in the Assembly of the parent state. 
Early in September of that year (1777) the first court was held 
in Harrodsburg, and Col. Bowman, afterwards major, who had arrived 
in August, was made the commander of a militia organization which 
had been commenced the March previous. Thus the tree of loyalty 
was growing. The chief spirit in this far-out colony, who had represented 
her the year previous east of the mountains, was now meditating a move 
unequaled in its boldness. He had been watching the movements of the 
British throughout the Northwest, and understood their whole plan. Ht 
saw it was through their possession of the posts at Detroit, Vincennes, 
Kaskaskia, and other places, which would give them constant and easy 
access to the various Indian tribes in the Northwest, that the British 
intended to penetrate the country from the north and soutn, ana annihi- 
late the frontier fortresses. This moving, energetic man was Colonel, 
afterwards General, George Rogers Clark. He knew the Indians were not 
unanimously in accord with the English, and he was convinced that, could 
the British be defeated and expelled from the Northwest, the natives 
might be easily awed into neutrality ; and by spies sent for the purpose, 
he satisfied himself that the enterprise against the Illinois settlements 
might easily succeed. Having convinced himself of the certainty of the 
project, he repaired to the Capital of Virginia, which place he reached on 
November 5th. While he was on his way, fortunately, on October 17th, 
Burgoyne had been defeated, and the spirits of the colonists greatly 
encouraged thereby. Patrick Henry was Governor of Virginia, and at 
once entered heartily into Clark's plans. The same plan had before been 
agitated in the Colonial Assemblies, but there was no one until Clark 
came who was sufficiently acquainted with the condition of affairs at the 
scene of action to be able to guide them. 

Clark, having satisfied the Virginia leaders of the feasibility of his 
plan, received, on the 2d of January, two sets of instructions — one secret, 
the other open — the latter authorized him to proceed to enlist seven 
companies to go to Kentucky, subject to his orders, and to serve three 
months from their arrival in the West. The secret order authorized him 
to arm these troops, to procure his powder and lead of General Hand 
at Pittsburgh, and to proceed at once to subjugate the country. 

With these instructions Clark repaired to Pittsburgh, choosing rather 
to raise his men west of the mountains, as he well knew all were needed 
in the colonies in the conflict there. He sent Col. W. B. Smith to Hoi- 


ston for the same purpose, but neither succeeded in raising the required 
number of men. The settlers in these parts were afraid to le'ave their 
own firesides exposed to a vigilant foe, and but few could be induced to 
join the proposed expedition. With three companies and several private 
volunteers, Clark at length commenced his descent of the Ohio, which he 
navigated as far as the Falls, where he took possession of and fortified 
Corn Island, a small island between the present Cities of Louisville, 
Kentucky, and New Albany, Indiana. Remains of this fortification may 
yet be found. At this place he appointed Col. Bowman to meet him 
with such recruits as had reached Kentucky by the southern route, and 
as many as could be spared from the station. Here he announced to 
the men their real destination. Having completed his arrangements, 
and chosen his party, he left a small garrison upon the island, and on the 
24th of June, during a total eclipse of the sun, which to them augured 
no good, and which fixes beyond dispute the date of starting, he with 
his chosen band, fell down the river. His plan was to go by water as 
far as Fort Massac or Massacre, and thence march direct to Kaskaskia. 
Here he intended to surprise the garrison, and after its capture go to 
Cahokia, then to Vincennes, and lastly to Detroit. Should he fail, he 
intended to march directly to the Mississippi River and cross it into the 
Spanish country. Before his start he received two good items of infor- 
mation : one that the alliance had been formed between France and the 
United States ; and the other that the Indians throughout the Illinois 
country and the inhabitants, at the various frontier posts, had been led to 
believe by the British that the " Long Knives" or Virginians, were the 
most fierce, bloodthirsty and cruel savages that ever scalped a foe. With 
this impression on their minds, Clark saw that proper management would 
cause them to submit at once from fear, if surprised, and then from grati- 
tude would become friendly if treated with unexpected leniency. 

The march to Kaskaskia was accomplished through a hot July sun, 
and the town reached on the evening of July 4. He captured the fort 
near the village, and soon after the village itself by surprise, and without 
the loss of a single man or by killing any of the enemy. After sufficiently 
working upon the fears of the natives, Clark told them they were at per- 
fect liberty to worship as they pleased, and to take whichever side of the 
great conflict they would, also he would protect them from any barbarity 
from British or Indian foe. This had the desired effect, and the inhab- 
itants, so unexpectedly and so gratefully surprised by the unlooked 
for turn of affairs, at once swore allegiance to the American arms, and 
when Clark desired to go to Cahokia on the 6tli of July, they accom- 
panied him, and through their influence the inhabitants of the place 
surrendered, and gladly placed themselves under his protection. Thus 



the two important posts in Illinois passed from the hands of the English 
into the possession of Virginia. 

In the person of the priest at Kaskaskia, M. Gibault, Clark found a 
powerful ally and generous friend. Clark saw that, to retain possession 
of the Northwest and treat successfully with the Indians within its boun- 
daries, he must establish a government for the colonies he had taken. 
St. Vincent, the next important post to Detroit, remained yet to be taken 
before the Mississippi Valley was conquered. M. Gibault told him that 
he would alone, by persuasion, lead Vincennes to throw off its connection 
with England. Clark gladly accepted his offer, and on the 14th of July, 
in company with a fellow-townsman, M. Gibault started on his mission of 
peace, and on the 1st of August returned with the cheerful intelligence 
that the post on the " Oubache " had taken the oath of allegiance to 
the Old Dominion. During this interval, Clark established his courts, 
placed garrisons at Kaskaskia and Cahokia, successfully re-enlisted his 
men, sent word to have a fort, which proved the germ of Louisville, 
erected at the Falls of the Ohio, and dispatched Mr. Rocheblave, who 
had been commander at Kaskaskia, as a prisoner of war to Richmond. 
In October the County of Illinois was established by the Legislature 
of Virginia, John Todd appointed Lieutenant Colonel and Civil Governor, 
and in November General Clark and his men received the thanks of 
the Old Dominion through their Legislature. 

In a speech a few days afterward, Clark made known fully to the 
natives his plans, and at its close all came forward and swore alle- 
giance to the Long Knives. While he was doing this Governor Hamilton, 
having made his various arrangements, had left Detroit and moved down 
the Wabash to Vincennes intending to operate from that point in reducing 
the Illinois posts, and then proceed on down to Kentucky and drive the 
rebels from the West. Gen. Clark had, on the return of M. Gibault, 
dispatched Captain Helm, of Fauquier County, Virginia, with an attend- 
ant named Henry, across the Illinois prairies to command the fort. 
Hamilton knew nothing of the capitulation of the post, and was greatly 
surprised on his arrival to be confronted by Capt. Helm, who, standing at 
the entrance of the fort by a loaded cannon ready to fire upon his assail- 
ants, demanded upon what terms Hamilton demanded possession of the 
fort. Being granted the rights of a prisoner of war, he surrendered to 
the British General, who could scarcely believe his eyes when he saw the 
force in the garrison. 

Hamilton, not realizing the character of the men with whom he was 
contending, gave up his intended campaign for the Winter, sent his four 
hundred Indian warriors to prevent troops from coming down the Ohio, 


and to annoy the Americans in all ways, and sat quietly down to pass the 
Winter. Information of all these proceedings having reached Clark, he 
saw that immediate and decisive action was necessary, and that unless 
he captured Hamilton, Hamilton would capture him. Clark received the 
news on the 29th of January, 1779, and on February 4th, having suffi- 
ciently garrisoned Kaskaskia and Cahokia, he sent down the Mississippi 
a " battoe," as Major Bowman writes it, in order to ascend the Ohio and 
Wabash, and operate with the land forces gathering for the fray. 

On the next day, Clark, with his little force of one hundred and 
twenty men, set out for the post, and after incredible hard marching 
through much mud, the ground being thawed by the incessant spring 
rains, on the 22d reached the fort, and being joined by his " battoe," at 
once commenced the attack on the post. The aim of the American back- 
woodsman was unerring, and on the 24th the garrison surrendered to the 
intrepid boldness of Clark. The French were treated with great kind- 
ness, and gladly renewed their allegiance to Virginia. Hamilton was 
sent as a prisoner to Virginia, where he was kept in close confinement. 
During his command of the British frontier posts, he had offered prizes 
to the Indians for all the scalps of Americans they would bring to him, 
and had earned in consequence thereof the title " Hair-buyer General," 
by which he was ever afterward known. 

Detroit was now without doubt within easy reach of the enterprising 
Virginian, could he but raise the necessary force. Governor Henry being 
apprised of this, promised him the needed reinforcement, and Clark con- 
cluded to wait until he could capture and sufficiently garrison the posts. 
Had Clark failed in this bold undertaking, and Hamilton succeeded in 
uniting the western Indians for the next Spring's campaign, the West 
would indeed have been swept from the Mississippi to the Allegheny 
Mountains, and the great blow struck, which had been contemplated from 
the commencement, by the British. 

" But for this small army of dripping, but fearless Virginians, the 
union of all the tribes from Georgia to Maine against the colonies might 
have been effected, and the whole current of our history changed." 

At this time some fears were entertained by the Colonial Govern- 
ments that the Indians in the North and Northwest were inclining to the 
British, and under the instructions of Washington, now Commander-in- 
Chief of the Colonial army, and so bravely fighting for American inde- 
pendence, armed forces were sent against the Six Nations, and upon the 
Ohio frontier, Col. Bowman, acting under the same general's orders, 
marched against Indians within the present limits of that State. These 
expeditions were in the main successful, and the Indians were compelled 
to sue for peace. 


During this same year (1779) the famous " Land Laws" of Virginia 
were passed. The passage of these laws was of more consequence to the 
pioneers of Kentucky and the Northwest than the gaining of a few Indian 
conflicts. These hiws confirmed in main all grants made, and guaranteed 
to all actual settlers their rights and privileges. After providing for the 
settlers, the laws provided for selling the balance of the public lands at 
forty cents per acre. To carry the Land Laws into effect, the Legislature 
sent four Virginians westward to attend to the various claims, over many 
of which great confusion prevailed concerning their validity. These 
gentlemen opened their court on October 13, 1779, at St. Asaphs, and 
continued until April 26, 1780, when they adjourned, having decided 
three thousand claims. They were succeeded by the surveyor, who 
came in the person of Mr. George May, and assumed his duties on the 
10th day of the month whose name he bore. With the opening of the 
next year (1780) the troubles concerning the navigation of the Missis- 
sippi commenced. The Spanish Government exacted such measures in 
relation to its trade as to cause the overtures made to the United States 
to be rejected. "The American Government considered they had a right 
to navigate its channel. To enforce their claims, a fort was erected below 
the mouth of the Ohio on the Kentucky side of the river. The settle- 
ments in Kentucky were being rapidly filled by emigrants. It was dur- 
ing this year that the first seminary of learning was established in the 
West in this young and enterprising Commonwealth. 

The settlers here did not look upon the building of this fort in a 
friendly manner, as it aroused the hostility of the Indians. Spain had 
been friendly to the Colonies during their struggle for independence, 
and though for a while this friendship appeared in danger from the 
refusal of the free navigation of the river, yet it was finally settled to the 
satisfaction of both nations. 

The Winter of 1779-80 was one of the most unusually severe ones 
ever experienced in the West. The Indians always referred to it as the 
"Great Cold." Numbers of wild animals perished, and not a few 
pioneers lost their lives. The following Summer a party of Canadians 
and Indians attacked St. Louis, and attempted to take possession of it 
in consequence of the friendly disposition of Spain to the revolting 
colonies. They met with such a determined resistance on the part of the 
inhabitants, even the women taking part in the battle, that they were 
compelled to abandon the contest. They also made an attack on the 
settlements in Kentucky, but, becoming alarmed in some unaccountable 
manner, they fled the country in great haste- 
About this time arose the question in the Colonial Congress con- 
cerning the western lands claimed by Virginia, New York, Massachusetts 


and Connecticut. The agitation concerning this subject finally led New- 
York, on the 19th of February, 1780, to pass a law giving to the dele- 
gates of that State in Congress the power to cede her western lands for 
the benefit of the United States. This law was laid before Consrress 
during the next month, but no steps were taken concerning it until Sep- 
tember 6th, when a resolution passed that body calling upon the States 
claiming western lands to release their claims in favor of the whole body. 
This basis formed the union, and was the first after all of those lecrislative 
measures which resulted in the creation of the States of Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota. In December of the same 
.year, the plan of conquering Detroit again arose. The conquest might 
have easily been effected by Clark had the necessary aid been furnished 
him. Nothing decisive was done, yet the heads of the Government knew 
that the safety of the Northwest from British invasion lay in the capture 
and retention of that important jiost, the only unconquered one in the 

Before the close of the year, Kentucky was divided into the Coun- 
ties of Lincoln, Fayette and Jefferson, and the act establishing the Town 
of Louisville was passed. This same year is also noted in the annals of 
American history as the year in which occurred Arnold's treason to the 
United States. 

Virginia, in accordance with the resolution of Congress, on the 2d 
day of January, 1781, agreed to yield her western lands to the United 
States upon certain conditions, which Congress would not accede to, and 
■the Act of Cession, on the part of the Old Dominion, failed, nor was 
anything farther done until 1783. During all that time the Colonies 
were busily engaged in the struggle with the mother country, and in 
consequence thereof but little heed was given to the western settlements. 
Upon the 16th of April, 1781, the first birth north of the Ohio River of 
American parentage occurred, being that of Mary Heckewelder, daughter 
of the widely known Moravian missionary, whose band of Christian 
Indians suffered in after years a horrible massacre by the hands of the 
frontier settlers, who had been exasperated by the murder of several of 
their neighbors, and in their rage committed, without regard to humanity, 
a deed which forever afterwards cast a shade of shame upon their lives. 
For this and kindred outrages on the part of the whites, the Indians 
committed many deeds of cruelty which darken the years of 1771 and 
1772 in the history of the Northwest. 

During the year 1782 a number of battles among the Indians and 
frontiersmen occurred, and between the Moravian Indians and the Wyan- 
dots. In these, horrible acts of cruelty were practised on the captives, 
many of such dark deeds transpiring under the leadership of the notorious 



frontier outlaw, Simon Girty, whose name, as well as those of his brothers, 
was a terror to women and children. These occurred chiefly in the Ohio 
valleys. Cotemporary with them were several engagements in Kentucky, 
in which the famous Daniel Boone engaged, and who, often by his skill 
and knowledge of Indian warfare, saved the outposts from cruel destruc- 

-4?? -: 


tion. By the close of the year victory had perched upon the American 
banner, and on the 30th of November, provisional articles of peace had 
been arranged between the Commissioners of England and her uncon- 
querable colonies. Cornwallis had been defeated on the 19th of October 
preceding, and the liberty of America was assured. On the 19th of 
April following, the anniversary of the battle of Lexington, peace was 


proclaimed to the army of the United States, and on the 3d of the next 
September, the definite treaty which ended our revolutionary struggle 
was concluded. By the terms of that treaty, the boundaries of the West 
were as follows : On the north the line was to extend along the center of 
the Great Lakes ; from the western point of Lake Superior to Long Lake ; 
thence to the Lake of the Woods ; thence to the head of the Mississippi 
River; down its center to the 31st parallel of latitude, then on that line 
east to the head of the Appalachicola River ; down its center to its junc- 
tion with the Flint ; thence straight to the head of St. Mary's River, and 
thence down along its center to the Atlantic Ocean. 

Following the cessation of hostilities with England, several posts 
were still occupied by the British in the North and West. Among these 
was Detroit, still in the hands of the enemy. Numerous engagements 
with the Lidians throughout Ohio and Indiana occurred, upon whose 
lands adventurous whites would settle ere the title had been acquired by 
the proper treaty. 

To remedy this latter evil. Congress appointed commissioners to 
treat with the natives and purchase their lands, and prohibited the set- 
tlement of the territory until this could be done. Before the close of the 
year another attempt was made to capture Detroit, which was, however, 
not pushed, and Virginia, no longer feeling the interest in the Northwest 
she had formerly done, withdrew her troops, having on the 20th of 
December preceding authorized the whole of her possessions to be deeded 
to the United States. This was done on the 1st of March following, and 
the Northwest Territory passed from the control of the Old Dominion. 
To Gen. Clark and his soldiers, however, she gave a tract of one hundred 
and fifty thousand acres of land, to be situated any where north of the 
Ohio wherever they chose to locate them. They selected the region 
opposite the falls of the Ohio, where is now the dilapidated village of 
Clarksville, about midway between the Cities of New Albany and Jeffer- 
sonville, Indiana. 

While the frontier remained thus, and Gen. Haldimand at Detroit 
refused to evacuate alleging that he had no orders from his King to do 
so, settlers were rapidly gathering about the inland forts. In the Spring 
of 1784, Pittsburgh was regularly laid out, and from the journal of Arthur 
Lee, who passed through the town soon after on his way to the Indian 
council at Fort Mcintosh, we suppose it was not very prepossessing in 
appearance. He says : 

" Pittsburgh is inhabited almost entirely by Scots and Irish, who 
live in paltry log houses, and are as dirty as if in the north of Ireland or 
even Scotland. There is a great deal of trade carried on, the goods being 
bought at the vast expense of forty-five shillings per pound from Phila- 


delphia and Baltimore. They take in the shops flour, wheat, skins and 
money. There are in the town four attorneys, two doctors, and not a 
priest of any persuasion, nor. church nor chapel." 

Kentucky at this time contained thirty thousand inhabitants, and 
was beu'inning to discuss measures for a separation from Virginia. A 
kind office was opened at Louisville, and measures were adopted to take 
defensive precaution against the Indians who were yet, in some instances, 
incited to deeds of violence by the British. Before the close of this year, 
1784, the military claimants of land began to occupy them, although no 
entries wei'e recorded until 1787. 

The Indian title to the Northwest was not yet extinguished. They 
held lai-ge tracts of lands, and in order to prevent bloodshed Congress 
adopted means for treaties with the original owners and provided for the 
surveys of the lands gained thereby, as well as for those north of the 
Ohio, now in its possession. On January 31, 1786, a treaty was made 
with the Wabash Indians. The treaty of Fort Stanwix had been made 
in 1784. That at Fort Mcintosh in 1785, and through these much land 
was gained. The Wabash Indians, however, afterward refused to comply 
with the provisions of the treaty made with them, and in order to compel 
their adherence to its provisions, force was used. Daring the year 1786, 
the free navigation of the Mississippi came up in Congress, and caused 
various discussions, which resulted in no definite action, only serving to 
excite speculation in regard to the western lands. Congress had promised 
bounties of land to the soldiers of the Revolution, but owing to the 
unsettled condition of affairs along the Mississippi respecting its naviga- 
tion, and the trade of the Northwest, that body had, in 1783, declared 
its inability to fulfill these promises until a treaty could be concluded 
between the two Governments. Before the close of the year 1786, how- 
ever, it was able, through the treaties with the Indians, to allow some 
grants and the settlement thereon, and on the 14th of September Con- 
necticut ceded to the General Government the tract of land known as 
the " Connecticut Reserve," and before the close of the following year a 
large tract of land north of the Ohio was sold to a company, who at once 
took measures to settle it. By the provisions of this grant, the company 
were to pay the United States one dollar per acre, subject to a deduction 
of one-third for bad lands and other contingencies. They received 
750,000 acres, bounded on the south by the Ohio, on the east by the 
seventli range of townships, on the west by the sixteenth range, and on 
the north by a line so drawn as to make the grant complete without 
the reservations. In addition to this. Congress afterward granted 100,000 
acres to actual settlers, and 214,285 acres as army bounties under the 
resolutions of 1789 and 1790. 



While Dr. Cutler, one of the agents of the company, was pressing 
its claims before Congress, that body was bringing into form an ordinance 
for the political and social organization of this Territory. When the 
cession was made by Virginia, in 1784, a plan was offered, but rejected. 
A motion had been made to strike from the proposed plan the prohibition 
of slavery, which prevailed. The plan was then discussed and altered, 
and finally passed unanimously, with the exception of South Carolina. 
By this proposition, the Territory was to have been divided into states 


by parallels and meridian lines. This, it was thought, would make ten 
states, which were to have been named as follows — beginning at the 
northwest corner and going southwardly : Sylvania, Michigania, Cher- 
sonesus, Assenisipia, Metropotamia, Illenoia, Saratoga, Washington, Poly- 
potamia and Pelisipia. 

There was a more serious objection to this plan than its category of 
names, — the boundaries. The root of the difficulty was in the resolu- 
tion of Congress passed in October, 1780, which fixed the boundaries 
of the ceded lands to be from one hundred to one hundred and fifty miles 


square. These resolutions being presented to the Legislatures of Vir- 
ginia and Massachusetts, they desired a change, and in July, 1786, the 
subject was taken up in Congress, and changed to favor a division into 
not more than five states, and not less than three. This was approved by 
the State Legislature of Virginia. The subject of the Government was 
again taken up by Congress in 1786, and discussed throughout that year 
and until July, 1787, when the famous "Compact of 1787" was passed, 
and the foundation of the government of the Northwest laid. This com- 
pact is fully discu-sed and explained in the history of Illinois in this book, 
and to it the reader is referred. 

The passage of this act and the grant to the New England Company 
was soon followed by an application to the Government by John Cleves 
Symmes, of New Jersey, for a grant of the land between the Miamis. 
This gentleman had visited these lands soon after the treaty of 1786, and, 
being greatly pleased with them, offered similar terms to those given to the 
New England Company. The petition was referred to the Treasury 
Board with power to act, and a contract was concluded the following 
year. During the Autumn the directors of the New England Company 
were preparing to occupy their grant the following Spring, and upon the 
23d of November made arrangements for a party of forty-seven men, 
under the superintendency of Gen. Rufus Putnam, to set forward. Six 
boat-builders were to leave at once, and on the first of January the sur- 
veyors and their assistants, twenty-six in number, were to meet at Hart- 
ford and proceed on their journey westward ; the remainder to follow as 
soon as possible. Congress, in the meantime, upon the od of October, 
had ordered seven hundred troops for defense of the western settlers, and 
to prevent unauthorized intrusions ; and two days later appointed Arthur 
St. Clair Governor of the Territory of the Northwest. 


The civil organization of the Northwest Territory was now com- 
plete, and notwithstanding the uncertainty of Indian affairs, settlers from 
the East began to come into the country rapidly. The New England 
Company sent their men during the Winter of 1787-8 pressing on over 
the Alleghenies by the old Indian path which had been opened into 
Braddock's road, and which has since been made a national turnpike 
from Cumberland westward. Through the weary winter days they toiled 
on, and by April were all gathered on the Yohiogany, where boats had 
been built, and at once started for the Muskingum. Here they arrived 
on the 7th of that month, and unless the Moravian missionaries be regarded 
as the pioneers of Ohio, this little band can justly claim that honor. 



Gen. St. Clair, the appointed Governor of the Northwest, not having 
yet arrived, a set of laws were passed, written out, and published by 
being nailed to a tree in the embryo town, and Jonathan Meigs appointed 
to administer them. 

Washington in writing of this, the first American settlement in the 
Northwest, said : " No colony in America was ever settled under 
such favorable auspices as that which has just commenced at Muskingum. 
Information, property and strength will be its characteristics. I know 
many of its settlers personally, and there never were men better calcu- 
lated to promote the welfare of such a community.'" 



On the 2d of July a meeting of the directors and agents was held 
on the banks of the Muskingum, " for the purpose of naming the new- 
born city and its squares." As yet the settlement was known as the 
"Muskingum," but that was now changed to the name Marietta, in honor 
of Marie Antoinette. The square upon which the block -houses stood 
was called '■'• Campus Martins ;'' square number 19, '■'Capitolium ;'' square 
number 61, ^'■Cecilia;''' and the great road through the covert way, " Sacra 
Via." Two days after, an oration was delivered by James M. Varnum, 
who with S. H. Parsons and John Armstrong had been appointed to the 
judicial bench of the territory on the 16th of October, 1787. On July 9, 
Gov. St. Clair arrived, and the colony began to assume form. The act 
of 1787 provided two district grades of government for the Northwest, 


under the first of which the whole power was invested in the hands of a 
governor and three district judges. This was immediately formed upon 
the Governor's arrival, and the first laws of the colony passed on the 25th 
of July. These provided for the organization of the militia, and on the 
next day appeared the Governor's proclamation, erecting all that country 
that had been ceded by the Indians east of the Scioto River into the 
County of Washington. From that time forward, notwithstanding the 
doubts yet existing as to the Indians, all Marietta prospered, and on the 
2d of September the first court of the territory was held with imposing 

The emigration westward at this time was very great. The com- 
mander at Fort Harmer, at the mouth of the Muskingum, reported four 
thousand five hundred persons as having passed that post between Feb- 
ruary and June, 1788 — many of whom would have purchased of the 
"Associates," as the New England Company was called, had they been 
ready to receive them. 

On the 26th of November, 1787, Symmes issued a pamphlet stating 
the terms of his contract and the plan of sale he intended to adopt. In 
January, 1788, Matthias Denman, of New Jersey, took an active interest 
in Symmes' purchase, and located among other tracts the sections upon 
which Cincinnati has been built. Retaining one-third of this locality, he 
sold the other two-thirds to Robert Patterson and John Filson, and the 
three, about August, commenced to lay out a town on the spot, which 
was designated as being opposite Licking River, to the mouth of which 
they proposed to have a road cut from Lexington. The naming of the 
town is thus narrated in the "Western Annals " : — " Mr. Filson, who had 
been a schoolmaster, was appointed to name the town, and, in respect to 
its situation, and as if with a prophetic perception of the mixed race that 
were to inhabit it in after days, he named it Losantiville, which, being 
interpreted, means : ville, the town ; anti^ against oi' opposite to ; os, the 
mouth ; L. of Licking." 

Meanwhile, in July, Symmes got thirty persons and eight four-horse 
teams under way for the West. These reached Limestone (now Mays- 
ville) in September, where were several persons from Redstone. Here 
Mr. Symmes tried to found a settlement, but the great freshet of 1789 
caused the " Point," as it was and is yet called, to be fifteen feet under 
water, and the settlement to be abandoned. The little band of settlers 
removed to the mouth of the Miami. Before Symmes and his colony left 
the " Point," two settlements had been made on his purchase. The first 
was by Mr. Stiltes, the original projector of the whole plan, who, with a 
colony of Redstone people, had located at the mouth of the Miami, 
whither Symmes went with his Maysville colony. Here a clearing had 



been made by the Indians owing to the great fertility of the soiL Mr. 
Stiltes with his colony came to this place on the 18th of November, 1788, 
with twenty-six persons, and, building a block-house, prepared to remain 
through the Winter. They named the settlement Columbia. Here they 
were kindly treated by the Indians, but suffered greatly from the flood 
of 1789. 

On the 4th of March, 1789, the Constitution of the United States 
went into operation, and on April 30, George Washington was inaug- 
urated President of the American people, and during the next Summer, 
an Indian war was commenced by the tribes north of the Ohio. The 
President at first used pacific means ; but these failing, he sent General 
Harmer against the hostile tribes. He destroyed several villages, but 



was defeated in two battles, near the present City of Fort Wayne, 
Indiana. From this time till the close of 1795, the principal events were 
the wars with the various Indian tribes. In 1796, General St. Clair 
was appointed in command, and marched against the Indians ; but while 
he was encamped on a stream, the St. Mary, a branch of the Maumee, 
he was attacked and defeated with the loss of six hundred men. 

General Wayne was now sent against the savages. In August, 1794, 
he met them near the rapids of the Maumee, and gained a complete 
victory. This success, followed by vigorous measures, compelled the 
Indians to sue for peace, and on the 30th of July, the following year, the 
treaty of Greenville was signed by the principal chiefs, by which a large 
tract of country was ceded to the United States. 

Before proceeding in our narrative, we will pause to notice Fort 
Washington, erected in the early part of this war on the site of Cincinnati. 
Nearly all of the great cities of the Northwest, and indeed of the 


whole country, have had their nuclei in those rude pioneer structures, 
known as forts or stockades. Thus Forts Dearborn, Washington, Pon- 
chartrain, mark the original sites of the now proud Cities of Chicago, 
Cincinnati and Detroit. So of most of the flourishing cities east and west 
of the Mississippi. Fort Washington, erected by Doughty in 1790, was a 
rude but highly interesting structure. It was composed of a number of 
strongly-built hewed log cabins. Those designed for soldiers' barracks 
were a story and a half high, while those composing the officers quarters 
were more imposing and more conveniently arranged and furnished. 
The whole were so placed as to form a hollow square, enclosing about an 
acre of ground, with a block house at each of the four angles. 

The logs for the construction of this fort were cut from the ground 
upon which it was erected. It stood between Third and Fourth Streets 
of the present city (Cincinnati) extending east of Eastern Row, now 
Broadway, which was then a narrow alley, and the eastern boundary of 
of the town as it was originally laid out. On the bank of the river, 
immediately in front of the fort, was an appendage of the fort, called the 
Artificer's Yard. It contained about two acres of ground, enclosed by 
small contiguous buildings, occupied by workshops and quarters of 
laborers. Within this enclosure there was a large two-story frame house, 
familiarly called the " Yellow House," built for the accommodation of 
the Quartermaster General. For many years this was the best finished 
and most commodious edifice in the Queen City. Fort Washington was 
for some time the headquarters of both the civil and military governments 
of the Northwestern Territory. 

Following the consummation of the treaty various gigantic land spec- 
ulations were entered into by different persons, who hoped to obtain 
from the Indians in Michigan and northern Indiana, large tracts of lands. 
These were generally discovered in time to prevent the outrageous 
schemes from being carried out, and from involving the settlers in war. 
On October 27, 1795, the treaty between the United States and Spain 
was signed, whereby the free navigation of the Mississippi was secured. 

No sooner had the treaty of 1795 been ratified than settlements began 
to pour rapidly into the West. The great event of the year 1796 was the 
occupation of that part of the Northwest including Michigan, which was 
this year, under the provisions of the treaty, evacuated by the British 
forces. The United States, owing to certain conditions, did not feel 
justified in addressing the authorities in Canada in relation to Detroit 
and other frontier posts. When at last the British authorities were 
called to give them up, they at once complied, and General Wayne, who 
had done so much to preserve the frontier settlements, and who, before 
the year's close, sickened and died near Erie, transferred his head- 


quarters to the neighborhood of the hikes, where a county named after 
him was formed, which included the northwest of Ohio, all of Michigan, 
and the northeast of Indiana. During this same year settlements were 
formed at the present City of Chillicothe, along the Miami from Middle- 
town to Piqua, while in the more distant West, settlers and speculators 
began to appear in great numbers. In September, the City of Cleveland 
was laid out, and during the Summer and Autumn, Samuel Jackson and 
Jonathan Sharpless erected the first manufactory of paper — the " Red- 
stone Paper Mill" — in the West. St. Louis contained some seventy 
houses, and Detroit over three hundred, and along the river, contiguous 
to it, were more than three thousand inhabitants, mostly French Canadians, 
Indians and half-breeds, scarcely any Americans venturing yet into that 
part of the Northwest. 

The election of representatives for the territory had taken place, 
and on the 4th of February, 1799, they convened at Losantiville — now 
known as Cincinnati, having been named so by Gov. St. Clair, and 
considered the capital of the Territory — to nominate persons from whom 
the members of the Legislature were to be chosen in accordance with 
a previous ordinance. This nomination being made, the Assembly 
adjourned until the 16th of the following September. From those named 
the President selected as members of the council, Henry Vandenburg, 
of Vincennes, Robert Oliver, of Marietta, James Findlay and Jacob 
Burnett, of Cincinnati, and David Vance, of Vanceville. On the 16th 
of September the Territorial Legislature met, and on the 24th the two 
houses were duly organized, Henry Vandenburg being elected President 
of the Council. 

The message of Gov. St. Clair was addressed to the Legislature 
September 20th, and on October 13th that body elected as a delegate to 
Congress Gen. Wm. Henry Harrison, who received eleven of the votes 
cast, being a majority of one over his opponent, Arthur St. Clair, son of 
Gen. St. Clair. 

The whole number of acts passed at this session, and approved by 
the Governor, were thirty-seven — eleven others were passed, but received 
his veto. The most important of those passed related to the militia, to 
the administration, and to taxation. On the 19th of December this pro- 
tracted session of the first Legislature in the West was closed, and on the 
30th of December the President nominated Charles Willing Brvd to the 
office of Secretary of the Territory vice Wm. Henry Harrison, elected to 
Congress. The Senate confirmed his nomination the next day. 



The increased emigration to the Northwest, the extent of the domain, 
and the inconvenient modes of travel, made it very difficult to conduct 
the ordinary operations of government, and rendered the efficient action 
of courts almost impossible. To remedy this, it was deemed advisable to 
divide the territory for civil purposes. Congress, in 1800, appointed a 
committee to examine the question and report some means for its solution. 
This committee, on the 3d of March, reported that : 

" In the three western countries there has been but one court having 
cognizance of crimes, in five years, and the immunity which offenders 
experience attracts, as to an asylum, the most vile and abandoned crim- 
inals, and at the same time deters useful citizens from making settlements 
in such society. The extreme necessity of judiciary attention and assist- 
ance is experienced in civil as well as in criminal cases. * * * * To 
minister a remedy to these and other evils, it occurs to this committee 
that it is expedient that a division of said territory into two distinct and 
separate governments should be made ; and that such division be made 
by a line beginning at the mouth of the Great Miami River, running 
directly north until it intersects the boundary between the United States 
and Canada." 

The report was accepted by Congress, and, in accordance with its 
suggestions, that body passed an Act extinguishing the Northwest Terri- 
tory, which Act was approved May 7. Among its provisions were these : 

" That from and after July 4 next, all that part of the Territory of 
the United States northwest of the Ohio River, which lies to the westward 
of a line beginning at a point on the Ohio, opposite to the mouth of the 
Kentucky River, and running thence to Fort Recovery, and thence north 
until it shall intersect the territorial line between the United States and 
Canada, shall, for the purpose of temporary government, constitute a 
separate territory, and be called the Indiana Territory." 

After providing for the exercise of the civil and criminal powers of 
the territories, and other provisions, the Act further provides : 

" That until it shall otherwise be ordered by the Legislatures of the 
said Territories, respectively, Chillicothe on the Scioto River shall be the 
seat of government of the Territory of the United States northwest of the 
Ohio River ; and that St. Vincennes on the Wabash River shall be the 
seat of government for the Indiana Territory." 

Gen. Wm. Heni'y Harrison was appointed Governor of the Indiana 
Territory, and entered upon his duties about a year later. Connecticut 
also about this time released her claims to the reserve, and in March a law 


was passed accepting this cession. Settlements had been made upon 
thirty-five of the townships in the reserve, mills had been built, and seven 
hundred miles of road cut in various directions. On the 3d of November 
the General Assembly met at Chillicothe. Near the close of the year, 
the first missionary of the Connecticut Reserve came, who found no 
township containing more than eleven families. It was upon the first of 
October that the secret treaty had been made between Napoleon and the 
King of Spain, whereby the latter agreed to cede to France the province 
of Louisiana. •• 

In January, 1802, the Assembly of the Northwestern Territory char- 
tered the college at Athens. From the earliest dawn of the western 
colonies, education was promptly provided for, and as early as 1787, 
newspapers were issued from Pittsburgh and Kentucky, and largely read 
throughout the frontier settlements. Before the close of this year, the 
Congress of the United States granted to the citizens of the Northwestern 
territory the formation of a State government. One of the provisions of 
the "compact of 1787" provided that whenever the number of inhabit- 
ants within prescribed limits exceeded 45,000, they should be entitled to 
a separate government. The prescribed limits of Ohio contained, from a 
census taken to ascertain the legality of the act, more than that number, 
and on the 30th of April, 1802, Congress passed the act defining its limits, 
and on the 29th of November the Constitution of the new State of Ohio, 
so named from the beautiful river forming its southern boundary, came 
into existence. The exact limits of Lake Michigan were not then known, 
but the territory now included within the State of Michigan was wholly 
within the territory of Indiana. 

Gen. Harrison, while residing at Vincennes, made several treaties 
with the Indians, thereby gaining large tracts of lands. The next year is 
memorable in the history of the West for the purchase of Louisiana from 
France by the United States for $15,000,000. Thus by a peaceful mode, 
the domain of the United States was extended over a large tract of 
country west of the Mississippi, and was for a time under the jurisdiction 
of the Northwest government, and, as has been mentioned in the early 
part of this narrative, was called the "New Northwest." The limits 
of this history will not allow a description of its territory. The same year 
large grants of land were obtained from the Indians, and the House of 
Representatives of the new State of Ohio signed a bill respecting the 
College Township in the district of Cincinnati. 

Before the close of the year, Gen. Harrison obtained additional 
grants of lands from the various Indian nations in Indiana and the present 
limits of Illinois, and on the 18th of August, 1804, completed a treaty at 
St. Louis, whereby over 51,000,000 acres of lands were obtained from the 


aborigines. Measures were also taken to learn the condition of affairs in 
and about Detroit. 

C. Jouett, the Indian agent in Michigan, still a part of Indiana Terri- 
tory, reported as follows upon the condition of matters at that ipost : 

" The Town of Detroit. — The charter, which is for fifteen miles 
square, was granted in the time of Louis XIV. of France, and is now, 
from the best information I have been able to get, at Quebec. Of those 
two hundred and twenty-five acres, only four are occupied by the town 
and Fort Lenault. The remainder is a common, except twenty-four 
acres, which were added twenty years ago to a farm belonging to Wm. 
Macomb. * * * A stockade incloses the town, fort and citadel. The 
pickets, as well as the public houses, are in a state of gradual decay. The 
streets are narrow, straight and regular, and intersect each other at right 
angles. The houses are, for the most part, low and inelegant." 

During this year, Congress granted a township of land for the sup- 
port of a college, and began to offer inducements for settlers in these 
wilds, and the country now comprising the State of Michigan began to 
fill rapidly with settlers along its southern borders. This same year, also, 
a law was passed organizing the Southwest Territory, dividing it into two 
portions, the Territory of New Orleans, which city was made the seat of 
government, and the District of Louisiana, which was annexed to the 
domain of Gen. Harrison. 

On the 11th of January, 1805, the Territory of Michigan was formed, 
Wm. Hull was appointed governor, with headquarters at Detroit, the 
change to take effect on June 30. On the 11th of that month, a fire 
occurred at Detroit, which destroj'^ed almost every building in the place. 
When the officers of the new territory reached the post, they found it in 
ruins, and the inhabitants scattered throughout the country. Rebuild- 
ing, however, soon commenced, and ere long the town contained more 
houses than before the fire, and many of them much better built. 

While this was being done, Indiana had passed to the second grade 
of government, and through her General Assembly had obtained large 
tracts of land from the Indian tribes. To all this the celebrated Indian, 
Tecumthe or Tecumseh, vigorously protested, and it was the main cause 
of his attempts to unite the various Indian tribes in a conflict with the 
settlers. To obtain a full account of these attempts, the workings of the 
British, and the signal failure, culminating in the death of Tecumseh at 
the battle of the Tliames, and the close of the war of 1812 in the Northwest, 
we will step aside in our story, and relate the principal events of his life, 
and his connection with this conflict. 






This famous Indian chief was born about the year 1768, not far from 
the site of the present City of Piqua, Ohio. His father, Puckeshinwa^ 
was a member of the Kisopok tribe of the Swanoese nation, and his. 
mother, Methontaske, was a member of the Turtle tribe of the same 
people. They removed from Florida about the middle of the last century 
to the birthplace of Tecumseh. In 1774, his father, who had risen to be 
chief, was slain at the battle of Point Pleasant, and not long after Tecum- 
seh, by his bravery, became the leader of his tribe. In 1795 he was- 
declared chief, and then lived at Deer Creek, near the site of the 
present City of Urbana. He remained here about one year, when he 
returned to Piqua, and in 1798, he went to White River, Indiana. In 
1805, he and his brother, Laulewasikan (Open Door), who had announced 
himself as a prophet, went to a tract of land on the Wabash River, given 
them by the Pottawatomies and Kickapoos, From this date the chief 
comes into prominence. He was now about thirty-seven years of age, 
was five feet and ten inches in height, was stoutly built, and possessed of 
enormous powers of endurance. His countenance was naturally pleas- 
ing, and he was, in general, devoid of those savage attributes possessed 
by most Indians. It is stated he could read and write, and had a confi- 
dential secretary and adviser, named Billy Caldwell, a half-breed, who 
afterward became chief of the Pottawatomies. He occupied the first 
house built on the site of Chicago. At this time, Tecumseh entered 
upon the great work of his life. He had long objected to the grants of 
land made by the Indians to the whites, and determined to unite all the 
Indian tribes into a league, in order that no treaties or grants of land 
could be made save by the consent of this confederation. 

He traveled constantly, going from north to south ; from the south 
to the north, everywhere urging the Indians to this step. He was a 
matchless orator, and his burning words had their effect. 

Gen. Harrison, then Governor of Indiana, by watching the move- 
ments of the Indians, became convinced £hat a grand conspiracy was 
forming, and made preparations to defend the settlements. Tecumseh's 
plan was similar to Pontiac's, elsewhere described, and to the cunning 
artifice of that chieftain was added his own sagacity. 

During the yeav 1809, Tecumseh and the prophet were actively pre- 
paring for the work. In that year. Gen. Harrison entered into a treaty 
with the Delawares, Kickapoos, Pottawatomies, Miamis, Eel River Indians 
and Weas, in which these tribes ceded to the whites certain lands upon 
the Wabash, to all of which Tecumseh entered a bitter protest, averring 


as one principal reason that he did not want the Indians to give up any 
lands north and west of the Ohio River. 

Tecumseh, in August, 1810, visited the General at Vincennes and 
held a council relating to the grievances of the Indians. Becoming unduly 
a,ngry at this conference he was dismissed from the village, and soon after 
departed to incite the southern Indian tribes to the conflict. 

Gen. Harrison determined to move upon the chief's headquarters at 
Tippecanoe, and for this purpose went about sixty-five miles up the 
Wabash, where he built Port Harrison. From this place he went to the 
prophet's town, where he informed the Indians he had no hostile inten- 
tions, provided they were true to the existing treaties. He encamped 
near the village early in October, and on the morning of November 7, he 
was attacked by a large force of the Indians, and the famous battle of 
Tippecanoe occurred. The Indians were routed and their town broken 
Tip. Tecumseh returning not long after, was greatly exasperated at his 
brother, the prophet, even threatening to kill him for rashly precipitating 
the war, and foiling his (Tecumseh's) plans. 

Tecumseh sent word to Gen. Harrison that he was now returned 
from the South, and was ready to visit the President as had at one time 
previously been proposed. Gen. Harrison informed him he could not go 
as a chief, which method Tecumseh desired, and the visit was never 

In June of the following year, he visited the Indian agent at 
Fort Wayne. Here he disavowed any intention to make a war against 
the United States, and reproached Gen. Harrison for marching against his 
people. The agent replied to this ; Tecumseh listened with a cold indif- 
ference, and after making a few general remarks, with a haughty air drew 
his blanket about him, left the council house, and dejDarted for Fort Mal- 
•den, in Upper Canada, where he joined the British standard. 

He remained under this Government, doing eflFective work for the 
Crown while engaged in the war of 1812 which now opened. He was, 
however, always humane in his treatment of the prisoners, never allow- 
ing his warriors to ruthlessly mutilate the bodies of those slain, or wan- 
tonly murder the captive. 

In the Summer of 1813, Perry's victory on Lake Erie occurred, and 
:sliortly after active preparations were made to capture Maiden. On the 
.27th of September, the American army, under Gen. Harrison, set sail for 
the shores of Canada, and in a few hours stood around the ruins of Mal- 
'den, from which the British army, under Proctor, had retreated to Sand- 
wich, intending to make its way to the heart of Canada by the Valley of 
the Thames. On the 29th Gen. Harrison was at Sandwich, and Gen. 
McArthur took possession of Detroit and the territory of Michigan. 



On the 2d of October, the Americans began their pursuit of Proctor^ 
whom they overtook on the 5th, and the battle of the Thames followed. 
Early in the engagement, Tecumseh who was at the head of the column 
of Indians was slain, and they, no longer hearing the voice of their chief- 
tain, fled. The victory was decisive, and practically closed the war in 
the Northwest. 



Just who killed the great chief has been a matter of much dispute ; 
but the weight of opinion awards the act to Col. Richard M. Johnson^ 
who fired at him with a pistol, the shot proving fatal. 

In 1805 occurred Burr's Insurrection. He took possession of a 
beautiful island in the Ohio, after the killing of Hamilton, and is charged 
by many with attempting to set up an independent government. His 
plans were frustrated by the general government, his property confiscated 
and he was compelled to flee the country for safety. 


In January, 1807, Governor Hull, of Michigan Territory, made a 
treaty with the Indians, whereby all that peninsula was ceded to the 
United States. Before the close of the year, a stockade was built about 
Detroit. It was also during this year that Indiana and Illinois endeavored 
to obtain the repeal of that section of the compact of 1787, whereby 
slavery was excluded from the Northwest Territory. These attempts, 
however, all signally failed. 

In 1809 it was deemed advisable to divide the Indiana Territory. 
This was done, and the Territory of Illinois was formed from the western 
part, the seat of government being fixed at Kaskaskia. The next year, 
the intentions of Tecumseh manifested themselves in open hostilities, and 
then began the events already narrated. 

While this war was in progress, emigration to the West went on with 
surprising rapidity. In 1811, under Mr. Roosevelt of New York, the 
first steamboat trip was made on the Ohio, much to the astonishment of 
the natives, many of whom fled in terror at the appearance of the 
" monster." It arrived at Louisville on the 10th day of October. At the 
close of the first week of January, 1812, it arrived at Natchez, after being 
nearly overwhelmed in the great earthquake which occurred while on its 
downward trip. 

The battle of the Thames was fought on October 6, 1813. It 
effectually closed hostilities in the Northwest, although peace was not 
fully restored until July 22, 1814, when a treaty was formed at Green- 
ville, under the direction of General Harrison, between the United States 
and the Indian tribes, in which it was stipulated that the Indians should 
cease hostilities against the Americans if the war were continued. Such, 
happily, was not the case, and on the 24th of December the treaty 
of Ghent was signed by the representatives of England and the United 
States. This treaty was followed the next year by treaties with various 
Indian tribes throughout the West and Northwest, and quiet was again 
restored in this part of the new world. 

On the 18th of March, 1816, Pittsburgh was incorporated as a city. 
It then had a population of 8,000 people, and was already noted for its 
manufacturing interests. On April 19, Indiana Territory was allowed 
to form a state government. At that time there were thirteen counties 
organized, containing about sixty-three thousand inhabitants. The first 
election of state officers was held in August, when Jonathan Jennings 
was chosen Governor. The officers were sworn in on November 7, a.nd 
on December 11, the State was formally admitted into the Union. For 
some time the seat of government was at Corydon, but a more central 
location being desirable, the present capital, Indianapolis (City of Indiana), 
was laid out January 1, 1825. 


On the 28tli of December the Bank of Illinois, at Shawneetown, was 
chartered, with a capital of $300,000. At this period all banks were 
under the control of the States, and were allowed to establish branches 
at different convenient points. 

Until this time Chillicothe and Cincinnati had in turn enjoyed the 
privileges of being the capital of Ohio. But the rapid settlement of the 
northern and eastern portions of the State demanded, as in Indiana, a 
more central location, and before the close of the year, the site of Col- 
umbus was selected and surveyed as the future capital of the State. 
Banking had begun in Ohio as early as 1808, when the first bank was 
chartered at Marietta, but here as elsewhere it did not bring to the state 
the hoped-for assistance. It and other banks were subsequently unable 
to redeem their currency, and were obliged to suspend. 

In 1818, Illinois was made a state, and all the territory north of her 
northern limits was erected into a separate territory and joined to Mich- 
igan for judicial purposes. By the following year, navigation of the lakes 
was increasing with great rapidity and affording an immense source of 
revenue to the dwellers in the Northwest, but it was not until 1826 that 
the trade was extended to Lake Michigan, or that steamships began to 
navigate the bosom of that inland sea. 

Until the year 1832, the commencement of the Black Hawk War, 
but few hostilities were experienced with the Indians. Roads were 
opened, canals were dug, cities were built, common schools were estab- 
lished, universities were founded, many of which, especially the Michigan 
University, have achieved a world wide-reputation. The people were 
becoming wealthy. The domains of the United States had been extended, 
and had the sons of the forest been treated with honesty and justice, the 
record of many years would have been that of peace and continuous pros- 


This conflict, though confined to Illinois, is an important epoch in 
the Northwestern history, being the last war with the Indians in this part 
of the United States. 

Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiah, or Black Hawk, was born in the principal 
Sac village, about three miles from the junction of Rock River with the 
Mississippi, in the year 1767. His father's name was Py-e-sa or Pahaes ; 
his grandfather's, Na-na-ma-kee, or the Thunderer. Black Hawk early 
distinguished himself as a warrior, and at the age of fifteen was permitted 
to paint and was ranked among the braves. About the year 1783, he 
went on an expedition against the enemies of his nation, the Osages, one 





of whom he killed and scalped, and for this deed of Indian bravery he was 
permitted to join in the scalp dance. Three or four years after he, at the 
head of two hundred braves, went on another expedition against the 
Osages, to avenge the murder of some women and children belonging to 
his own tribe. Meeting an equal number of Osage warriors, a fierce 
battle ensued, in which the latter tribe lost one-half their number. The 
Sacs lost only about nineteen warriors. He next attacked the Cherokees 
for a similar cause. In a severe battle with them, near the present City 
of St. Louis, his father was slain, and Black Hawk, taking possession of 
the " Medicine Bag,"' at once announced himself chief of the Sac nation. 
He had now conquered tlie Cherokees, and about the year 1800, at the 
head of five hundred Sacs and Foxes, and a hundred lowas, he waged 
war ao-ainst the Osage nation and subdued it. For two years he battled ■ 
successfully with other Indian tribes, all of whom he conquered. 

Black Hawk does not at any time seem to have been friendly tO' 
the Americans. When on a visit to St. Louis to see his " Spanish 
Father," he declined to see any of the Americans, alleging, as a reason^ 
he did not want two fathers. 

The treaty at St. Louis was consummated in 1804. The next year the 
United States Government erected a fort near the head of the Des Moines- 
Rapids, called Fort Edwards. This seemed to enrage Black Hawk, who 
at once determined to capture Fort Madison, standing on the west side of 
the Mississippi above the mouth of the Des Moines River. The fort wa& 
garrisoned by about fifty men. Here he was defeated. The difficulties 
with the British Government arose about this time, and the War of 1812 
followed. That government, extending aid to the Western Indians, by 
giving them arms and anununition, induced them to remain hostile to the 
Americans. In August, 1812, Black Hawk, at the head of about five 
hundred braves, started to join the British forces at Detroit, passing on 
his way the site of Chicago, where the famous Fort Dearborn Massacre 
hr.:^. a few days before occurred. Of his connection with the British 
i:jrc^rernment but Httle is known. In 1813 he with his little band descended 
the Mississippi, and attacking some United States troops at Fort Howard 
was defeated. 

In the early part of 1815, the Indian tribes west of the Mississippi 
were notified that peace had been declared between the United States 
and Eno-land, and nearlv all hostilities had ceased. Black Hawk did not 
sign any treaty, however, until May of the following year. He then recog- 
nized the validity of the treaty at St. Louis in 1804. From the time of 
signing this treaty in 1816, until the breaking out of the war in 1832, he 
and his band passed their time in the common pursuits of Indian life. 

Ten years before the commencement of this war, the Sac and Fox 


Indians were urged to join the lowas on the west bank of the Father of 
Waters. All were agreed, save the band known as the British Band, of 
which Black Hawk was leader. He strenuously objected to the removal, 
and was induced to comply only after being threatened with the power of 
the Government. This and various actions on the part of the white set- 
tlers provoked Black Hawk and his band to attempt the capture of his 
native village now occupied by the whites. The war followed. He and 
his actions were undoubtedly misunderstood, and had his wishes been 
acquiesced in at the beginning of the struggle, much bloodshed would 
have been prevented. , 

Black Hawk was chief now of the Sac and Fox nations, and a noted 
warrior. He and his tribe inhabited a village on Rock River, nearly three 
miles above its confluence with the Mississippi, where the tribe had lived 
many generations. When that portion of Illinois was reserved to them^ 
they remained in peaceable possession of their reservation, spending their 
time in the enjoyment of Indian life. The fine situation of their village 
and the quality of their lands incited the more lawless white settlers, who 
from time to time began to encroach upon the red men's domain. From 
one pretext to another, and from one step to another, the crafty white 
men gained a foothold, until through whisky and artifice they obtained 
deeds from many of the Indians for their possessions. The Indians were 
finally induced to cross over the Father of Waters and locate among the 
lowas. Black Hawk was strenuously opposed to all this, but as the 
authorities of Illinois and the United States thought this the best move, he 
was forced to comply. Moreover other tribes joined the whites and urged 
the removal. Black Hawk would not agree to the terms of the treaty 
made with his nation for their lands, and as soon as the militaiy, called to 
enforce his removal, had retired, he returned to the Illinois side of the 
river. A large force was at once raised and marched against him. On 
the evening of May 14, 1832, the first engagement occurred between a 
band from this army and Black Hawk's band, in which the former were 

This attack and its result aroused the whites. A large force of men 
was raised, and Gen. Scott hastened from the seaboard, by way of the 
lakes, with United States troops and artillery to aid in the subjugation of 
the Indians. On the 24th of June, Black Hawk, with 200 warriors, was 
repulsed by Major Demont between Rock River and Galena. The Ameri- 
can army continued to move up Rock River toward the main body of 
the Indians, and on the 21st of July came upon Black Hawk and his band^ 
and defeated them near the Blue Mounds. 

Before this action, Gen. Henry, in command, sent word to the main 
army by whom he was immediately rejoined, and the whole crossed the- 


Wisconsin in pursuit of Black Hawk and his band who were fleeing to the 
Mississippi. They were overtaken on the 2d of August, and in the battle 
which followed the power of the Indian chief was completel}^ broken. He 
fled, but was seized by the Winnebagoes and delivered to the whites. 

On the 21st of September, 1832, Gen. Scott and Gov. Reynolds con- 
■oluded a treaty with the Winnebagoes, Sacs and Foxes by which they 
■ceded to the United States a vast tract of country, and agreed to remain 
peaceable with the whites. For the faithful performance of the provi- 
sions of this treaty on the part of the Indians, it was stipulated that 
Black Hawk, his two sons, the prophet Wabokieshiek, and six other chiefs 
of the hostile bands should be retained as hostages during the pleasure 
of the President. They were confined at Fort Barracks and put in irons. 

The next Spring, by order of the Secretary of War, they were taken 
to Washington. From there they were removed to Fortress Monroe, 
•"there to remain until the conduct of their nation was such as to justify 
their being set at liberty." They were retained here until the 4th of 
June, when the authorities directed them to be taken to the principal 
cities so that they might see the folly of contending against the white 
people. Everywhere they were observed by thousands, the name of the 
old chief being extensively known. By the middle of August they 
reached Fort Armstrong on Rock Island, where Black Hawk was soon 
after released to go to his countrymen. As he passed the site of his birth- 
place, now the home of the white man, he was deeply moved. His village 
where he was born, where he had so happily lived, and where he had 
hoped to die, was now another's dwelling place, and he was a wanderer. 

On the next day after his release, he went at once to his tribe and 
his lodge. His wife was yet living, and with her he passed the remainder 
of his days. To his credit it may be said that Black Hawk always re- 
mained true to his wife, and served her with a devotion uncommon among 
the Indians, living with her upward of forty years. 

Black Hawk now passed his time hunting and fishing. A deep mel- 
ancholy had settled over him from which he could not be freed. At all 
times when he visited the whites he was received with marked atten- 
tion. He was an honored guest at the old settlers' reunion in Lee County, 
Illinois, at some of their meetings, and received many tokens of esteem. 
In September, 1838, while on his way to Rock Island to receive his 
annuity from the Government, he contracted a severe cold which resulted 
in a fatal attack of bilious fever which terminated his life on October 3. 
His faithful wife, who was devotedly attached to him, mourned deeply 
during his sickness. After his death he was dressed in the uniform pre- 
sented to him by the President while in Washington. He was buried in 
a grave six feet in depth, situated upon a beautiful eminence. " The 


body was placed in the middle of the grave, in a sitting posture, upon a 
seat constructed for the purpose. On his left side, the cane, given hint 
by Henry Clay, was placed upright, with his right hand resting upon it. 
Many of the old warrior's trophies were placed in the grave, and some 
Indian garments, together with his favorite weapons." 

No sooner was the Clack Hawk war concluded than settlers began 
rapidly to pour into the northern parts of Illinois, and into Wisconsin, 
now free from Indian depredations. Chicago, from a trading post, had 
grown to a commercial center, and was rapidly coming into prominence. 
In 1835, the formation of a State Government in Michigan was discussed, 
but did not take active form until two years later, when the State became 
a part of the Federal Union. 

The main attraction to that portion of the Northwest lying west of 
Lake Michigan, now included in the State of Wisconsin, was its alluvial 
wealth. Copper ore was found about Lake Superior. For some time this 
region was attached to Michigan for judiciary purposes, but in 183(> was 
made a territory, then including Minnesota and Iowa. The latter State 
was detached two years later. In 1848, Wisconsin was admitted as a 
State, Madison being made the capital. We have now traced the various- 
divisions of the Northwest Territory (save a little in Minnesota) from 
the time it was a unit comprising this vast territory, until circumstances, 
compelled its present division. 


Before leaving this part of the narrative, we will narrate briefly the 
Indian troubles in Minnesota and elsewhere by the Sioux Indians. 

In August, 1862, the Sioux Indians living on the western borders of 
Minnesota fell upon the unsuspecting settlers, and in a few hours mas- 
sacred ten or twelve hundred persons. A distressful panic was the 
immediate result, fully thirty thousand persons fleeing from their homes 
to districts supposed to be better protected. The military authorities 
at once took active measures to punish the savages, and a large number 
were killed and captured. About a year after, Little Crow, the chief, 
was killed by a Mr. Lampson near Scattered Lake. Of those captured, 
thirty were hung at Mankato, and the remainder, through fears of mob 
violence, were removed to Camp McClellan, on the outskirts of the City 
of Davenport. It was here that Big Eagle came into prominence and 
secured his release by the following order :. 





*' Special Order, No. 430. " War Department, 

" Adjutant General's Office, Washington, Dec. 3, 1864. 

" Big Eagle, an Indian now in confinement at Davenport, Iowa, 
will, upon the receipt of this order, be immediately released from confine- 
ment and set at liberty. 

" By order of the President of the United States. 
*' Official : " E. D. Townsend, Ass't Adft aen. 

" Capt. James Vanderventer, Cont^ Sub. Vols. 

" Through Com'g Gen'l, Washington, D. C." 

Another Indian who figures more prominently than Big Eagle, and 
who was more cowardly in his nature, with his band of Modoc Indians, 
is noted in the annals of the New Northwest : we refer to Captain Jack. 
This distinguished Indian, noted for his cowardly murder of Gen. Canby, 
was a chief of a Modoc tribe of Indians inhabiting the border lands 
between California and Oregon. This region of country comprises what 
is known as the " Lava Beds," a tract of land described as utterly impene- 
trable, save by those savages who had made it their home. 

The Modocs are known as an exceedingly fierce and treacherous 
race. They had, according to their own traditions, resided here for many 
generations, and at one time were exceedingly numerous and powerful. 
A famine carried off nearly half their numbers, and disease, indolence 
and the vices of the white man have reduced them to a poor, weak and 
insignificant tribe. 

Soon after the settlement of California and Oregon, complaints began 
to be heard of massacres of emigrant trains passing through the Modoc 
country. In 1847, an emigrant train, comprising eighteen souls, was en- 
tirely destroyed at a place since known as " Bloody Point." These occur- 
rences caused the United States Government to appoint a peace commission, 
who, after repeated attempts, in 1864, made a treaty with the Modocs, 
Snakes and Klamaths, in which it was agreed on their part to remove to 
a reservation set apart for them in the southern part of Oregon. 

With the exception of Captain Jack and a band of his followers, who 
remained at Clear Lake, about six miles from Klamath, all the Indians 
complied. The Modocs who went to the reservation were under chief 
Schonchin. Captain Jack remained at the lake without disturbance 
until 1869, when he was also induced to remove to the reservation. The 
Modocs and the Klamaths soon became involved in a quarrel, and Captain 
Jack and his band returned to the Lava Beds. 

Several attempts were made by the Indian Commissioners to induce 
them to return to the reservation, and finally becoming involved in a 


difficulty with the commissioner and his military escort, a fight ensued, 
in which the chief and his Land were routed. They were greatly enraged, 
and on their retreat, before the day closed, killed eleven inoffensive whites. 

The nation was aroused and immediate action demanded. A com- 
mission was at once appointed by the Government to see what could be 
done. It comprised the following persons : Gen. E. R. S. Canby, Rev. 
Dr. E. Thomas, a leading Methodist divine of California ; Mr. A. B. 
Meacham, Judge Rosborough, of California, and a Mr. Dyer, of Oregon. 
After several interviews, in which the savages were always aggressive, 
often appearing wath scalps in their belts. Bogus Charley came to the 
commission on the evening of April 10, 1873, and informed them that 
Capt. Jack and his band would have a " talk " to-morrow at a place near 
Clear Lake, about three miles distant. Here the Commissioners, accom- 
panied by Charley, Riddle, the interpreter, and Boston Charley repaired. 
After the usual greeting the council proceedings commenced. On behalf 
of the Indians there were present : Capt. Jack, Black Jim, Schnac Nasty 
Jim, Ellen's Man, and Hooker Jim. They had no guns, but carried pis- 
tols. After short speeches by Mr. Meacham, Gen. Canby and Dr. Thomas, 
Chief Schonchin arose to speak. He had scarcely proceeded when, 
as if by a preconcerted arrangement, Capt. Jack drew his pistol and shot 
Gen. Canby dead. In less than a minute a dozen shots were fired by the 
savages, and the massacre completed. Mr. Meacham was shot by Schon- 
chin, and Dr. Thomas by Boston Charley. Mr. Dyer barely escaped, being 
fired at twice. Riddle, the interpreter, and his squaw escaped. The 
troops rushed to the spot where they found Gen. Canby and Dr. Thomas 
dead, and Mr. Meacham badly wounded. The savages had escaped to 
their impenetrable fastnesses and could not be pursued. 

The whole country was aroused by this brutal massacre ; but it was 
not until the following May that the murderers were brought to justice. 
At that time Boston Charley gave himself up, and offered to guide the 
troops to Capt. Jack's stronghold. This led to the capture of his entire 
gang, a number of whom were murdered by Oregon volunteers while on 
their way to trial. The remaining Indians were held as prisoners until 
July when their trial occurred, which led to the conviction of Capt. 
Jack, Schonchin, Boston Charley, Hooker Jim, Broncho, alias One-Eyed 
Jim, and Slotuck, who were sentenced to be hanged. These senteuces 
were approved by the President, save in the case of Slotuck and Broncho 
whose sentences were commuted to imprisonment for life. The others 
were executed at Fort Klamath, October 3, 1873. 

These closed the Indian troubles for a time in the Northwest, and for 
several years the borders of civilization remained in peace. They were 
again involved in a conflict with the savages about the country of the 






Black Hills, in which war the gallant Gen. Custer lost his life. Just 
now the borders of Oregon and California are again in fear of hostilities ; 
but as the Government has learned how to deal with the Indians, they 
will be of short duration. The red man is fast passing away before the 
march of the white man, and a few more generations will read of the 
Indians as one of the nations of the past. 

The Northwest abounds in memorable places. We have generally 
noticed them in the narrative, but our space forbids their description in 
detail, save of the most important places. Detroit, Cincinnati, Vincennes, 
Kaskaskia and their kindred towns have all been described. But ere we 
leave the narrative we will present our readers with an account of the 
Kinzie house, the old landmark of Chicago, and the discovery of the 
source of the Mississippi River, each of which may well find a place in 
the annals of the Northwest. 

Mr. John Kinzie, of the Kinzie house, represented in the illustra- 
tion, established a trading house at Fort Dearborn in 1804. The stockade 
had been erected the year previous, and named Fort Dearborn in honor 
of the Secretary of War. It had a block house at each of the two angles, 
on the southern side a sallyport, a covered way on the north side, that led 
down to the river, for the double purpose of providing means of escape, 
and of procuring water in the event of a siege. 

Fort Dearborn stood on the south bank of the Chicago River, about 
half a mile from its mouth. When Major Whistler built it, his soldiers 
hauled all the timber, for he had no oxen, and so economically did he 
work that the fort cost the Government only fifty dollars. For a while 
the garrison could get no grain, and Whistler and his men subsisted on 
acorns. Now Chicago is the greatest grain center in the world. 

Mr. Kinzie bought the hut of the first settler, Jean Baptiste Point au 
Sable, on the site of which he erected his mansion. Within an inclosure 
in front he planted some Lombardy poplars, seen in the engraving, and in 
the rear he soon had a fine garden and growing orchard. 

In 1812 the Kinzie house and its surroundings became the theater 
of stirring events. The garrison of Fort Dearborn consisted of fifty-four 
men, under the charge of Capt. Nathan Heald, assisted by Lieutenant 
I-enai T. Helm (son-in-law to Mrs. Kinzie), and Ensign Ronan. The 
surgeon was Dr. Voorhees. The only residents at the post at that time 
were the wives of Capt. Heald and Lieutenant Helm and a few of the 
soldiers, Mr. Kinzie and his family, and a few Canadian voyagers with their 
wives and children. The soldiers and Mr. Kinzie were on the most 
friendly terms with the Pottawatomies and the Winnebagoes, the j)rin- 
cipal tribes around them, but they could not win them from their attach- 
ment to the British. 



After the battle of Tippecanoe it was observed that some of the lead- 
ing chiefs became sullen, for some of their people had perished in that 
•conflict with American troops. 

One evening in April, 1812, Mr. Kinzie sat playing his violin and his 
children were dancing to the music, when Mrs. Kinzie came rushing into 
the house pale with terror, and exclaiming, " The Indians ! the Indians ! " 
" What ? Where ? " eagerly inquired Mr. Kinzie. " Up at Lee's, kiUing 
and scalping," answered the frightened mother, who, when the alarm was 
given, was attending Mrs. Burns, a newly-made mother, living not far off. 


Mr. Kinzie and his family crossed the river in boats, and took refuge in 
the fort, to which place Mrs. Burns and her infant, not a day old, were 
conveyed in safety to the shelter of the guns of Fort Dearborn, and the 
rest of the white inhabitants fled. The Indians were a scalping party of 
Winnebagoes, who hovered around the fort some days, when they dis- 
appeared, and for several weeks the inhabitants were not disturbed by 

Chicago was then so deep in the wilderness, that the news of the 
declaration of war against Great Britain, made on the 19th of June, 1812, 
did not reach the commander of the garrison at Fort Dearborn till the 7th 
•of August. Now the fast mail train will carry a man from New York to 
Chicago in twenty-seven hours, and such a declaration might be sent, 
€very word, by the telegraph in less than the same number of minutes. 




Preceding chapters have brought us to the close of the Black Hawk 
war, and we now turn to the contemplation of the growth and prosperity 
of the Northwest under the smile of peace and the blessings of our civili- 
zation. The pioneers of this region date events back to the deep snow 




of 1831, no one arriving here since that date taking first honors. The 
inciting cause of the immigration which overflowed the prairies early in 
-the '30s was the reports of the marvelous beauty and fertility of the 
legion distributed through the East by those who had participated in the 
Black Hawk campaign with Gen. Scott. Chicago and Milwaukee then, 
liad a few hundred inhabitants, and Gurdon S. Hubbard's trail from the 
former citv to Kaskaskia led almost through a wilderness. Vegetables 
and clothing were largely distributed through the regions adjoining the 



lakes by steamers from the Ohio towns. There are men now living in 
Illinois who came to the state when barely an acre was in cultivation^ 
and a man now prominent in the business circles of Chicago looked over 
the swampy, cheerless site of that metropolis in 1818 and went south- 
ward into civilization. Emigrants from Pennsylvania in 1830 left behind 




them but one small railway in the coal regions, thirty miles in length, 
and made their way to the Northwest mostly with ox teams, finding in 
Northern Illinois petty settlements scores of miles apart, although the 
southern portion of the state was fairly dotted with farms. The 
water courses of the lakes and rivers furnished transportation to the 
second great army of immigrants, and about 1850 railroads were 
pushed to that extent that the crisis of 1837 was precipitated upon ua. 



from tlie effects of which the Western country had not fully recovered 
at the outbreak of the war. Hostilities found the colonists of the prairies 
fully alive to the demands of the occasion, and the honor of recruiting 






the vast armies of the Union fell largely to Gov. Yates, of Illinois, and 
Gov. Morton, of Indiana. To recount the share of the glories of the 
campaign -svon If cuv Western troops is a needless task, except to 
mention the fact that Illinois ^ave to liie nation the President who saved 



it, and sent out at the head of one of its regiments tne general who led 
^ts armies to the final victory at Appomattox. The struggle, on the 


whole, had a marked effect for the better on the new Northwest, gi fing 
it an impetus which twenty years of peace would not have produced. 
In a large degree this prosperity was an inflated one, and with the rest 
of the Union Ave have since been compelled to atone therefor by four 


years of depression of values, of scarcity of employment, and loss of 
fortune. To a less degree, however, than the manufacturing or mining 
regions has the West suffered during the prolonged panic now so near its 
end. Agriculture, still the leading feature in our industries, has been 
quite prosperous through all these dark years, and the farmers have 
cleared away many incumbrances resting over them from the period of 
fictitious values. The population has steadily increased, the arts and 
sciences are gaining a stronger foothold, the trade area of the region is 
becoming daily more extended, and we have been largely exemjDt from 
the financial calamities which have nearly wrecked communities on the 
seaboard dependent wholly on foreign commerce or domestic manufacture. 

At the present period there are no great schemes broached for the 
Northwest, no propositions for government subsidies or national works 
of improvement, but the capital of the world is attracted hither for the 
purchase of our products or the expansion of our capacity for serving the 
nation at large. A new era is dawning as to transportation, and we bid 
fair to deal almost exclusively with the increasing and expanding lines 
•of steel rail running through every few miles of territory on the prairies. 
The lake marine will no doubt continue to be useful in the warmer 
season, and to serve as a regulator of freight rates ; but experienced 
navigators forecast the decay of the system in moving to the seaboard 
the enormous crops of the West. Within the past five years it has 
become quite common to see direct shipments to Europe and the West 
Indies going through from the second-class towns along the Mississippi 
•and Missouri, 

As to popular education, the standard has of late risen very greatly, 
and our schools would be creditable to any section of the Union. 

More and more as the events of the war pass into obscurity will the 
fate of the Northwest be linked with that of the Southwest, and the 
next Congressional apportionment will give the valley of the Mississippi 
absolute control of the legislation of the nation, and do much toward 
securing the removal of the Federal capitol to some more central location. 

Our public men continue to wield the full share of influence pertain- 
ing to their rank in the national autonomy, and seem not to forget that 
for the past sixteen years they and their constituents have dictated the 
principles which should govern the country. 

In a work like this, destined to lie on the shelves of the library for 
generations, and not doomed to daily destruction like a newspaper, one 
can not indulge in the same glowing predictions, the sanguine statements 
of actualities that fill the columns of ephemeral publications. Time may 
bring grief to the pet projects of a writer, and explode castles erected on 
a pedestal of facts. Yet there are unmistakable indications before us of 



The frontage of Lake Bluff Grounds on Lake Michigan, with one hundred and seventy feet of gradual ascenU 



the same radical change in our great Northwest which characterizes its 
history for the past thirty years. Our domain has a sort of natural 
geographical border, save where it melts away to the southward in the 
cattle raising districts of the southwest. 

Our prime interest will for some years doubtless be the growth of 
the food of the world, in which branch it has already outstripped all 
competitors, and our great rival in this duty will naturally be the fertile- 
plains of Kansas, Nebraska and Colorado, to say nothing of the new 
empire so rapidly growing up in Texas. Over these regions there is a 
continued progress in agriculture and in railway building, and we must 
look to our laurels. Intelligent observers of events are fully aware of 
the strides made in the way of shipments of fresh meats to Europe,, 
many of these ocean cargoes being actually slaughtered in the West and 
transported on ice to the wharves of the seaboard cities. That this new 
enterprise will continue there is no reason to doubt. There are in 
Chicago several factories for the canning of prepared meats for European 
consumption, and the orders for this class of goods are already immense^ 
English capital is becoming daily more and more dissatisfied with railway 
loans and investments, and is gradually seeking mammoth outlays in 
lands and live stock. The stock yards in Chicago, Indianapolis and East 
St. Louis are yearly increasing their facilities, and their plant steadily 
grows more valuable. Importations of blooded animals from the pro- 
gressive countries of Europe are destined to greatly improve the quality 
of our beef and mutton. Nowhere is there to be seen a more enticing 
display in this line than at our state and county fairs, and the interest 
in the matter is on the increase. 

To attempt to give statistics of our grain production for 1877 would 
be useless, so far have we surpassed ourselves in the quantity and 
quality of our product. We are too liable to forget that we are giving 
the world its first article of necessity — its food supply. An opportunity 
to learn this fact so it never can be forgotten was afforded at Chicago at 
the outbreak of the great panic of 1873, when Canadian purchasers, 
fearing the prostration of business mightbring about an anarchical condition 
of affairs, went to that city with coin in bulk and foreign drafts to secure 
their supplies in their own currency at first hands. It may be justly 
claimed by the agricultural community that their combined efforts gave 
the nation its first impetus toward a restoration of its crippled industries, 
and their labor brought the gold premium to a lower depth than the 
government was able to reach hy its most intense efforts of legislation 
and compulsion. The hundreds of millions about to be disbursed for 
farm products have already, by the anticipation common to all commercial. 



nations, set the wheels in motion, and will relieve us from the perils so 
long shadowing our efforts to return to a healthy tone. 

^ Manufacturing has attained in the chief cities a foothold which bids 
fair to render the Northwest independent of the outside world. Nearly 











our whole region has a distribution of coal measures which will in time 
support the manufactures necessary to our comfort and prosperity. As 
to transportation, the chief factor in the production of all articles except 
food, no section is so magnificently endowed, and our facilities are yearly 
increasing beyond those of any other region. 


The period from a central point of the war to the outbreak of the 
panic was marked by a tremendous growth in our railway lines, but the 
depression of the times caused almost a total suspension of operations. 
Now that prosperity is returning to our stricken country we witness its- 
anticipation by the railroad interest in a series of projects, extensions, 
and leases which bid fair to largely increase our transportation facilities.. 
The process of foreclosure and sale of incumbered lines is another matter 
to be considered. In the case of the Illinois Central road, which formerly 
transferred to other lines at Cairo the vast burden of freight destined for 
the Gulf region, we now see the incorporation of the tracks connecting 
through to New Orleans, every mile co-operating in turning toward the 
northwestern metropolis the weight of the inter-state commerce of a 
thousand miles or more of fertile plantations. Three competing routes 
to Texas have established in Chicago their general freight and passenger 
agencies. Four or five lines compete for all Pacific freights to a point as 
as far as the interior of Nebraska. Half a dozen or more splendid bridge 
structures have been thrown across the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers by 
the railways. The Chicago and Northwestern line has become an aggre- 
gation of over two thousand miles of rail, and the Chicago, Milwaukee 
and St. Paul is its close rival in extent and importance. The three lines 
running to Cairo via Vincennes form a through route for all traffic with- 
the states to the southward. The chief projects now under discussion 
are the Chicago and Atlantic, which is to unite with lines now built to 
Charleston, and the Chicago and Canada Southern, which line will con- 
nect with all the various branches of that Canadian enterprise. Our 
latest new road is the Chicago and Lake Huron, formed of three lines, 
and entering the city from Valparaiso on the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne 
and Chicago track. The trunk lines being mainly in operation, the 
progress made in the way of shortening tracks, making air-line branches, 
and running extensions does not show to the advantage it deserves, as 
this process is constantly adding new facilities to the established order 
of things. The panic reduced the price of steel to a point where the 
railways could hardly afford to use iron rails, and all our northwestern 
lines report large relays of Bessemer track. The immense crops now 
being moved have given a great rise to the value of railway stocks, and 
their transportation must result in heavy pecuniary advantages. 

Few are aware of the importance of the wholesale and jobbing trade 
of Chicago. One leading firm has since the panic sold $24,000,000 of 
dry goods in one year, and they now expect most confidently to add 
seventy per cent, to the figures of their last year's business. In boots 
and shoes and in clothing, twenty or more great firms from the east have 
placed here their distributing agents or th^eir factories ; and in groceries 



Chicago supplies the entire Northwest at rates presenting advantages 
over New York. 

Chicago has stepped in between New York and the rural banks as a 
financial center, and scarcely a banking institution in the grain or cattle 
regions but keeps its reserve funds in the vaults of our commercial insti- 
tutions. Accumulating here throughout the spring and summer months, 
they are summoned home at pleasure to move the products of the 
prairies. This process greatly strengthens the northwest in its financial 
operations, leaving home capital to supplement local operations on 
behalf of home interests. 

It is impossible to forecast the destiny of this grand and growing 
section of the Union. Figures and predictions made at this date might 
^eem ten years hence so ludicrously small as to excite only derision. 



Length, 380 miles, mean width about 156 miles. Area, 55,410 square 
miles, or 35,462,400 acres. Illinois, as regards its surface, constitutes a 
table-land at a varying elevation ranging between 350 and 800 feet above 
the sea level ; composed of extensive and highly fertile prairies and plains. 
Much of the south (^'vision of the State, especially the river-bottoms, are 
thickly wooded. The prairies, too, have oasis-like clumps of trees 
scattered here and there at intervals. The chief rivers irrigating the 
State are the Mississippi — dividing it from Iowa and Missouri — the Ohio 
(forming its south barrier), the Illinois, Wabash, Kaskaskia, and San- 
gamon, with their numerous affluents. The total extent of navigable 
streams is calculated at 4,000 miles. Small lakes are scattered over vari- 
ous parts of the State. Illinois is extremely prolific in minerals, chiefly 
coal, iron, copper, and zinc ores, sulphur and limestone. The coal-field 
alone is estimated to absorb a full third of the entire coal-deposit of North 
America. Climate tolerably equable and healthy ; the mean temperature 
standing at about 51° Fahrenheit As an agricultural region, Illinois takes 
a competitive rank with neighboring States, the cereals, fruits, and root- 
crops yielding plentiful returns ; in fact, as a grain-growing State, Illinois 
may be deemed, in proportion to her size, to possess a greater area of 
lands suitable for its production than any other State in the Union. Stock- 
raising is also largely carried on, while her manufacturing interests in 
regard of woolen fabrics, etc., are on a very extensive and yearly expand- 
ing scale. The lines of railroad in the State are among the most exten- 
sive of the Union. Inland water-carriage is facilitated by a canal 
connecting the Illinois River with Lake Michigan, and thence with the 
St. Lawrence and Atlantic. Illinois is divided into 102 counties ; the 
chief towns being Chicago, Springfield (capital), Alton, Quincy, Peoria, 
Galena, Bloomington, Rock Island, Vandalia, etc. By the new Consti- 
tution, established in 1870, the State Legislature consists of 51 Senators, 
elected for four y^ars, and 153 Representatives, for two years ; which 
numbers were to be decennially increased thereafter to the number of 
six per every additional half-million of inhabitants. Religious and 
educational institutions are largely diffused throughout, and are in a very 
flourishing condition. Illinois has a State Lunatic and a Deaf and Dumb 
Asylum at Jacksonville ; a State Penitentiary at Joliet ; and a Home for 




Soldiers' Orphans at Normal. On November 30, 1870, the public debt of 
the State was returned at $4,870,937, with a balance of $1,808,833 
unprovided for. At the same period the value of assessed and equalized 
property presented the following totals : assessed, $840,031,703 ; equal- 
ized $480,664,058. The name of Illinois, through nearly the whole of 
the eighteenth century, embraced most of the known regions north and 
west of Ohio. French colonists established themselves in 1673, at 
Cahokia and Kaskaskia, and the territory of which these settlements 
formed the nucleus was, in 1763, ceded to Great Britain in conjunction 
with Canada, and ultimately resigned to the United States in 1787. 
Illinois entered the Union as a State, December 3, 1818; and now sends 
19 Representatives to Congress. Population, 2,539,891, in 1870. 




Tlic profile of Indiana forms a nearly exact parallelogram, occupy- 
ing one of the most fertile portions of the great Mississippi Valley. The 
greater extent of the surface embraced within its limits consists of gentle 
undulations rising into hilly tracts toward the Ohio bottom. The chief 
rivers of the State are the Ohio and Wabash, with their numerous 
affluents. The soil is highly productive of the cereals and grasses — most 
particularly so in the valleys of the Ohio, Wabash, Whitewater, and 
White Rivers. The northeast and central portions are well timbered 
with virgin forests, and the west section is notably rich in coal, constitut- 
ing an offshoot of the great Illinois carboniferous field. Iron, copper, 
marble, slate, gypsum, and various clays are also abundant. From an 
agricultural point of view, the staple products are maize and wheat, with 
the other cereals in lesser yields : and besides these, flax, hemp, sorghum, 
hops, etc., are extensively raised. Indiana is divided into 92 counties, 
and counts among her principal cities and towns, those of Indianapolis 
(the capital), Fort Wayne, Evansville, Terre Haute, Madison, Jefferson- 
ville, Columbus, Vincennes, South Bend, etc. The public institutions of 
the State are many and various, and on a scale of magnitude and 
efficiency commensurate with her important political and industrial status. 
Upward of two thousand miles of railroads permeate the State in all 
directions, and greatly conduce to the development of lier expanding 
manufacturing interests. Statistics for the fiscal year terminating 
October 31, 1870, exhibited a total of receipts, $3,896,541 as against dis- 
bursements, $3,532,406, leaving a balance, $364,135 in favor of the State 
Treasury. The entire public debt, January 5, 1871, $3,971,000. This 
State was first settled by Canadian voyageurs in 1702, who erected a fort 
at Vincennes ; in 1763 it passed into the hands of the English, and was 
by the latter ceded to the United States in 1783. From 1788 till 1791, 
an Indian ware fare prevailed. In 1800, all tlie region west and north of 
Ohio (then formed into a distinct territory) became merged in Indiana. 
In 1809, the present limits of the State were defined, Michigan and 
Illinois having previously been withdrawn. In 1811, Indiana was the 
theater of the Indian War of Tecumseh, ending with the decisive battle 
of Tippecanoe. In 1816 (December 11), Indiana became enrolled among 
the States of the American Union. In 1834, the State passed through a 
monetary crisis owing to its having become mixed up witli railroad, 
f;anal, and other speculations on a gigantic scale, which ended, for the 
tune, oei'ng, in a general collapse of public credit, and consequent bank- 
ruptcy. Since that time, however, the greater number of the public 



works which had brought about that imbroglio — especially the great 
Wabash and Erie Canal — have been completed, to the great benefit of 
the State, whose subsequent progress has year by year been marked by 
rapid strides in the paths of wealtli, commerce, and general social and 
political prosperity. The constitution now in force was adopted in 1851. 
Population, 1,680,637. 


In shape, Iowa presents an almost perfect parallelogram ; has a 
length, north to south, of about 300 miles, by a pretty even width of 208 
miles, and embraces an area of 55,045 square miles, or 35,228,800 acres. 
The surface of the State is generally undulating, rising toward the 
middle into an elevated plateau which forms the " divide " of the 
Missouri and Mississippi basins. Rolling prairies, especially in the south 
section, constitute a regnant feature, and the river bottoms, belted with 
woodlands, present a soil of the richest alluvion. Iowa is well watered ; 
the principal rivers being the Mississippi and Missouri, which form 
respectively its east and west limits, and the Cedar, Iowa, and Des 
Moines, affluents of the first named. Mineralogically, Iowa is important 
as occupying a section of the great Northwest coal field, to the extent of 
an area estimated at 25,000 square miles. Lead, copper, zinc, and iron, 
are also mined in considerable quantities. The soil is well adapted to 
the production of wheat, maize, and the other cereals : fruits, vegetables, 
and esculent roots ; maize, wheat, and oats forming the chief staples. 
Wine, tobacco, hops, and wax, are other noticeable items of the agricul- 
tural yield. Cattle-raising, too, is a branch of rural industry largely 
engaged in. The climate is healthy, although liable to extremes of heat 
and cold. The annual gross product of the various manufactures carried 
on in this State approximate, in round numbers, a sum of $20,000,000. 
Iowa has an immense railroad system, besides over 500 miles of water- 
communication by means of its navigable rivers. The State is politically 
ilivided into 99 counties, with the following centers of population : Des 
Moines (capital), Iowa City (former capital), Dubuque, Davenport, Bur- 
lington, Council Bluffs, Keokuk, Muscatine, and Cedar Rapids. The 
State institutions of Iowa— religious, scholastic, and philanthropic — are 
on a par, as regards number and perfection of organization and operation, 
with those of her Northwest sister States, and education is especially 
well cared for, and largely diffused. Iowa formed a portion of the 
American territorial acquisitions from France, by the so-called Louisiana 
purchase in 1803, and was politically identified with Louisiana till 1812, 


when it merged into the Missouri Territory; in 1834 it came under the 
Michigan organization, and, in 1836, under that of Wisconsin. Finally, 
after being constituted an independent Territory, it became a State of 
the Union, December 28, 1846. Population in 1860, 674,913 ; in 1870, 
1,191,792, and in 1875, 1,353,118. 


United area, 56,243 square miles, or 35,995,520 acres. Extent of the 
Upper and smaller Peninsula' — length, 316 miles; breadth, fluctuating 
between 36 and 120 miles. The south division is 416 miles long, by from 
50 to 300 miles wide. Aggregate lake-shore line, 1,400 miles. The 
Upper, or North, Peninsula consists chiefly of an elevated plateau, 
expanding into the Porcupine mountain-system, attaining a maximum 
height of some 2,000 feet. Its shores along Lake Superior are eminently 
bold and picturesque, and its area is rich in minerals, its product of 
copper constituting an important source of industry. Both divisions are 
heavily wooded, and the South one, in addition, boasts of a deep, rich, 
loamy soil, throwing up excellent crops of cereals and other agricultural 
produce. The climate is generally mild and humid, though the Winter 
colds are severe. The chief staples of farm husbandry include the cereals, 
grasses, maple sugar, sorghum, tobacco, fruits, and dairy-stuffs. In 1870, 
the acres of land in farms were : improved, 5,096,939 ; unimproved 
woodland, 4,080,146 ; other unimproved land, 842,057. The cash value 
of land was $398,240,578 ; of farming implements and machinery, 
$13,711,979. In 1869, there were shipped from the Lake Superior ports, 
874,582 tons of iron ore, and 45,762 of smelted pig, along with 14,188 
tons of copper (ore and ingot). Coal is another article largely mined. 
Inland communication is provided for by an admirably organized railroad 
system, and by the St. Mary's Ship Canal, connecting Lakes Huron and 
Superior. Michigan is politically divided into 78 counties ; its chief 
urban centers are Detroit, Lansing (capital), Ann Arbor, Marquette, 
Bay City, Niles, Ypsilanti, Grand Haven, etc. The Governor of the 
State is elected biennially. On November 30, 1870, the aggregate bonded 
debt of Michigan amounted to $2,385,028, and the assessed valuation of 
land to $266,929,278, representing an estimated cash value of $800,000,000. 
Education is largely diffused and most excellently conducted and pro- 
vided for. The State University at Ann Arbor, the colleges of Detroit 
and Kalamazoo, the Albion Female College, the State Normal School at 
Ypsilanti, and the State Agricultural College at Lansing, are chief among 
the academic institutions. Michigan (a term of Chippeway origin, and 


signifying " Great Lake), was discovered and first settled by Frencli 
Canadians, Avho, in 1670, founded Detroit, the pioneer of a series of trad- 
ing-posts on the Indian frontier. During the " Conspiracy of Pontiac," 
following the French loss of Canada, Michigan became the scene of a 
sanguinary struggle between the whites and aborigines. In 1796, it 
became annexed to the United States, which incorporated this region 
with the Northwest Territory, and then with Indiana Territory, till 1808, 
when it became territorially independent. Michigan was the theater of 
warlike operations during the war of 1812 with Great Britain, and in 
1819 was authorized, to be represented by one delegate in Congress ; in 
1837 she was admitted into the Union as a State, and in 1869 ratified the 
15th Amendment to the Federal Constitution. Population, 1,184,059. 


It has a mean length of 26Q miles, and a maximum breadth of 215. 
Land area, 53,924 square miles, or 34,511,360 acres. Wisconsin lies at a 
considerable altitude above sea-level, and consists for the most part of an 
upland plateau, the surface of which is undulating and very general!}^ 
diversified. Numerous local eminences called mounds are interspersed 
over the State, and the Lake Michigan coast-line is in many parts char- 
acterized by lofty escarped cliffs, even as on the west side the banks of 
the Mississippi form a series of high and picturesque bluffs. A group of 
islands known as The Apostles lie off the extreme north point of the 
State in Lake Superior, and the great estuary of Green Bay, running far 
inland, gives formation to a long, narrow peninsula between its waters 
and those of Lake Michigan. The river-system of Wisconsin has three 
outlets — those of Lake Superior, Green Bay, and the Mississi2:)pi, which 
latter stream forms the entire southwest frontier, widening at one point 
into the large watery expanse called Lake Pepin. Lake Superior receives 
the St. Louis, Burnt Wood, and Montreal Rivers ; Green Bay, the 
Menomonee, Peshtigo, Oconto, and Fox; while into the Mississippi 
empty the St. Croix, Chippewa, Black, Wisconsin, and Rock Rivers. 
The chief interior lakes are those of Winnebago, Horicon, and Court 
Oreilles, and smaller sheets of water stud a great part of the surface. 
The climate is healthful, with cold Winters and brief but very warm 
Summers. Mean annual rainfall 31 inches. The geological system 
represented bj^ the State, embraces those rocks included between the 
primary and the Devonian series, the former containing extensive 
deposits of copper and iron ore. Besides these minerals, lead and zinc 
are found in great quantities, together with kaolin, plumbago, gypsum, 


and various clays. Mining, consequently, forms a prominent industry, 
and one of yearly increasing dimensions. The soil of Wisconsin is of 
varying quality, but fertile on the whole, and in the north parts of the 
State heavily timbered. The agricultural yield comprises tiie cereals, 
together with flax, hemp, tobacco, pulse, sorgum, and all kinds of vege- 
tables, and of the hardier fruits. In 1870, the State had a total number 
of 102,904 farms, occupying 11,715,321 acres, of which 5,899,343 con- 
sisted of improved land, and 3,437,442 were timbered. Cash value of 
farms, $300,414,064 ; of farm implements and machinery, $14,239,364. 
Total estimated value of all farm products, including betterments an,d 
additions to stock, $78,027,032 ; of orchard and dairy stuffs, $1,045,933 ; 
of lumber, Jfl, 327,618 ; of home manufactures, $338,423 ; of all live-stock, 
$45,310,882. Numl)er of manufacturing establishments, 7,136, employ- 
ing 39,055 hands, and turning out productions valued at $85,624,966. 
The political divisions of the State form 61 counties, and the chief places 
of wealth, trade, and population, are Madison (the capital), Milwaukee, 
Fond du Lac, Oshkosh, Prairie du Chien, Janesville, Portage Citv, 
Racine, Kenosha, and La Crosse. In 1870, the total assessed valuation 
reached $333,209,838, as against a true valuation of both real and personal 
estate aggregating $602,207,329. Treasury receipts during 1870, $886,- 
696 ; disbursements, $906,329. Value of church property, $4,749,983. 
Education is amply provided for. Independently of the State University 
at Madison, and those of Galesville and of Lawrence at Ajjpleton, and 
the colleges of Beloit, Racine, and Milton, there are Normal Schools at 
Platteville and Whitewater. The State is divided into 4,802 common 
school districts, maintained at a cost, in 1870, of $2,094,160. The chari- 
table institutions of Wisconsin include a Deaf and Dumb Asylum, an 
Institute for the Education of the Blind, and a Soldiers' Orphans' School. 
In January, 1870, the railroad system ramified throughout the State 
totalized 2,779 miles of track, including several lines far advanced toward 
completion. Immigration is successfully encouraged by the State author- 
ities, the larger number of j^early new-comers being of Scandinavian and 
German origin. The territory now occupied within the limits of the 
State of Wisconsin was explored by French missionaries and traders in 
1639, and it remained under French jurisdiction until 1703, when it 
became annexed to the British North American possessions. In 1796, it 
reverted to the United States, the government of which latter admitted 
it within the limits of the Northwest Territory, and in 1809, attached it 
to that of Illinois, and to Michigan in 1818. Wisconsin became independ- 
ently territorially organized in 1836, and became a State of the Union, 
March 3, 1847. Population in 1870, l,0f;4,985, of which 2,113 were of 
the colored race, and 11,521 Indians, 1,206 of the latter beinff out of 
tribal relations. 



Its length, north to south, embraces an extent of 380 miles; its 
breadth one of 250 miles at a maximum. Area, 84,000 square miles, or 
54,760,000 acres. The surface of Minnesota, generally speaking, con- 
sists of a succession of gently undulating plains and prairies, drained by 
an admirable water-system, and with here and there heavily- timbered 
bottoms and belts of virgin forest. The soil, corresponding with such a 
superfices, is exceptionally rich, consisting for the most part of a dark, 
calcareous sandy drift intermixed with loam. A distinguishing physical 
feature of this State is its riverine ramifications, expanding in nearly 
every part of it into almost innumerable lakes — the whole presenting an 
aooreoate of water-power havino- hardly a rival in the Union. Besides 
the Mississippi — which here has its rise, and drains a basin of 800 miles 
of country — the principal streams are the Minnesota (-334 miles long), 
the Red River of the North, the St. Croix, St. Louis, and many others of 
lesser importance ; the chief lakes are those called Red, Cass, Leech, 
Mille Lacs, Vermillion, and Winibigosh. Quite a concatenation of sheets 
of water fringe the frontier line where Minnesota joins British America, 
culminatimr in the Lake of the Woods. It has been estimated, that of 
an area of 1,200,000 acres of surface between the St. Croix and Mis- 
sissippi Rivers, not less than 73,000 acres are of lacustrine formation. In 
point of minerals, the resources of Minnesota have as yet been very 
imperfectly developed ; iron, copper, coal, lead — all these are known to 
exist in considerable deposits ; together with salt, hmestone, and potter's 
clay. The agricultural outlook of the State is in a high degree satis- 
factory ; wheat constitutes the leading cereal in cultivation, with Indian 
corn and oats in next order. Fruits and vegetables are grown in great 
plenty and of excellent quality. The lumber resources of Minnesota are 
important ; the pine forests in the north region alone occupying an area 
of some 21,000 square miles, which in 1870 produced a return of scaled 
logs amounting to 313,116,416 feet. The natural industrial advantages 
possessed by Minnesota are largely improved upon by a railroad system. 
The political divisions of this State number 78 counties ; of which the 
chief cities and towns are : St. Paul (the capital), Stillwater, Red Wing, 
St. Anthony, Fort Snelling, Minneapolis, and Mankato. Minnesota has 
already assumed an attitude of high importance as a manufacturing State ; 
this is mainly due to the wonderful command of water-power she pos- 
sesses, as before spoken of. Besides her timber-trade, the milling of 
flour, the distillation of whisky, and the tanning of leather, are prominent 
interests, which, in 1869, gave returns to the amount of ij^l 4,831, 043. 


Education is notably provided for on a broad and catholic scale, the 
entire amount expended scholastically during the year 1870 being $857,- 
816 ; while on November 30 of the preceding year the permanent school 
fund stood at $2, 476, 222. Besides a University and Agricultural College, 
Normal and Reform Schools flourish, and with these may be mentioned 
such various philanthropic and religious institutions as befit the needs of 
an intelligent and prosperous community. The finances of the State for 
the fiscal year terminating December 1, 1870, exhibited a balance on the 
right side to the amount of $136,164, being a gain of $44,000 over the 
previous year's figures. The earliest exploration of Minnesota by the 
whites was made in 1680 by a French Franciscan, Father Hennepin, who 
gave the name of St. Antony to the Great Falls on the Upper Missisippi. 
In 1763, the Treaty of Versailles ceded this region to England. 
Twenty yeai-s later, Minnesota formed part of the Northwest Territor}^ 
transferred to the United States, and became herself territorialized inde- 
pendently in 1849. Indian cessions in 1851 enlarged her boundaries, and. 
May 11, 1857, Minnesota became a unit of the great American federation 
of States. Population, 439,706. 


Maximum length, 412 miles ; extreme breadth, 208 miles. Area, 
75,905 square miles', or 48,636,800 acres. The surface of this State is 
almost entirely undulating prairie, and forms part of the west slope of 
the great central basin of the North American Continent. In its west 
division, near the base of the Rocky Mountains, is a sandy belt of 
country, irregularly defined. In this part, too, are the " dunes," resem- 
bling a wavy sea of sandy billows, as well as the Mauvaises Terres, a tract 
of singular formation, produced by eccentric disintegrations and denuda- 
tions of the land. The chief rivers are the Missouri, constituting its en- 
tire east line of demarcation ; the Nebraska or Platte, the Niobrara, the 
Republican Fork of the Kansas, the Elkhorn, and the Loup Fork of the 
Platte. The soil is very various, but consisting chiefly of rich, bottomy 
loam, admirably adapted to the raising of heavy crops of cereals. All 
the vegetables and fruits of the temperate zone are produced in great 
size and plenty. For grazing purposes Nebraska is a State exceptionally 
well fitted, a region of not less than 23,000,000 acres being adaptable to 
this branch of husbandry. It is believed that the, as yet, comparatively 
infertile tracts of land found in various parts of the State are susceptible 
of productivity by means of a properly conducted system of irrigation. 
Few minerals of moment have so far been found within the limits of 



Nebraska, if we may except important saline deposits at the head of Salt 
Creek in ics southeast section. The State is divided into 57 counties, 
independent of the Pawnee and Winnebago Indians, and of unorganized 
territory in the northwest part. The principal towns are Omaha, Lincoln 
(State capital), Nebraska City, Columbus, Grand Island, etc. In 1870, 
the total assessed value of property amounted to 153,000,000, being an 
increase of $11,000,000 over the previous year's returns. The total 
amount received from the school-fund during the year 1869-70 was 
$77,999. Education is making great onward strides, the State University 
and an Agricultural College being far advanced toward completion. In 
the matter of railroad communication, Nebraska bids fair to soon place 
herself on a par with her neighbors to the east. Besides being inter- 
sected by the Union Pacific line, with its off-shoot, the Fremont and Blair, 
other tracks are in course of rapid construction. Organized by Con- 
gressional Act into a Territory, May 30, 1851, Nebraska entered the 
Union as a full State, March 1, 1867. Population, 122,993. 



Early History op^ Illinois. 

The name of this beautiful Prairie State is derived from Illim, a 
Delaware word signifying Superior Men. It has a French termination, 
and is a symbol of how the two races — the French and the Indians — 
were intermixed during the early history of the country. 

The appellation was no doubt well applied to the primitive inhabit- 
ants of the soil whose prowess in savage warfare long withstood the 
combined attacks of the fierce Iroquois on the one side, and the no less 
savage and relentless Sacs and Foxes on the other. The Illinois were 
once a powerful confederacy, occupying the most beautiful and fertile 
region in the great Valley of the Mississippi, which their enemies coveted 
and struggled long and hard to wrest from them. By the fortunes of 
war they were diminished in numbers, and finally destroyed. " Starved 
Rock," on the Illinois River, according to tradition, commemorates their 
last tragedy, where, it is said, the entire tribe starved rather than sur- 


The first European discoveries in Illinois date back over two hun- 
dred years. They are a part of that movement which, from the begin- 
ning to the middle of the seventeenth century, brought the French 
Canadian missionaries and fur traders into the Valley of the Mississippi, 
and which, at a later period, established the civil and ecclesiastical 
authority of France from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico, 
and from the foot-hills of the Alleghanies to the Rocky Mountains. 

The great river of the West had been discovered by DeSoto, the 
Spanish conqueror of Florida, three quarters of a century before the 
French founded Quebec in 1608, but the Spanish left the country a wil- 
derness, without further exploration or settlement within its borders, in 
which condition it remained until the Mississippi was discovered by the 
agents of the French Canadian government, Jolietand Marquette, in 1673. 
These renowned explorers were not the first white visitors to Illinois. 
In 1671 — two years in advance of them — came Nicholas Perrot to Chicago. 
He had been sent by Talon as an agent of the Canadian government to 





call a great peace convention of Western Indians at Green Bay, prepara- 
tory to the movement for the discovery of the Mississippi. It was 
deemed a good stroke of policy to secure, as far as possible, the friend- 
ship and co-operation of the Indians, far and near, before venturing upon 
an enterprise which their hostility might render disastrous, and which 
their friendship and assistance would do so much to make successful ; 
and to this end Perrot was sent to call together in council the tribes 
throughout the Northwest, and to promise them the commerce and pro- 
tection of the French government. He accordingly arrived at Green 
Bay in 1671, and procuring an escort of Pottawattamies, proceeded in a 
bark canoe upon a visit to the Miamis, at Chicago. Perrot was there- 
fore the first European to set foot upon the soil of Illinois. 

Still there were others before Marquette. In 1672, the Jesuit mis- 
sionaries, Fathers Claude Allouez and Claude Dablon, bore the standard 
of the Cross from their mission at Green Bay through western Wisconsin 
and northern Illinois, visiting the Foxes on Fox River, and the Masquo- 
tines and Kickapoos at the mouth of the Milwaukee. These missionaries 
penetrated on the route afterwards followed by Marquette as far as the 
Kickapoo village at the head of Lake Winnebago, where Marquette, in 
his journey, secured guides across the portage to the Wisconsin. 

The oft-repeated story of Marquette and Joliet is well known. 
They were the agents employed by the Canadian government to discover 
the Mississippi. Marquette was a native of France, born in 1637, a 
Jesuit priest by education, and a man of simple faith and of great zeal and 
devotion in extending the Roman Catholic religion among the Indians. 
Arriving in Canada in 1666, he was sent as a missionary to the far 
Northwest, and, in 1668, founded a mission at Sault Ste. Marie. The 
following year he moved to La Pointe, in Lake Superior, where he 
instructed a branch of the Hurons till 1670, when he removed south, and 
founded the mission at St. Tgnace, on the Straits of Mackinaw. Here 
he remained, devoting a portion of his time to the study of the Illinois 
language under a native teacher who had accompanied him to the mission 
from La Pointe, till he was joined by Joliet in the Spring of 1673. By 
the way of Green Bay and the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers, they entered 
the Mississippi, which they explored to the mouth of the Arkansas, and 
returned by the way of the Illinois and Chicago Rivers to Lake Michigan. 

On his way up the Illinois, Marquette visited the great village of 
the Kaskaskias, near what is now Utica, in the county of LaSalle. The 
following year he returned and established among them the mission of 
the Immaculate Virgin Mary, which was the first Jesuit mission founded 
in Illinois and in the Mississippi Valley. The intervening winter he 
had spent in a hut which his companions erected on the Chicago River, a 
few leagues from its mouth. The founding of this mission was the last 


act of Marquette's life. He died in Michigan, on his way back to Green 
Bay, May 18, 1675. 


The fii'st French occupation of the territory now embraced in Illi- 
nois was effected by LaSalle in 1680, seven years after the time of Mar- 
q^uette and Joliet. LaSalle, having constructed a vessel, the " Griffin," 
above the falls of Niagara, which he sailed to Green Bay, and having 
passed thence in canoes to the mouth of the St. Joseph River, by which 
and the Kankakee he reached the Illinois, in January, 1680, erected Fort 
Crevecceur, at the lower end of Peoria Lake, where the city of Peoria is 
now situated. The place where this ancient fort stood may still be seen 
just below the outlet of Peoria Lake. It was destined, however, to a 
temporary existence. From this point, LaSalle determined to descend 
the Mississippi to its mouth, but did not accomplish this purpose till two 
years later — in 1682. Returning to Fort Frontenac for the purpose of 
getting materials with whicli to rig his vessel, he left the fort in charge of 
Touti, his lieutenant, who during his absence was driven off by the Iro- 
quois Indians. These savages had made a raid upon the settlement of 
the Illinois, and had left nothing in their track but ruin and desolation. 
Mr. Davidson, in his History of IlUnois, gives the following graphic 
account of the picture that met the eyes of LaSalle and his companions 
on their return : 

" At the great town of the Illinois they were appalled at the scene 
which opened to their view. No hunter appeared to break its death-like 
silence with a salutatory whoop ot welcome. The plain on which the 
town had stood was now strewn with charred fragments of lodges, which 
had so recently swarmed with savage life and hilarity. To render more 
hideous the picture of desolation, large numbers of skulls had been 
placed on the upper extremities of lodge-poles which had escaped the 
devourino- flames. In the midst of these horrors was the rude fort of 
the spoilers, rendered frightful by the same ghastly relics. A near 
approach showed that the graves had been robbed of their bodies, and 
swarms of buzzards were discovered glutting;' their loathsome stomachs 
on tlie reeking corruption. To complete the work of destruction, the 
irrowingf corn of the village had been cut down and burned, while the 
pits containing the products of previous years, had been rifled and their 
contents scattered with wanton waste. It was evident the suspected 
blow of the Iroquois had fallen with relentless fury." 

Tonti had escaped LaSalle knew not whither. Passing down the 
lake in searcli of him and his men, LaSalle discovered that the fort had 
been destroyed, but the vessel wliicli he had partly constructed was still 


on the stocks, and but slightly injured. After further fruitless search, 
failing to find Tonti, he fastened to a tree a painting representing himself 
and party sitting in a canoe and bearing a pipe of peace, and to the paint- 
ing attached a letter addressed to Tonti. 

Tonti had escaped, and, after untold privations, taken shelter among 
tlie Pottawattaraies near Green Bay. These were friendly to the French. 
One of their old chiefs used to say, " There were but three great cap- 
tains in the world, himself, Tonti and LaSalle." 


We must now return to LaSalle, whose exploits stand out in such 
bold relief. He was born in Rouen, France, in 1643. His father was 
wealthy, but he renounced his patrimony on entering a college of the 
Jesuits, from which he separated and came to Canada a poor man in 1666. 
The priests of St. Sulpice, among whom he had a brother, were then the 
proprietors of Montreal, the nucleus of which was a seminary or con- 
vent founded by that order. The Superior granted to LaSalle a large 
tract of land at LaChine, where he established himself in the fur trade. 
He was a man of daring genius, and outstripped all his competitors in 
exploits of travel and commerce with the Indians. In 1669, he visited 
the headquarters of the great Iroquois Confederacy, at Onondaga, in the 
heart of New York, and, obtaining guides, explored the Ohio River to 
the falls at Louisville. 

In order to understand the genius of LaSalle, it must be remembered 
that for many years prior to his time the missionaries and traders were 
obliged to make their way to the Northwest by the Ottawa River (of 
Canada) on account of the fierce hostility of the Iroquois along the lower 
lakes and Niagara River, which entirely closed this latter route to the 
Upper Lakes. They carried on their commerce chiefly by canoes, pad- 
dling them through the Ottawa to Lake Nipissing, carrying them across 
the portage to French River, and descending that to Lake Huron. This 
being the route by which they reached the Northwest, accounts for the 
fact that all the earliest Jesuit missions were established in the neia-hbor- 
hood of the Upper Lakes. LaSalle conceived the grand idea of opening 
the route by Niagara River and the Lower Lakes to Canadian commerce 
by sail vessels, connecting it with the navigation of the Mississippi, and 
thus opening a magnificent water communication from the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico. This truly grand and comprehensive 
purpose seems to have animated him in all his wonderful achievements 
and the matchless difficulties and hardships he surmounted. As the first 
step in the accomplishment of this object he established himself on Lake 
Ontario, and built and garrisoned Fort Frontenac, the site of the present 


city of Kingston, Canada. Here he obtained a grant of land from the 
French crown and a body of troops by which he beat back the invading 
Iroquois and cleared the passage to Niagara Falls. Having by this mas- 
terly stroke made it safe to attempt a hitherto untried expedition, his 
next step, as we have seen, was to advance to the Falls with all his 
outfit for building a ship with which to sail the lakes. He was success- 
ful in this undertaking, though his ultimate purpose was defeated by a 
strange combination of untoward circumstances. The Jesuits evidently 
hated LaSalle and plotted against him, because he had abandoned them 
and co-operated with a rival order. The fur traders were also jealous of 
his superior success in opening new channels of commerce. At LaChine 
he had taken the trade of Lake Ontario, which but for his presence there 
would have gone to Quebec. While they were plodding with their barK 
canoes through the Ottawa he was constructing sailing vessels to com- 
mand the trade of the lakes and the Mississippi. These great plans 
excited the jealousy and envy of the small traders, introduced treason and 
revolt into the ranks of his own companions, and finally led to the foul 
assassination by which his great achievements were prematurely ended. 

In 1682, LaSalle, having completed his vessel at Peoria, descended 
the Mississippi to its confluence with the Gulf of Mexico. Erecting a 
standard on which he inscribed the arms of France, he took formal pos- 
session of the whole valley of the mighty river, in the name of Louis 
XIV., then reigning, in honor of whom he named the country Louisiana. 

LaSalle then went to France, was appointed Governor, and returned 
with a fleet and immigrants, for the purpose of planting a colony in Illi- 
nois. They arrived in due time in the Gulf of Mexico, but failing to 
find the mouth of the Mississippi, up which LaSalle intended to sail, his 
supply ship, with the immigrants, was driven ashore and wrecked on 
Matagorda Bay. With the fragments of the vessel he constructed a 
stockade and rude huts on the shore for the protection of the immigrants, 
calling the post Fort St. Louis. He then made a trip into New Mexico, 
in search of silver mines, but, meeting with disappointment, returned to 
find his little colony reduced to forty souls. He then resolved to travel 
on foot to Illinois, and, starting with his companions, had reached the 
valley of the Colorado, near the mouth of Trinity river, when he was 
shot by one of his men. This occurred on the 19th of March, 1687. 

Dr. J. W. Foster remarks of him : " Thus fell, not far from the banks 
of the Trinity, Robert Cavalier de la Salle, one of the grandest charac- 
ters that ever figured in American history — a man capable of originating 
the vastest schemes, and endowed with a will and a judgment capable of 
carrying them to successful results. Had ample facilities been placed by 
the King of France at his disposal, the result of the colonization of this 
continent might have been far different from what we now behold." 



A teraporarv settlement was made at Fort St. Louis, or the old Kas- 
kaskia village, o'l the Illinois River, in what is now La'Salle County, in 
1682. In 1690, this wa.s removed, with the mission connected with it, to 
Kaskaskia, on the river of that name, emptying into the lower Mississippi 
in St. Clair County. Cahokia was settled about the same time, or at 
least, both of these settlements began in the year 1690, though it is now 
pretty well settled that Cahokia is the older place, and ranks as the oldest 
permanent settlement in Illinois, as Avell as in the Mississippi Valley. 
Tlie reason for the removal of the Did Kaskaskia settlement and mission, 
was probably because the dangerous and diificult route by Lake Michigan 
and the Chicago portage had been almost abandoned, and travelers and 
traders passed down and up the Mississippi by the Fox and Wisconsin 
River route. They removed to the vicinity of the Mississippi in order 
to be in the line of travel from Canada to Louisiana, that is, the lower 
part of it, for it was all Louisiana then south of the lakes. 

During the period of French rule in Louisiana, the population prob- 
ably never exceeded ten thousand, including whites and blacks. Within 
that portion of it now included in Indiana, trading posts were established 
at the principal Miami villages which stood on the head waters of the 
Maumee, the Wea villages situated at Ouiatenon, on the Wabash, and 
the Piankeshaw villages at Post Vincennes ; all of which were probably 
visited by French traders and missionaries before the close of the seven- 
teenth century. 

In the vast territory claimed by the French, many settlements of 
considerable importance had sprung up. Biloxi, on Mobile Bay, had 
been founded by DTberville, in 1699 ; Antoine de Lamotte Cadillac had 
founded Detroit in 1701 ; and New Orleans had been founded by Bien- 
ville, under the auspices of the Mississippi Company, in 1718. In Illi- 
nois also, considerable settlements had been made, so that in 1730 they 
embraced one hundred and forty French families, about six hundred " con- 
verted Indians," and many traders and voyageurs. In that portion of the 
country, on the east side of the Mississippi, there were five distinct set- 
tlements, with their respective villages, viz.: Cahokia, near the mouth 
of Cahokia Creek and about five miles below the present city of St. 
Louis ; St. Philip, about forty-five miles below Cahokia, and four miles 
above Fort Chartres ; Fort Chartres, twelve miles above Kaskaskia ; 
Kaskaskia, situated on the Kaskaskia River, five miles above its conflu- 
ence with the Mississippi ; and Prairie du Rocher, near Fort Chartres. 
To these must be added St. Genevieve and St. Louis, on the west side 
of the Mississippi. These, with the exception of St. Louis, are among 






the oldest French towns in the Mississippi Valley. Kaskaskia, in its best 
days, was a town of some two or three thousand inhabitants. After it 
passed from the crown of France its population for many years did not 
exceed fifteen hundred. Under British rule, in 1773, the population had 
decreased to four hundred and fifty. As early as 1721, the Jesuits had 
established a college and a monastery in Kaskaskia. 

Fort Chartres was first built under the direction of the Mississippi 
Company, in 1718, by M. de Boisbraint, a military officer, under command 
of Bienville. It stood on the east bank of the Mississippi, about eighteen 
miles below Kaskaskia, and was for some time the headquarters of the 
military commandants of the district of Illinois. 

In the Centennial Oration of Dr. Fowler, delivered at Philadelphia, 
by appointment of Gov. Beveridge, we find some interesting facts with 
regard to the State of Illinois, which we appropriate in this history : 

In 1682 Illinois became a possession of the French crown, a depend- 
ency of Canada, and a part of Louisiana. In 1765 the English flag was 
run up on old Fort Chartres, and Illinois was counted among the treas- 
ures of Great Britain. 

In 1779 it was taken from the English by Col. George Rogers Clark. 
This man was resolute in nature, wise in council, prudent in policy, bold 
in action, and heroic in danger. Few men who have figured in the his- 
tory of America are more deserving than this colonel. Nothing short of 
first-class ability could have rescued Vincens and all Illinois from the 
English. And it is not possible to over-estimate the influence of this 
achievement upon the republic. In 1779 Illinois became a part of Vir- 
ginia. It was soon known as Illinois County. In 1784 Virginia ceded 
all this territory to the general government, to be cut into States, to be 
republican in form, with " the same right of sovereignty, freedom, and 
independence as the other States." 

In 1787 it was the object of the wisest and ablest legislation found 
in any merely human records. No man can study the secret history of 


and not feel that Providence was guiding with sleepless eye these unborn 
States. The ordinance that on July 13, 1787, finally became the incor- 
porating act, has a most marvelous history. Jefferson had vainly tried 
to secure a system of g'overnment for the northwestern territory. He 
was an emancipationist of that day, and favored the exclusion of slavery 
from the territory Virginia had ceded to the general government; but 
the South voted him down as often as it came up. In 1787, as late as 
July 10, an organizing act without the anti-slavery clause was pending. 
This concession to the South was expected to carry it. Congress was in 



session in New York Cit3^ On July 5, Rev. Dr. Manasseh Cutler, of 
Massachusetts, came into New York to lobby on the northwestern terri- 
tory. Everything seemed to fall into his hands. Events were ripe. 

The state of the public credit, the growing of Southern prejudice, 
the basis of his mission, his personal character, all combined to complete 
one of those sudden and marvelous revolutions of public sentiment that 
once in five or ten centuries are seen to sweep over a country like the 
breath of the Almighty. Cutler was a graduate of Yale — received his 
A.M. from Harvard, and his D.D. from Yale. He had studied and taken 
degrees in the three learned professions, medicine, law, and divinity. He 
had thus America's best indorsement. He had published a scientific 
examination of the plants of New England. His name stood second only 
to that of Franklin as a scientist in America. He was a courtly gentle- 
man of the old st3de, a man of commanding presence, and of inviting 
face. The Southern members said they had never seen such a gentleman 
in the North. He came representing a company that desired to purchase 
a tract of land now included in Ohio, for the purpose of planting a colony. 
It was a speculation. Government money was worth eighteen cents on 
the dollar. This Massachusetts company had collected enough to pur- 
chase 1,500,000^ acres of land. Other speculators in New York made 
Dr. Cutler their agent (lobbj'ist). On the 12th he represented a demand 
for 5,500,000 acres. This would reduce the national debt. Jefferson 
and Virginia were regarded as authority concerning the land Virginia 
had just ceded. Jefferson's policy wanted to provide for the public credit, 
and this was a good opportunity to do something. 

Massachusetts then owned the territory of Maine, which she was 
crowding on the market. She was opposed to opening the northwestern 
region. This fired the zeal of Virginia. The South caught the inspira- 
tion, and all exalted Dr. Cutler. The English minister invited him to 
dine with some of the Southern gentlemen. He was the center of interest. 

The entire South rallied round him. Massachusetts could not vote 
against him, because many of the constituents of her members were 
interested personally in the western speculation. Thus Cutler, making 
friends with the South, and, doubtless, using all the arts of the lobby, 
was enabled to command the situation. True to deeper convictions, he 
dictated one of the most compact and finished documents of wise states- 
manship that has ever adorned any human law book. He borrowed from 
Jefferson the term "Articles of Compact," which, preceding the federal 
constitution, rose into the most sacred character. He then followed very 
closely the constitution of Massachusetts, adopted three years before. 
Its most marked points were : 

1. The exclusion of slavery from the territory forever. 

2. Provision for public schools, giving one township for a seminary, 



and every section numbered 16 in each township ; that is, one-thirty-sixth 
of all the land, for public schools. 

3. A provision prohibiting the adoption of any consti'tution or the 
enactment of any law that should nullify pre-existing contracts. 

Be it forever remembered that this compact declared that " Religion, 
morality, and knowledge being necessary to good government and the 
happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall always 
be encouraged." 

Dr. Cutler planted himself on this platform and would not yield. 
Griving his unqualified declaration that it was that or nothing — that unless 
they could make the land desirable they did not want it — he took his 
horse and buggy, and started for the constitutional convention in Phila- 
delphia. On July 13, 1787, the bill was put upon its passage, and was 
unanimously adopted, every Southern member voting for it, and only one 
man, Mr. Yates, of New York, voting against it. But as the States voted 
as States, Yates lost his vote, and tJie compact was put beyond repeal. 

Thus the great States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wis- 
consin — a vast empire, the heart of the great valley — were consecrated 
to freedom, intelligence, and honesty. Thus the great heart of the nation 
was prepared for a year and a day and an hour. In the light of these eighty- 
nine years I afl&rm that this act was the salvation of the republic and the 
destruction of slavery. Soon the South saw their great blunder, and 
tried to repeal the compact. In 1803 Congress referred it to a committee 
of which John Randolph was chairman. He reported that this ordinance 
was a compact, and opposed repeal. Thus it stood a rock, in the way 
of the on-rushing sea of slavery. 

With all this timely aid it was, after all, a most desperate and pro- 
tracted struggle to keep the soil of Illinois sacred to freedom. It was 
the natural battle-field for the irrepressible conflict. In the southern end 
of the State slavery preceded the compact. It existed among the old 
French settlers, and was hard to eradicate. The southern part of the 
State was settled from the slave States, and this population brought their 
laws, customs, and institutions with them. A stream of population from 
the North poured into the northern part of the State. These sections 
misunderstood and hated each other perfectly. The Southerners regarded 
the Yankees as a skinning, tricky, penurious race of peddlers, filling the 
country with tinware, brass clocks, and wooden nutmegs. The North- 
erner thought of the Southerner as a lean, lank, lazy creature, burrowing 
in a hut, and rioting in whisky, dirt and ignorance. These causes aided 
in making the struggle long and bitter. So strong was the sympathy 
with slavery that, in spite of the ordinance of 1787, and in spite of the 
deed of cession, it was determined to allow the old French settlers to 
retain their slaves. Planters from the slave States mioht bring their 


slaves, if they would give them a chance to choose freedom or years 
of service and bondage for their children till they should become 
thirty years of age. If they chose freedom they must leave the State 
in sixtv days or be sold as fugitives. Servants were whipped for offenses 
for which white men are fined. Each lash paid forty cents of the fine. A 
neo-ro ten miles from home without a pass was whipped. These famous 
laws were imported from the slave States just as they imported laws foi 
the inspection of flax and wool when there was neither in the State. 

These Black Laws are now wiped out. A vigorous effort was made 
to protect slavery in the State Constitution of 1817. It barely failed. 
It was renewed in 1825, when ^ convention was asked to make a new 
constitution. After a hard fight the convention was defeated. Bat 
slaves did not disappear from the census of the State until 1850. There 
were mobs and murders in the interest of slavery. Lovejoy was added 
to the list of martyrs— a sort of first-fruits of that long life of immortal 
heroes who saw freedom as the one supreme desire of their souls, and 
were so enamored of her that they preferred to die rather than survive her. 
The population of 12,282 that occupied the territory in A.D. 1800, 
increased to 45,000 in A.D. 1818, when the State Constitution was 
adopted, and Illinois took her place in the Union, with a star on the flag 
and two votes in the Senate. 

Shadrach Bond was the first Governor, and in his first message he 
recommended the construction of the Illinois and Michigan Canal. 

The simple economy in those days is seen in the fact that the entire 
bill for stationery for the first Legislature was only il3.50. Yet this 
simple body actually enacted a very superior code. 

There was no money in the territory before the war of 1812. Deer 
skins and coon skins were the circulating medium. In 1821, the Legis- 
lature ordained a State Bank on the credit of the State. It issued notes 
in the likeness of bank bills. These notes were made a legal tender for 
every thing, and the bank was ordered to loan to the people flOO on per- 
sonal security, and more on mortgages. They actually passed a resolu- 
tion requesting the Secretary of the Treasury of the United States to 
receive these notes for land. The old French Lieutenant Governor, Col. 
Menard, put the resolution as follows: " Gentlemen of the Senate : It is 
moved and seconded dat de notes of dis hank be made land-office money. 
All in favor of dat motion say aye ; all against it say no. It is decided 
in de affirmative. Now, gentlemen, I bet you one hundred dollar he 
never be land-office money ! " Hard sense, like hard money, is always 

above par. 

This old Frenchman presents a fine figure up against the dark back- 
ground of most of his nation. They made no progress. They clung to 
their earliest and simplest implements. They never wore hats or cap? 


They pulled their blankets over their heads in the winter like the Indians, 
with whom they freely intermingled. 

Demagogism had an early development. One John Grammar (only 
in name), elected to the Territorial and State Legislatures of 1816 and 
1836, invented the policy of opposing every new thing, saying, " If it 
succeeds, no one will ask who voted against it. If it proves a failure, he 
could quote its record." In sharp contrast with Grammar was the char- 
acter of D. P. Cook, after whom the county containing Chicago was 
named. Such was his transparent integrity and remarkable ability that 
his will was almost the law of the State. In Congress, a young man, 
and from a poor State, he was made Chairman of the Ways and Means 
Committee. He was pre-eminent for standing by his committee, regard- 
less of consequences. It was his integrity that elected John Quincy 
Adams to the Presidency. There were four candidates in 1821, Jackson, 
Clay, Crawford, and John Quincy Adams. There being no choice by the 
people, the election was thrown into the House. It was so balanced that 
it turned on his vote, and that he cast for Adams, electing him ; then 
went home to face the wrath of the Jackson party in Illinois. It cost 
him all but character and greatness. It is a suggestive comment on the 
times, that there was no legal interest till 1830. It often reached 150 
per cent., usually 50 per cent. Then it was reduced to 12, and now to 
10 per cent. 


In area the State has 55,410 square miles of territory. It is about 
150 miles wide and 400 miles long, stretching in latitude from Maine to 
North Carolina. It embraces wide variety of climate. It is tempered 
on the north by the great inland, saltless, tideless sea, which keeps the 
thermometer from either extreme. Being a table land, from 600 to 1,600 
feet above the level of the sea, one is prepared to find on the health 
maps, prepared by the general government, an almost clean and perfect 
record. In freedom from fever and malarial diseases and consumptions, 
the three deadly enemies of the American' Saxon, Illinois, as a State, 
stands without a superior. She furnishes one of the essential conditions 
of a great people — sound bodies. I suspect that this fact lies back of 
that old Delaware word, Illini, superior men. 

The great battles of history that have been determinative of dynas- 
ties and destinies have been strategical battles, chiefly the question of 
position. Thermopylae has been the war-cry of freemen for twenty-four 
centuries. It only tells how much there may be in position. All this 
advantage belongs to Illinois. It is in the heart of the greatest valley in 
the world, the vast region between the mountains — a valley that could 



feed mankind for one thousand years. It is well on toward the center of 
the continent. It is in the great temperate belt, in which have been 
found nearly all the aggressive civilizations of history. It has sixty-five 
miles of frontage on the head of the lake. With the Mississippi forming 
the western and southern boundarv, with the Ohio running along the 
southeastern line, with the Illinois River and Canal dividing the State 
diagonally from the lake to the Lower Mississippi, and with the Rock and 
Wabash Rivers furnishing altogether 2,000 miles of water-front, con- 
necting with, and running through, in all about 12,000 miles of navi- 
gable water. 

But tliis is not all. These waters are made most available by the 
fact that the lake and the State lie on the ridge running into the great 
valley from the east. Within cannon-shot of the lake the water runs- 
away from the lake to the Gulf. The lake now empties at both ends, 
one into the Atlantic and one into the Gulf of Mexico. The lake thus- 
seems to hang over the land. This makes the dockage most serviceable ;. 
there are no steep banks to damage it. Both lake and river are made- 
for use. 

The climate varies from Portland to Richmond ; it favors every pro- 
duct of the continent, including the tropics, with less than half a dozen 
exceptions. It produces every great nutriment of the world except ban- 
anas and rice. It is hardly too much to say that it is the most productive 
spot known to civilization. With the soil full of bread and the earth full 
of minerals ; with an upper surface of food and an under layer of fuel j 
with perfect natural drainage, and abundant springs and streams ancE 
navigable rivers ; half way between the forests of the North and the fruits 
of the South ; within a day's ride of the great deposits of iron, coal, cop- 
per, lead, and zinc ; containing and controlling the great grain, cattle^ 
pork, and lumber markets of the world, it is not strange that Illinois has 
the advantage of position. 

This advantage has been supplemented by the character of the popu- 
lation. Jn the early days when Illinois was first admitted to the Union^ 
her population were cliiefly from Kentucky and Virginia. But, in th& 
conflict of ideas concerning slavery, a strong tide of emigration came in. 
from the East, and soon changed this composition. In 1870 her non- 
native population were from colder soils. New York furnished 133,290 ;, 
Ohio gave 162,623; Pennsylvania sent on 98,352; the entire South gave- 
us only 206,734. In all her cities, and in all her German and Scandina- 
vian and other foreign colonies, Illinois has only about one-fifth of her 
people of foreign birth. 



One of the greatest elements in the early development of Illinois is 
the Illinois and Michigan Canal, connecting the Illinois and Mississippi 
Rivers with the lakes. It was of the utmost importance to the State. 
It was recommended by Gov. Bond, the first governor, in his first message. 
In 1821, the Legislature appropriated $10,000 for surveying the route. 
Two bright young engineers surveyed it, and estimated the cost at 
1600,000 or $700,000. It finally cost 18,000,000. In 1825, a law was 
passed to incorporate the Canal Company, but no stock was sold. In 
1826, upon the solicitation of Cook, Congress gave 800,000 acres of land 
on the line of the work. In 1828, another law — commissioners appointed, 
and work commenced with new survey and new estimates. In 1834-35, 
George Farquhar made an able report on the whole matter. This was, 
doubtless, the ablest report ever made to a western legislature, and it 
became the model for subsequent reports and action. From this the 
work went on till it was finished in 1848. It cost the State a laro^e 
amount of money ; but it gave to the industries of the State an impetus 
that pushed it up into the first rank of greatness. It was not built as a 
speculation any more than a doctor is employed on a speculation. But 
it has paid into the Treasary of the State an average annual net sum of 
over $111,000. 

Pending the construction of the canal, the land and town-lot fever 
broke out in the State, in 1834-35. It took on the malignant type in 
Chicago, lifting the town up into a city. The disease spread over the 
entire State and adjoining States. It was epidemic. It cut up men's 
farms without regard to locality, aiid Jut up the purses of the purchasers 
without regard to consequences. It is estimated that building lots enough 
were sold in Indiana alone to accommodate every citizen then in the 
United States. 

Towns and cities were exported to uhe Eastern market by the ship- 
load. There was no lack of buyers. Ever/ up-ship came freighted with 
speculators and their money. 

This distemper seized upon the Legislature in 1836-37, and left not 
one to tell the tale. They enacted a system of internal improvement 
without a parallel in the grandeur of its conception. They ordered the 
construction of 1,300 miles of railroad, crossing the State in all direc- 
tions. This was surpassed by the river and canal improvements. 
There were a few counties not touched by either railroad or river or 
canal, and those were to be comforted and compensated by the free dis- 
tribution of $200,000 among them. To inflate this balloon beyond cre- 
dence it was ordered that work should be commenced on both ejids of 


each of these raih-oads and rivers, and at each river-crossing, all at the 
same time. The appropriations for these vast improvements were over 
112,000,000, and commissioners were appointed to borrow the money on 
the credit of the State. Remember that all this was in the early days of 
railroading, when railroads were luxuries ; that the State had whole 
counties with scarcely a cabin ; and that the population of the State was 
less than 400,000, and you can form some idea of the vigor with which 
these brave men undertook the work of making a great State. In the 
light of history I am compelled to say that this was only a premature 
throb of the power that actually slumbered in the soil of the State. It 
was Hercules in the cradle. 

At this juncture the State Bank loaned its funds largely to Godfrey 
Oilman & Co., and to other leading houses, for the purpose of drawing 
trade from St. Louis to Alton. Soon they failed, and took down the 
bank with them. 

In 1840, all hope seemed gone. A population of 480,000 were loaded 
with a debt of $14,000,000. It had only six small cities, really only 
towns, namely : Chicago, Alton, Springfield, Quincy, Galena, Nauvoo. 
This debt was to be cared for when there was not a dollar in the treas- 
ury, and when the State had borrowed itself out of all credit, and when 
there was not good money enough in the hands of all the people to pay 
the interest of the debt for a single year. Yet, in the presence of all 
these difficulties, the young State steadily refused to repudiate. Gov. 
Ford took hold of the problem and solved it, bringing the State through 
in triumph. 

Having touched lightly upon some of the more distinctive points in 
the history of the development of Illinois, let us next briefly consider the 


It is a garden four hundred miles long and one hundred and fifty 
miles wide. Its soil is chiefly a black sandy loam, from six inches to 
sixty feet thick. On the American bottoms it has been cultivated for 
one hundred and fifty years without renewal. About the old French 
towns it has yielded corn for a century and a half without rest or help. 
It produces nearly everything green in the temperate and tropical zones. 
She leads all other States in the number of acres actually under plow. 
Her products from 25,000,000 of acres are incalculable. Her mineral 
wealth is scarcely second to her agricultural power. She has coal, iron, 
lead, copper, zinc, many varieties of building stone, fire clay, cunia clay, 
common brick clay, sand of all kinds, gravel, mineral paint — every thing 
needed for a hi^h civilization. Left to herself, she has the elements of 
all greatness. The single item of coal is too vast for an appreciative 



handling in figures. We can handle it in general terms like algebraical 
signs, but long before we get up into the millions and billions the human 
mind drops down from comprehension to mere symbolic apprehension. 

When I tell you that nearly four-fifths of the entire State is under- 
laid with a deposit of coal more than forty feet thick on the average (now 
estimated, by recent surveys, at seventy feet thick), you can get some 
idea of its amount, as you do of the amount of the national debt. There 
it is ! 41,000 square miles — one vast mine into which you could put 
any of the States ; in which you could bury scores of European and 
ancient empires, and have room enough all round to work without know- 
ing that they had been sepulchered there. 

Put this vast coal-bed down by the other great coal deposits of the 
world, and its importance becomes manifest. Great Britain has 12,000 
square miles of coal; Spain, 3,000; France, 1,719; Belgium, 578; Illinois 
about twice as many square miles as all combined. Virginia has 20,000 
square miles ; Pennsylvania, 16,000 ; Ohio, 12,000. Illinois has 41,000 
square miles. One-seventh of all the known coal on this continent is in 

Could we sell the coal in this single State for one-seventh of one cent 
a ton it would pay the national debt. Converted into power, even with 
the wastage in our common engines, it would do more work than could 
be done by the entire race, beginning at Adam's wedding and working 
ten hours a day through all the centuries till the present time, and right 
on into the future at the same rate for the next 600,000 years. 

Great Britain uses enough mechanical power to-day to give to each 
man, woman, and child in the kingdom the help and service of nineteen 
untiring servants. No wonder she has leisure and luxuries. No wonder 
the home of the common artisan has in it more luxuries than could be 
found in the palace of good old King Arthur. Think, if you can conceive 
of it, of the vast army of servants that slumber in the soil of Illinois, 
impatiently awaiting the call of Genius to come forth to minister to our 

At the present rate of consumption England's coal supply will be 
exhausted in 250 years. When this is gone she must transfer her dominion 
either to the Indies, or to British America, which I would not resist ; or 
to some other people, which I would regret as a loss to civilization. 


At the same rate of consumption (which far exceeds our own) the 
deposit of coal in Illinois will last 120,000 years. And her kingdom shall 
be an everlasting kingdom. 

Let us turn now from this reserve power to the annual products of 


the State. We shall not be humiliated in this field. Here we strike the 
secret of our national credit. Nature provides a market in the constant 
appetite of the race. Men must eat, and if we can furnish the provisions 
we can command the treasure. All that a man hath will he give for his 

According to the last census Illinois produced 30,000,000 of bushels 
of wheat. That is more wheat than was raised by any other State in the 
Union. She raised In 1875, 130,000,000 of bushels of corn — twice as 
much as any other State, and one-sixth of all the corn raised in the United 
States. She harvested 2,747,000 tons of hay, nearl}^ one-tenth of all the 
hay in the Republic. It is not generally ajjpreciated, but it is true, that 
the hay crop of the country is worth more than the cotton crop. The 
hay of Illinois equals the cotton of Louisiana. Go to Charleston, S. C, 
and see them peddling handfuls of hay or grass, almost as a curiosity, 
as we regard Chinese gods or the cryolite of Greenland ; drink your 
coffee and condensed milk ; and walk back from the coast for many a 
league through the sand and burs till you get up into the better atmos- 
phere of the mountains, without seeing a waving meadow or a grazing 
herd ; then you will begin to appreciate the meadows of the Prairie State, 
where the grass often grows sixteen feet high. 

The value of her farm implements is $211,000,000, and the value of 
her live stock is only second to the great State of New York. in 1875 
she had 25,000,000 hogs, and packed 2,113,845, about one-half of ail that 
were packed in the United States. This is no insignificant item. Pork 
is a growing demand of the old world. Since the laborers of Europe 
have gotten a taste of our bacon, and we have learned how to pack it dry 
in boxes, like diy goods, the world has become the market. 

The hosr is on the march into the future. His nose is ordained to 
uncover the secrets of dominion, and his feet shall be guided by the star 
of empire. 

Illinois marketed $57,000,000 worth of slaughtered animals — more 
than any other State, and a seventh of all the States. 

Be patient with me, and pardon my pride, and I will give you a list 
of some of the things in which Illinois excels all other States. 

Depth and richness of soil ; per cent, of good ground ; acres of 
improved land ; large farms — some farms contain from 40,000 to 60,000 
acres of cultivated land, 40,000 acres of corn on a single farm ; number of 
farmers ; amount of wheat, corn, oats and honey produced ; value of ani- 
mals for slaughter; number of hogs; amount of pork; number of horses 
— three times as many as Kentucky, the horse State. 

Illinois excels all other States in miles of railroads and in miles of 
postal service, and in money orders sold per annum, and in the amount of 
lumber sold in her markets. 


Illinois is only second in many important matters. This sample list 
comprises a few of the more important : Permanent school fund (good 
for a 3'oung" state) ; total income for educational purposes ; number of pub- 
lishers of books, maps, papers, etc.; value of farm products and imple- 
ments, and of live stock ; in tons of coal mined. 

The shipping of Illinois is only second to New York. Out of one 
port during the business hours of the season of navigation she sends forth 
a vessel every ten minutes. This does not include canal boats, which go 
one every five minutes. No wonder she is only second in number of 
bankers and brokers or in physicians and surgeons. 

She is third in colleges, teachers and schools ; cattle, lead, hay^ 
flax, sorghum and beeswax. 

She is fourth in population, >n children enrolled in public schools, in 
law schools, in butter, potatoes and carriages. 

She is fifth in value of real and personal property, in theological 
seminaries and colleges exclusively for women, in milk sold, and in boots, 
and shoes manufactured, and in book-binding. 

She is only seventh in the production of wood, while she is the 
twelfth in area. Surely that is well done for the Prairie State. She now 
has much more wood and growing timber than she had thirty years ago. 

A few leading industries will justify emphasis. She manufactures- 
$205,000,000 worth of goods, which places her well up toward New York 
and Pennsylvania. The number of her manufacturing establishments 
increased from 1860 to 1870, 300 per cent.; capital employed increased 350^ 
per cent., and the amount of product increased 400 per cent. She issued 
5,500,000 copies of commercial and financial newspapers — only second to 
New York. She has 6,759 miles of railroad, thus leading all other States, 
worth $636,458,000, using 3,245 engines, and 67,712 cars, making a train 
long enough to cover one-tenth of the entire roads of the State. Her 
stations are only five miles apart. She carried last year 15,795,000 passen- 
gers, an average of 36^ miles, or equal to taking her entire population twice- 
across the State. More than two-thirds of her land is within five miles of 
a railroad, and less than two per cent, is more than fifteen miles away. 

The State has a large financial interest in the Illinois Central railroad.. 
The road was incorporated in 1850, and the State gave each alternate sec- 
tion for six miles on each side, and doubled the price of the remaining- 
land, so keeping herself good. The road received 2,595,000 acres of land, 
and pays to the State one-seventh of the gross receipts. The State 
receives this year $350,000, and has received in all about $7,000,000. It 
is practically the people's road, and it has a most able and gentlemanly 
management. Add to this the annual receipts from the canal, $111, 000* 
and a large per cent, of the State tax is provided for. 



of the State keep step with her productions and growth. She was born 
of the missionary spirit. It was a minister who secured for her the ordi- 
nance of 1787, by which she has been saved from slavery, ignorance, and 
dishonesty. Rev. Mr. Wiley, pastor of a Scotch congregation in Randolph 
County, petitioned the Constitutional Convention of 1818 to recognize 
Jesus Christ as king, and the Scriptures as the only necessary guide and 
book of law. The convention did not act in the case, and the old Cove- 
nanters refused to accept citizenship. They never voted until 1824, when 
the slavery question was submitted to the people; then they all voted 
against it and cast the determining votes. Conscience has predominated 
whenever a great moral question has been submitted to the people. 

But little mob violence has ever been felt in the State. In 1817 
regulators disposed of a band of horse-thieves that infested the territory. 
The Mormon indignities finallj^ awoke the same spirit. Alton was also 
the scene of a pro-slavery mob, in which Lovejoy was added to the list of 
martyrs. The moral sense of the people makes the law supreme, and gives 
to the State unrufiSed peace. 

With $22,300,000 in church property, and 4,298 church organizations, 
the State has that divine police, the sleepless patrol of moral ideas, that 
alone is able to secure perfect safety. Conscience takes the knife from 
the assassin's hand and the bludgeon from the grasp of the highwa3^man. 
We sleep in safety, not because we are behind bolts and bars — these only 
fence against the innocent ; not because a lone officer drowses on a distant 
corner of a street; not because a sheriff may call his posse from a remote 
part of the county ; but because conscience guards the very portals of the 
iiir and stirs in the deepest recesses of the public mind. This spirit issues 
within the State 9,500,000 copies of religious papers annually, and receives 
still more from without. Thus the crime of the State is only one-fourth 
that of New York and one-half that of Pennsylvania. 

Illinois never had but one duel between her own citizens. In Belle- 
ville, in 1820, Alphonso Stewart and William Bennett arranged to vindi- 
cate injured honor. The seconds agreed to make it a sham, and make 
them shoot blanks. Stewart was in the secret. Bennett mistrusted some- 
thing, and, unobserved, slipped a bullet into his gun and killed Stewart. 
He then fled the State. After two years he was caught, tried, convicted, 
and, in spite of friends and political aid, was hiing. This fixed the code 
of honor on a Christian basis, and terminated its use in Illinois. 

The early preachers were ignorant men, who were accounted eloquent 
according to the strength of their voices. But they set the style for all 
public speakers. Lawyers and political speakers followed this rule. Gov. 


Ford says: "Nevertheless, these first preachers were of incalculable 
benefit to the country. They inculcated justice and morality. To them 
are we indebted for the first Christian character of the Protestant portion 
of the people." 

In education Illinois surpasses her material resources. The ordinance 
of 1787 consecrated one thirty-sixth of her soil to common schools, and 
the law of 1818, the first law that went upon her statutes, gave three per 
cent, of all the rest to 


The old compact secures this interest forever, and by its yoking 
morality and intelligence it precludes the legal interference with the Bible 
in the public schools. With such a start it is natural that we should have 
11,050 schools, and that our illiteracy should be less than New York or 
Pennsylvania, and only about one-half of Massachusetts. We are not to 
blame for not having more than one-half as many idiots as the great 
States. These public schools soon made colleges inevitable. The first 
college, still flourishing, was started in Lebanon in 1 828, by the M. E.. 
church, and named after Bishop McKendree. Illinois College, at Jackson- 
ville, supported by the Presbyterians, followed in 1830. In 1832 the Bap- 
tists built Shurtleff College, at Alton. Then the Presbyterians built Knox 
College, at Galesburg, in 1838, and the Episcopalians built Jubilee College, 
at Peoria, in 1847. After these early years colleges have rained down. 
A settler could hardly encamp on the prairie but a college would spring 
up by his wagon. The State now has one very well endowed and equipped 
university, namely, the Northwestern University, at Evanston, with six 
colleges, ninety instructors, over 1,000 students, and #1,500,000 endow- 

Rev. J. M. Peck was the first educated Protestant minister m tne 
State. He settled at Rock Spring, in St. Clair County, 1820, and left his 
impress on the State. Before 1837 only party papers were published, but 
Mr. Peck published a Gazetteer of Illinois. Soon after John Russell, of 
Bluffdale, published essays and tales showing genius. Judge James Hall 
published The Illinois Monthly Magazine with great ability, and an annual 
called The Western Souvenir^ which gave him an enviable fame all over the 
United States. From these beginnings Illinois has gone on till she has 
more volumes in public libaaries even than Massachusetts, and of the 
44,500,000 volumes in all the public libraries of the United States, she 
has one-thirteenth. In newspapers she stands fourth. Her increase is 
marvelous. In 1850 she issued 5,000,000 copies ; in 1860, 27,590,000 ; in 
1870, 113,140,000. In 1860 she had eighteen colleges and seminaries ; in 
1870 she had eighty. That is a grand advance for the war decade. 

This brings us to a record unsurpassed in the history of any age, 



I hardly know where to begin, or how to advance, or what to say. I 
can at best give you only a broken synopsis of her deeds, and you must 
put them in the order of glory for yourself. Her sons have always been 
foremost on fields of danger. In 1832-33, at the call of Gov. Reynolds, 
her sons drove Blackhawk over the Mississippi. 

When the Mexican war came, in May, 1846, 8,370 men offered them- 
selves when only 3,720 could be accepted. The fields of Buena Vista and 
Vera Cruz, and the storming of Cerro Gordo, will carry the glory of Illinois 
soldiers along after the infamy of the cause they served has been forgotten. 
But it was reserved till our day for her sons to find a field and cause and 
foemen that could fitly illustrate their spirit and heroism. Illinois put 
into her own regiments for the United States government 256,000 men, 
and into the army through other States enough to swell the number to 
290,000. This far exceeds all the soldiers of the federal government in 
all the war of the revolution. Her total years of service were over 600,000. 
She enrolled men from eighteen to forty-five 3^ears of age when the law 
of Congress in 1864 — the test time — only asked for those from twenty to 
forty-five. Her enrollment was otherwise excessive. Her people wanted 
to go, and did not take the pains to correct the enrollment. Thus the 
basis of fixing the quota was too great, and then the quota itself, at least 
in the trying time, was far above any other State. 

Thus the demand on some counties, as Monroe, for example, took every 
able-bodied man in the county, and then did not have enough to fill the 
quota. Moreover, Illinois sent 20,814 men for ninety or one hundred days, 
for whom no credit was asked. When Mr. Lincoln's attention was called 
to the inequality of the quota compared with other States, he replied, 
" The country needs the sacrifice. We must put the whip on the free 
horse." In spite of all these disadvantages Illinois gave to the country 
73,000 years of service above all calls. With one-thirteenth of the popu- 
lation of the loyal States, she sent regularly one-tenth of all the soldiers, 
and in the peril of the closing calls, when patriots were few and weary, 
she then sent one-eighth of all that were called for by her loved and hon- 
ored son in the white house. Her mothers and daughters went into the 
fields to raise the grain and keep the children together, w^hile the fathers 
and older sons went to the harvest fields of the world. I knew a father 
and four sons who agreed that one of them must stay at home ; and they 
pulled straws from a stack to see who might go. The father was left. 
The next day he came into the camp, saying : " Mother says she can get 
the crops in, and I am going, too." I know large Methodist churches 
from which every male member went to the army. Do you want to know 


what these heroes from Illinois did in the field ? Ask any soldier with a 
good record of his own, who is thus able to judge, and he will tell you 
that the Illinois men went in to win. It is common history that the greater 
victories were won in the West. When everything else looked dark Illi- 
nois was gaining victories all down the river, and dividing the confederacy. 
Sherman took with him on his great march forty-five regiments of Illinois 
infantry, three companies of artillery, and one company of cavalry. He 
could not avoid 


If he had been killed, I doubt not the men would have gone right on. 
Lincoln answered all rumors of Sherman's defeat with, " It is impossible ; 
there is a mighty sight of fight in 100,000 Western men." Illinois soldiers 
brought home 300 battle-flags. The first United States flag that floated 
over Richmond was an Illinois flag. She sent messengers and nurses to 
every field and hospital, to care for her sick and wounded sons. She said, 
*' These suffering ones are my sons, and I will care for them." 

When individuals had given all, then cities and towns came forward 
with their credit to the extent of many millions, to aid these men and 
their families. 

Illinois gave the country the great general of the war — Ulysses S. 
Grant — since honored with two terms of the Presidency of the United 

One other name from Illinois comes up in all minds, embalmed in all 
hearts, that must have the supreme place in this story of our glory and 
of our nation's honor ; that name is Abraham Lincoln, of Illinois. 

The analysis of Mr. Lincoln's character is difflcult on account of its 

In this age we look with admiration at his uncompromising honesty. 
And well we may, for this saved us. Thousands throughout the length 
and breadth of our country who knew him only as " Honest Old Abe," 
vote'd for him on that account ; and wisely did they choose, for no other 
man could have carried us through the fearful night of the war. When 
his plans were too vast for our comprehension, and his faith in the cause 
too sublime for our participation ; when it was all night about us, and all 
dread before us, and all sad and desolate behind us ; when not one ray 
shone upon our cause ; when traitors were haughty and exultant at the 
South, and fierce and blasphemous at the North ; when the loyal men here 
seemed almost in the minority ; when the stoutest heart quailed, the bravest 
cheek paled ; when generals were defeating each other for place, and 
contractors were leeching out the very heart's blood of the prostrate 
republic : when every thing else had failed us, we looked at this calm, 
patient man standing like a rock in the storm, and said : " Mr. Lincoln 


is honest, and we can trust him still." Holding to this single point with 
the energy of faith and despair we held together, and, under God, he 
brought us through to victory. 

His practical wisdom made him the wonder of all lands. With such 
certainty did Mr. Lincoln follow causes to their ultimate effects, that his 
foresight of contingencies seemed almost prophetic. 

He is radiant with all the great virtues, and his memory shall shed a 
glory upon this age that shall fill the eyes of men as they look into his- 
tory. Other men have excelled him in some point, but, taken at all 
points, all in all, he stands head and shoulders above every other man of 
6,000 years. An administrator, he saved the nation in the perils of 
unparalleled civil war. A statesman, he justified his measures by their 
success. A philanthropist, he gave liberty to one race and salvation to 
another. A moralist, he bowed from the summit of human power to the 
foot of the Cross, and became a Christian. A mediator, he exercised mercy 
under the most absolute abeyance to law. A leader, he was no partisan. 
A commander, he was untainted with blood. A ruler in desperate times, 
he was unsullied with crime. A man, he has left no word of passion, no 
thought of malice, no trick of craft, no act of jealousy, no purpose of 
selfish ambition. Thus perfected, without a model, and without a peer, 
he was dropped into these troubled years to adorn and embellish all that 
is good and all that is great in our humanity, and to present to all coming 
time the representative of the divine idea of free government. 

It is not too much to say that away down in the future, when the 
republic has fallen from its niche in the wall of time ; when the great 
war itself shall have faded out in the distance like a mist on the horizon ; 
when the Anglo-Saxon language shall be spoken only by the tongue of 
the stranger ; then the generations looking this way shall see the great 
president as the supreme figure in this vortex of historv 


It is impossible in our brief space to give more than a meager sketch 
of such a city as Chicago, which is in itself the greatest marvel of the 
Prairie State. This mysterious, majestic, miglity city, born first of water, 
and next of fire; sown in weakness, and raised in power ; planted among 
the willows of the marsh, and crowned with the glory of the mountains ; 
sleeping on the bosom of the prairie, and rocked on the bosom of the sea , 
the youngest city of the world, and still the eye of the prairie, as Damas- 
cus, the oldest city of the world, is the eye of the desert. AVith a com- 
merce far exceeding that of Corinth on her isthmus, in the highway to 
the East ; with the defenses of a continent piled around her by the tliou- 
sand miles, making her far safer than Rome on the banks of the Tiber ; 







with schools eclipsing Alexandria and Athens ; with liberties more con- 
spicuous than those of the old republics ; with a heroism equal to the first 
Carthage, and with a sanctity scarcely second to that of Jerusalem — set 
your thoughts on all this, lifted into the eyes of all men by the miracle of 
its growth, illuminated by the flame of its fall, and transfigured by the 
divinity of its resurrection, and you will feel, as I do, the utter impossi- 
bility of compassing this subject as it deserves. Some impression of her 
importance is received from the shock her burning gave to the civilized 

When the doubt of her calamity was removed, and the horrid fact 
was accepted, there went a shudder over all cities, and a quiver over all 
lands. There was scarcely a town in the civilized world that did not 
shake on the brink of this opening chasm. The flames of our homes red- 
dened all skies. The city was set upon a hill, and could not be hid. All 
eyes were turned upon it. To have struggled and suffered amid the 
scenes of its fall is as distinguishing as to have fought at Thermopylse, or 
Salamis, or Hastings, or Waterloo, or Bunker Hill. 

Its calamity amazed the world, because it was felt to be the common 
property of mankind. 

The early history of the city is full of interest, just as the early his- 
tory of such a man as Washington or Lincoln becomes public property, 
and is cherished by every patriot. 

Starting with 560 acres in 1833, it embraced and occupied 23,000 
acres in 1869, and, having now a population of more than 500,000, it com- 
mands general attention. 

The first settler — Jean Baptiste Pointe au Sable, a mulatto from the 
West Indies — came and began trade with the Indians in 1796. John 
Kinzie became his successor in 1804, in which year Fort Dearborn was 

A mere trading-post was kept here from that time till about the time 
of the Blackhawk war, in 1832. It was not the city. It was merely a 
cock crowing at midnight. The morning was not yet. In 1833 the set- 
tlement about the fort was incorporated as a town. The voters were 
divided on the propriety of such corporation, twelve voting for it and one 
against it. Four years later it was incorporated as a city, and embraced 
660 acres. 

The produce handled in this city is an indication of its power. Grain 
and flour were imported from the East till as late as 1837. The first 
exportation by way of experiment was in 1839. Exports exceeded imports 
first in 1842. The Board of Trade was organized in 1848, but it was so 
weak that it needed nursing till 1855. Grain was purchased by the 
* wagon-load in the street. 

I remember sitting with my father on a load of wheat, in the long 


line of wagons along Lake street, while the buyers came and untied the 
bags, and examined the grain, and made their bids. That manner of 
business had to cease with the day of small things. Now our elevators 
will hold 15,000,000 bushels of grain. The cash value of the produce 
handled in a year is $215,000,000, and the produce weighs 7,000,000 
tons or 700,000 car loads. This handles thirteen and a half ton each 
minute, all the year round. One tenth of all the wheat in the United 
States is handled in Chicago. Even as long ago as 1853 the receipts of 
grain in Chicago exceeded those of the goodly city of St. Louis, and in 
1854 the exports of grain from Chicago exceeded those of New York and 
doubled those of St. Petersburg, Archangel, or Odessa, the largest grain 
markets in Europe. 

The manufacturing interests of the city are not contemptible. In 
1873 manufactories employed 45,000 operatives ; in 1876, 60,000. The 
manufactured product in 1875 was worth $177,000,000. 

No estimate of the size and power of Chicago would be adequate 
that did not put large emphasis on the railroads. Before they came 
thundering along our streets canals were the hope of our country. But 
who ever thinks now of traveling by canal packets ? In June, 1852, 
there were only forty miles of railroad connected with the city. The 
old Galena division of the Northwestern ran out to Elgin. But now, 
who can count the trains and measure the roads that seek a terminus or 
connection in this city ? The lake stretches away to the north, gathering 
in to this center all the harvests that might otherwise pass to the north 
of us. If you will take a map and look at the adjustment of railroads, 
you will see, first, that Chicago is the great railroad center of the world, 
as New York is the commercial city of this continent ; and, second, that 
the railroad lines form the iron spokes of a great wheel whose hub is 
this city. The lake furnishes the only break in the spokes, and this 
seems simply to have pushed a few spokes together on each shore. See 
the eighteen trunk lines, exclusive of eastern connections. 

Pass round the circle, and view their numbers and extent. There 
is the great Northwestern, with all its branches, one branch creeping 
along the lake shore, and so reaching to the north, into the Lake Superior 
regions, away to the right, and on to the Northern Pacific on the left, 
swinging around Green Bay for iron and copper and silver, twelve months 
in the year, and reaching out for the wealth of the great agricultural 
belt and isothermal line traversed by the Northern Pacific. Another 
branch, not so far north, feeling for the heart of the Badger State. 
Another pushing lower down tlie Mississippi — all these make many con- 
nections, and tapping all the vast wheat regions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, 
Iowa, and all the regions this side of sunset. There is that elegant road, 
the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, running out a goodly number of 







branches, and reaping the great fields this side of the Missouri River. 
I can only mention the Chicago, Alton & St. Louis, our Illinois Central, 
described elsewhere, and the Chicago & Rock Island. Further around 
we come to the lines connecting us with all the eastern cities. The 
Chicago, Indianapolis &, St. Louis, the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & 
Chicago, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, and the Michigan Cen- 
tral and Great Western, give us many highways to the seaboard. Thus we 
reach the Mississippi at five points, from St. Paul to Cairo and the Gulf 
itself by two routes. We also reach Cincinnati and Baltimore, and Pitts- 
burgh and Philadelphia, and New York. North and south run the water 
courses of the lakes and the rivers, broken just enough at this point to 
make a pass. Through this, from east to west, run the long lines that 
stretch from ocean to ocean. 

This is the neck of the glass, and the golden sands of commerce 
must pass into our hands. Altogether we have more than 10,000 miles 
of railroad, directly tributary to this city, seeking to unload their wealth 
in our coffers. All these roads have come themselves by the infallible 
instinct of capital. Not a dollar was ever given by the city to secure 
one of them, and only a small per cent, of stock taken originally by her 
citizens, and that taken simply as an investment. Coming in the natural 
order of events, they will not be easily diverted. 

There is still another showing to all this. The connection between 
New York and San Francisco is by the middle route. This passes inevit- 
ably through Chicago. St. Louis wants the Southern Pacific or Kansas 
Pacific, and pushes it out through Denver, and so on up to Cheyenne. 
But before the road is fairly under way, the Chicago roads shove out to 
Kansas City, making even the Kansas Pacific a feeder, and actually leav- 
ing St. Louis out in the cold. It is not too much to expect that Dakota, 
Montana, and Washington Territory will find their great market in Chi- 

But these are not all. Perhaps I had better notice here the ten or 
fifteen new roads that have just entered, or are just entering, our city. 
Their names are all that is necessary to give. Chicago & St. Paul, look- 
ing up the Red River country to the British possessions ; the Chicago, 
Atlantic & Pacific ; the Chicago, Decatur & State Line ; the Baltimore & 
Ohio; the Chicago, Danville & Vincennes; the Chicago & LaSalle Rail- 
road ; the Chicago, Pittsburgh & Cincinnati ; the Chicago and Canada 
Southern ; the Chicago and Illinois River Railroad. These, with their 
connections, and with the new connections of the old roads, already in 
process of erection, give to Chicago not less than 10,000 miles of new 
tributaries from the richest land on the continent. Thus there will be 
added to the reserve power, to the capital within reach of this city, not 
less than $1,000,000,000. 


Add to all this transporting power the ships that sail one every nine 
minutes of the business hours of the season of navigation ; add, also, the 
canal boats that leave one every five minutes during the same time — and 
you will see something of the business of the city. 


has been leaping along to keep pace with the growth of the country 
around us. In 1852, our commerce reached the hopeful sum of 
820,000,000. In 1870 it reached 1400,000,000. In 1871 it was pushed 
up above $450,000,000. And in 1875 it touched nearly double that. 

One-half of our imported goods come directly to Chicago. Grain 
enough is exported directly from our docks to the old world to employ a 
semi-weekly line of steamers of 3,000 tons capacity. This branch is 
not likely to be greatly developed. Even after the great Welland Canal 
is completed we shall have only fourteen feet of water. The great ocean 
vessels will continue to control the trade. 

The banking capital of Chicago is 824,431,000. Total exchange in 
1875, $659,000,000. Her wholesale business in 1875 was $294,000,000. 
The rate of taxes is less than in any other great city. 

The schools of Chicago are unsurpassed in. America. Out of a popu- 
lation of 300,000 there were only 186 persons between the ages of six 
and twenty-one unable to read. This is the best known record. 

In 1831 the mail system was condensed into a half-breed, who went 
on foot to Niles, Mich., once in two weeks, and brought back what papers 
and news he could find. As late as 1840 there was often only one mail^ 
a week. A post-office was established in Chicago in 1833, and the post- 
master nailed up old boot-legs on one side of his shop to serve as boxes j 
for the nabobs and literary men. 

It is an interesting fact in the growth of the young city that in the 
active life of the business men of that day the mail matter has grown to 
a daily average of over 6,500 pounds. It speaks equally well for the 
intelligence of the people and the commercial importance of the place, ; 
that the mail matter distributed to the territory immediately tributary toi 
Chicago is seven times greater than that distributed to the territory 
immediately tributary to St. Louis. 

The improvements that have characterized the cit}^ are as startling, 
as the city itself. In 1831, Mark Beaubien established a ferry over the 
river, and put himself under bonds to carry all the citizens free for the 
privilege of charging strangers. Now there are twenty-four large bridges j 
and two tunnels. 

In 1833 the government expended $30,000 on the harbor. Then 
commenced that series of manoeuvers with the river that has made it one 


of the world's curiosities. It used to wind around in the lower end of 
the town, and make its way rippling over the sand into the lake at the 
foot of Madison street. They took it up and put it down where it now 
is. It was a narrow stream, so narrow that even moderately small crafts 
had to go up through the willows and cat's tails to the point near Lake 
street bridge, and back up one of the branches to get room enough in 
which to turn around. 

In 1844 the quagmires in the streets were first pontooned by plank 
roads, which acted in wet weather as public squirt-guns. Keeping you 
out of the mud, they compromised by squirting the mud over you. The 
wooden-block pavements came to Chicago in 1857. In 1840 water was 
delivered by peddlers in carts or by hand. Then a twenty -five horse- 
power engine pushed it through hollow or bored logs along the streets 
till 1854, when it was introduced into the houses by new works. The 
first fire-engine was used in 1835, and the first steam fire-engine in 1859. 
Gas was utilized for lighting the city in 1850. The Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association was organized in 1858, and horse railroads carried them 
to their work in 1859. The museum was opened in 1863. The alarm 
telegraph adopted in 1864. The opera-house built in 1865. The city 
grew from 560 acres in 1833 to 23,000 in 1869. In 1834, the taxes 
amounted to $48.90, and the trustees of the town borrowed $60 more for 
opening and improving streets. In 1835, the legislature authorized a loan 
of $2,000, and the treasurer and street commissioners resigned rather than 
plunge the town into such a gulf. 

Now the city embraces 36 square miles of territory, and has 30 miles 
of water front, besides the outside harbor of refuge, of 400 acres, inclosed 
by a crib sea-wall. One-third of the city lias been raised up an average 
of eight feet, giving good pitch to the 263 miles of sewerage. The water 
of the city is above all competition. It is received through two tunnels 
extending to a crib in the lake two miles from shore. The closest analy- 
sis fails to detect any impurities, and, received 35 feet below the surface, 
it is always clear and cold. The first tunnel is five feet two inches in 
diameter and two miles long, and can deliver 50,000,000 of gallons per 
day. The second tunnel is seven feet in diameter and six miles long, 
running four miles under the city, and can deliver 100,000,000 of gal- 
lons per day. This water is distributed through 410 miles of water- 

The three grand engineering exploits of the city are : First, lifting 
the city up on jack-screws, whole squares at a time, without interrupting 
the business, thus giving us good drainage ; second, running the tunnels 
under the lake, giving us the best water in the world ; and third, the 
turning the current of the river in its own channel, delivering us from the 
old abominations, and making decency possible. They redound about 


equally to the credit of the engineering, to the energy of the people, and 
to the health of the city. 

That which really constitutes the city, its indescribable spirit, its soul, 
the way it lights up in every feature in the hour of action, has not been 
touched. In meeting strangers, one is often surprised how some homely 
women marry so well. Their forms are bad, their gait uneven and awk- 
ward, their complexion is dull, their features are misshapen and mismatch- 
ed, and when we see them there is no beauty that we should desire them. 
But when once they are aroused on some subject, they put on new pro- 
portions. They light up into great power. The real person comes out 
from its unseemly ambush, and captures us at will. They have power. 
They have ability to cause things to come to pass. We no longer wonder 
why they are in such high demand. So it is with our city. 

There is no grand scenery except the two seas, one of water, the 
other of prairie. Nevertheless, there is a spirit about it, a push, a breadth, 
a power, that soon makes it a place never to be forsaken. One soon 
ceases to believe in impossibilities. Balaams are the only prophets that are 
disappointed. The bottom that has been on the point of falling out has 
been there so long that it has grown fast. It can not fall out. It has all 
the capital of the world itching to get inside the corporation. 

The two great laws that govern the growth and size of cities are, 
first, the amount of territory for which they are the distributing and 
receiving points ; second, the number of medium or moderate dealers that 
do this distributing. Monopolists build up themselves, not the cities. 
They neither eat, wear, nor live in proportion to their business. Both 
these laws help Chicago. 

The tide of trade is eastward — not up or down the map, but across 
the map. The lake runs up a wingdam for 500 miles to gather in the 
business. Commerce can not ferry up there for seven months in the year, 
and the facilities for seven months can do the work for twelve. Then the 
great region west of us is nearly all good, productive land. Dropping 
south into the trail of St. Louis, you fall into vast deserts and rocky dis- 
tricts, useful in holding the world together. St. Louis and Cincinnati, 
instead of rivaling and hurling Chicago, are her greatest sureties of 
dominion. They are far enough away to give sea-room, — farther off than 
Paris is from London, — and yet they are near enough to prevent the 
springing up of any other great city between them. 

St. Louis will be helped by the opening of the Mississippi, but also 
hurt. That will put New Orleans on her feet, and with a railroad running 
over into Texas and so West, she will tap the streams that now crawl up 
the Texas and Missouri road. The current is East, not North, and a sea- 
port at New Orleans can not permanently help St. Louis. 

Chicago is in the field almost alone, to handle the wealth of one- 


fourth of the territory of this great republic. This strip of seacoast 
divides its margins between Portland, Boston, New York, Philadelphia, 
Baltimore and Savannah, or some other great port to be created for the 
South in the next decade. But Chicago has a dozen empires casting their 
treasures into her lap. On a bed of coal that can run all the machinery 
of the world for 500 centuries ; in a garden that can feed the race by the 
thousand years ; at the head of the lakes that give her a temperature as a 
summer resort equaled by no great city in the land ; with a climate that 
insures the health of her citizens ; surrounded by all the great deposits 
of natural wealth in mines aud forests and herds, Chicago is the wonder 
of to-day, and will be the city of the future. 


During the war of 1812, Fort Dearborn became the theater of stirring 
events. The garrison consisted of fifty-four men under command of 
Captain Nathan Heald, assisted by Lieutenant Helm (son-in-law of Mrs. 
Kinzie) and Ensign Ronan. Dr. Voorhees was surgeon. The only resi- 
dents at the post at that time were the wives of Captain Heald and Lieu- 
tenant Helm, and a few of the soldiers, Mr. Kinzie and his family, and 
a few Canadian voyageurs^ with their wives and children. The soldiers 
.and Mr. Kinzie were on most friendly terms with the Pottawattamies 
and Winnebagos, the principal tribes around them, but they could not 
win them from their attachment to the British. 

One evening in April, 1812, Mr. Kinzie sat playing on his violin and 
his children were dancing to the music, when Mrs. Kinzie came rushing 
into the house, pale with terror, and exclaiming: "The Indians! the 
Indians!" "What? Where?" eagerly inquired Mr. Kinzie. "Up 
at Lee's, killing and scalping," answered the frightened mother, who, 
when the alarm was given, was attending Mrs. Barnes (just confined) 
living not far off. Mr. Kinzie and his family crossed the river and took 
refuge in the fort, to which place Mrs. Barnes and her infant not a day 
old were safely conveyed. The rest of the inhabitants took shelter in the 
fort. This alarm was caused by a scalping party of Winnebagos, who 
hovered about the fort several days, when they disappeared, and for several 
weeks the inhabitants were undisturbed. 

On the 7th of August, 1812, General Hull, at Detroit, sent orders to 
Captain Heald to evacuate Fort Dearborn, and to distribute all the United 
States property to the Indians in the neighborhood — a most insane order. 
The Pottawattamie chief, who brought the dispatch, had more wisdom 
than the commanding general. He advised Captain Heald not to make 
the distribution. Said he : " Leave the fort and stores as they are, and 
let the Indians make distribution for themselves ; and while they are 
engaged in the business, the white people may escape to Fort Wayne." 


Captain Heald held a council with the Indians on the afternoon of 
the 12th, in which his officers refused to join, for they had been informed 
that treachery was designed — that the Indians intended to murder the 
white people in the council, and then destroy those in the fort. Captain 
Heald, however, took the precaution to open a port-hole displaying a 
cannon pointing directly upon the council, and by that means saved 
his life. 

Mr. Kinzie, who knew the Indians well, begged Captain Heald not 
to confide in their promises, nor distribute the arms and munitions among 
them, for it would only put power into their hands to destroy the whites. 
Acting upon this advice, Heald resolved to withhold the munitions of 
wai- ; and on the night of the 13th, after the distribution of the other 
property had been made, the powder, ball and liquors were thrown into 
thfe river, the muskets broken up and destroyed. 

Black Partridge, a friendly chief, came to Captain Heald, and said : 
" Linden birds have been singing in my ears to-day : be careful on the 
march you are going to take." On that dark night vigilant Indians had 
crept near the fort and discovered the destruction of their promised booty 
going on within. The next morning the powder was seen floating on the 
surface of the river. The savages were exasperated and made loud com- 
plaints and threats. 

On the following day when preparations were making to leave the 
fort, and all the inmates were deeply impressed with a sense of impend- 
ing danger, Capt. Wells, an uncle of Mrs. Heald, was discovered upon 
the Indian trail among the sand-hills on the borders of the lake, not far 
distant, with a band of mounted Miamis, of whose tribe he was chief, 
having been adopted by the famous Miami warrior. Little Turtle. When 
news of Hull's surrender reached Fort Wayne, he had started with this 
force to assist Heald in defending Fort Dearborn. He was too late. 
Every means for its defense had been destroyed the night before, and 
arrangements were made for leaving the fort on the morning of the 15th. 

It was a warm bright morning in the middle of August. Indications 
were positive that the savages intended to murder the white people ; and 
when they moved out of the southern gate of the fort, the march was 
like a funeral procession. The band, feeling the solemnity of the occa- 
sion, struck up the Dead March in Saul. 

Capt. Wells, who had blackened his face with gun-powder in token 
of his fate, took the lead with his band of Miamis, followed by Capt. 
Heald, with his wife by his side on horseback. Mr. Kinzie hoped by his 
personal influence to avert the impending blow, and therefore accompanied 
them, leaving his family in a boat in charge of a friendly Indian, to be 
taken to his trading station at the site of Niles, Michigan, in the event ot 
his death. 




The procession moved slowly along the lake shore till they reached 
the sand-hills between the prairie and the beach, when the Pottawattamie 
escort, under the leadership of Blackbird, filed to the right, placing those 
hills between them and the white people. Wells, with his Miamis, had 
kept in the advance. They suddenly came rushing back. Wells exclaim- 
ing, " They are about to attack us ; form instantly." These words were 
quickly followed by a storm of bullets, which came whistling over the 
little hills which the treacherous savages had made the covert for their 
murderous attack. The white troops charged upon the Indians, drove 
them back to the prairie, and then the battle was waged between fifty- 
four soldiers, twelve civilians and three or four women (the cowardly 
Miamis having fled at the outset) against five hundred Indian warriors. 
The white people, hopeless, resolved to sell their lives as dearly as possible. 
Ensign Ronan wielded his weapon vigorously, even after falling upon his 
knees weak from the loss of blood. Capt. Wells, who was by the side of 
his niece, Mrs. Heald, when the conflict began, behaved with the srreatest 
coolness and courage. He said to her, " We have not the slightest chance 
for life. We must part to meet no more in this world. God bless you." 
And then he dashed forward. Seeing a young warrior, painted like a 
demon, climb into a wagon in which were twelve children, and tomahawk 
them all, he cried out, unmindful of his personal danger, " If that is your 
game, butchering women and children, I will kill too." He spurred his 
horse towards the Indian camp, where they had left their squaws and 
papooses, hotly pursued by swift-footed young warriors, who sent bullets 
whistling after him. One of these killed his horse and wounded him 
severely in the leg. With a yell the young braves rushed to make him 
their prisoner and reserve him for torture. He resolved not to be made 
a captive, and by the use of the most provoking epithets tried to induce 
them to kill him instantly. He called a fiery young chief a squaw, when 
the enraged warrior killed Wells instantly with his tomahawk, jumped 
upon his body, cut out his heart, and ate a portion of the warm morsel 
with savage delight ! 

In this fearful combat women bore a conspicuous part. Mrs. Heald 
was an excellent equestrian and an expert in the use of the rifle. She 
fought the savages bravely, receiving several severe wounds. Though 
faint from the loss of blood, she managed to keep her saddle. A savage 
raised his tomahawk to kill her, when she looked him full in the face, 
and with a sweet smile and in a gentle voice said, in his own language, 
" Surely you will not kill a squaw ! " The arm of the savage fell, and 
the life of the heroic woman was saved. 

Mrs. Helm, the step-daughter of Mr. Kinzie, had an encounter with 
a stout Indian, who attempted to tomahawk her. Springing to one side, 
she received the glancing blow on her shoulder, and at the same instant 


seized the savage round the neck with her arms and endeavored to get 
hold of his scalping knife, which hung in a sheath at his breast. While 
she was thus struggling she was dragged from her antagonist by anothei 
powerful Indian, who bore her, in spite of her struggles, to the margin 
of the lake and plunged her in. To her astonishment she was held by 
him so that she would not drown, and she soon perceived that she was 
in the hands of the friendly Black Partridge, who had saved her life. 

The wife of Sergeant Holt, a large and powerful woman, behaved as 
bravely as an Amazon. She rode a fine, high-spirited horse, which the 
Indians coveted, and several of them attacked her with the butts of their 
guns, for the purpose of dismounting her ; but she used the sword which 
she had snatched from her disabled husband so skillfully that she foiled 
them ; and, suddenly wheeling her horse, she dashed over the prairie, 
followed by the savages shouting, " The brave woman ! the brave woman ! 
Don't hurt her ! " They finally overtook her, and while she was fighting 
them in front, a powerful savage came up behind her, seized her by the 
neck and dragged her to the ground. Horse and woman were made 
captives. Mrs. Holt was a long time a captive among the Indians, but 
was afterwards ransomed. 

In this sharp conflict two-thirds of the white people were slain and 
wounded, and all their horses, baggage and provision were lost. Only 
twenty-eight straggling men now remained to fight five hundred Indians 
rendered furious b}^ the sight of blood. They succeeded in breaking 
through the ranks of the murderers and gaining a slight eminence on the 
prairie near the Oak Woods. The Indians did not pursue, but gathered 
on their Hanks, while the chiefs lield a consultation on the sand-hills, and 
showed signs of willingness to parley. It would have been madness on 
the part of the whites to renew the fight ; and so Capt. Heald weiit for- 
ward and met Blackbird on the open prairie, where terms of surrender 
were soon agreed upon. It was arranged that the white people should 
give up their arms to Blackbird, and that the survivors should become 
prisoners of war, to be exchanged for ransoms as soon as practicable. 
With this understanding captives and captors started for the Indian 
camp near the fort, to which Mrs. Helm had been taken bleeding and 
suffering by Black Partridge, and had met her step-father and learned 
that her husband was safe. 

A new scene of horror was now opened at the Indian camp. The 
wounded, not being included in tlie terms of surrender, as it was inter- 
preted by the Indians, and the British general. Proctor, having offered a 
liberal bounty for American scalps, delivered at Maiden, nearly all the 
wounded men were killed and scalped, and the price of the trophies was 
afterwards paid by the British government. 




[This was engraved from a daguerreotype, taken when Shabbona was 83 years old.] 

This celebrated Indian chief, whose portrait appears in this work, deserves 
more than a passing notice. Although Shabbona was not so conspicuous as 
Tecumseh or Black Hawk, yet in point of merit he was superior to either 
oi them. 

Shabbona was born at an Indian village on the Kankakee River, now in 
Will County, about the year 1775. While young he was made chief of the 
band, and went to Shabbona Grove, now DeKalb County, where they were 
found in the early settlement of the county. 

In the war of 1812, Shabbona, with his warriors, joined Tecumseh, was 


aid to that great chief, and stood by his side when he fell at the battle of 
the Thames. At the time of the Winnebago war, in 1827, he visited almost 
every village among the Pottawatomies, and by his persuasive arguments 
prevented them from taking part in the war. By request of the citizens 
of Chicago, Shabbona, accompanied l)y Billy Caldwell (Sauganash), visited 
Big Foot's village at Geneva Lake, in order to pacify the warriors, as fears 
were entertained that they were about to raise the tomahawk against the 
whites. He]'e Shabbona was taken prisoner by Big Foot, and his life 
threatened, but on the following day was set at libert}'. From that time 
the Indians (thi'ough reproach) styled him " the white man's friend," 
and man}' times his life was endangered. 

Before the Black Hawk war, Shabbona met in council at two differ- 
ent times, and by his influence prevented his people from taking j^art with 
the Sacs and Foxes. After the death of Black Partridge and Senachwine, 
no chief among the Pottawatomies exerted so much influence as Shabbona. 
Black Hawk, aware of this influence, visited him at two different times, in 
order to enlist him in his cause, but was unsuccessful. While Black Hawk 
was a prisoner at Jefferson Barracks, he said, had it not been for Shabbona 
the wliole Pottawatomie nation would have joined his standard, and he 
could have continued the war for years. 

To Shabbona many of the early settlers of Illinois owe the pres- 
ervation of their lives, for it is a well-known fact, had he not notified the 
people of their danger, a large portion of them would have fallen victims 
to the tomahawk of savages. By saving the lives of whites he endangered 
■ his own, for the Sacs and Foxes threatened to kill him, and made two 
attempts to execute their threats. They killed Pypeogee, his son, and 
Pyps, his nephew, and hunted him down as though he was a wild beast. 

Shabbona had a reservation of two sections of land at his Grove, but 
by leaving it and going west for a short time, the Government declared 
the reservation focfeited, and sold it the same as other vacant land. On 
Shabbona's return, and finding his possessions gone, he was very sad and 
broken down inspirit, and left the Grove for ever. The citizens of Ottawa 
raised money and bought him a tract of land on the Illinois River, above 
Seneca, in Grundy County, on wliich they built a house, and supplied 
him Avith means to live on. He lived here until his death, which occurred 
on the 17th of July, 1859, in the eighty-fourth year of his age, and was 
buried with great pomp in the cemetery at Morris. His squaw, Pokanoka, 
was drowned in Mazen Creek, Grundy County, on the 30th of November, 
1864, and was buried by his side. 

In 1861 subscriptions were taken up in many of the river towns, to 
erect a monument over the remains of Shabbona, but the war breaking 
out, the enterprise was abandoned. Only a plain marble slab marks the 
resting-place of this friend of the white man. 

Abstract of Illinois State Laws. 


No promissory note^ checTc, drafts hill of exchange, order, or note, negO" 
tiable instrument payable at sight, or on demand, or on presentment, shall 
be entitled to days of grace. All other hills of exchange, drafts or notes are 
entitled to three days of grace. All the above mentioned paper falling 
due on Sunday, New Years'' Day, the Fourth of July, Christmas, or any 
day appointed or recommended by the President of the United States or 
the Gfovernor of the State as a day of fast or thanksgiving, shall be deemed 
as due on the day previous, and should two or more of these days come 
together, then such instrument shall be treated as due on the day previous 
to the first of said days. JVo defense can be made against a negotiahle 
instrument (^assigned before due') in the hands of the assignee without 
notice, except fraud was used in obtaining the same. To hold an indorser, 
due diligence must be iised hy suit, in collecting of the maker, unless suit 
would have been unavailing. Notes payable to person named or to order, 
in order to absolutely transfer title, must be indorsed by the payee. Notes 
payable to bearer may be transferred hy delivery, and when so payable 
every indorser thereon is held as a guarantor of payment unless otherwise 

In computing interest or discount on negotiable instruments, a month 
shall be considered a calendar month or twelfth of a year, and for less 
than a month, a day shall be figured a thirtieth part of a month. Notes 
only bear interest when so expressed, but after due they draw the legal 
interest, even if not stated. 


The legal rate of interest is six per cent. Parties may agree in writ- 
ing on a rate not exceeding ten per cent. If a rate of interest greater 
than ten per cent, is contracted for, it works a forfeiture of the whole of 
said interest, and only the principal can be recovered. 


When no will is made, the property of a deceased person is distrib- 
uted as follows : 


First. To his or her children and their descendants in equal parts ; 
the descendants of the deceased child or grandchild taking the share of 
their deceased parents in equal parts among them. 

Second. Where there is no child, nor descendant of such child, and 
no widow or surviving husband, then to the parents, brothers and sisters 
of the deceased, and their descendants, in equal parts, the surviving 
parent, if either be dead, taking a double portion ; and if there is no 
parent living, then to the brothers and sisters of the intestate and their 

Third. When there is a widow or surviving husband^ and no child or 
children^ or descendants of the same, then one-half of the real estate and 
the whole of the personal estate shall descend to such widow or surviving 
husband, absolutely, and the other half of the real estate shall descend as 
in other cases where there is no child or children or descendants of the 

Fourth. When there is a widow or surviving husband and also a child 
or children., or descendants of the latter, then one third of all the personal 
estate to the ividow or surviving husbarid absolutely. 

Fifth. If there is no child, parent, brother or sister, or descendants of 
either of them, and no widow or surviving husband, then in equal parts 
to the next of kin to the intestate in equal degree. Collaterals shall not 
be represented except with the descendants of brothers and sisters of the 
intestate, and there shall be no distinction between kindred of the whole 
and the half blood. 

Sixth. If any intestate leaves a ividoiv or surviving husband and no 
kindred, then to such widoio or surviving husband ; and if there is no such 
widow or surviving husband, it shall escheat to and vest in the county 
where the same, or the greater portion thereof, is situated. 


No exact form of words are necessary in order to make a will good at 
law. Every male person of the age of tiventy-one years, and qyqvj female 
of the age of eighteen years, of sound mind and memory, can make a valid 
will ; it must be in ivriting, signed by the testator or by some one in his 
or her presence and by his or her direction, and attested by two or more 
credible witnesses. Oare should be taken that the tvitnesses are not inter- 
ested in the will. Persons knoiving themselves to have been named in the 
will or appointed executor, must within thirty days of the death of 
deceased cause the will to be proved and recorded in the proper county, 
or present it, and refuse to accept; on failure to do so are liable to forfeit 
the sura of twenty dollars per month. Inventory to be made by executor 
or administrator within three months from date of letters testamentary or 


of administration. Executors' and administrators' compensation not to 
exceed six per cent, on amount of personal estate, and three per cent, 
on money realized from real estate, with such additional allowance a? 
shall be reasonable for extra services. Appraisers' compensation $2 pei" 

Notice requiring all claims to be presented against the estate shall b^ 
given by the executor or administrator within six months of being quali- 
fied. Any person having a claim a7id 7iot presenting it at the time fixed 
by said notice is required to have summons issued notifying the executor 
or administrator of his having filed his claim in court ; in such cases the 
costs have to be paid by the claimant. Claims should be filed within two 
years from the time administration is granted on an estate, as after that 
time they are forever barred^ unless other estate is found that was not in- 
ventoried. Married women^ infants^ persons insane, imprisoned or without 
the United States, in the employment of the United States, or of this 
State, have two years after their disabilities are removed to file claims. 

Claims are classified and ^a«t? out of the estate in the following manner: 

First. Funeral expenses. 

Second. The widow's aivard, if there is a widow ; or children if there 
are children, and no widow. 

Third. Expenses attending the last illness, not including physician's 

Fourth. Debts due the common school or township fund . 

Fifth. All expenses of proving the will and taking out letters testa- 
mentary or administration, and settlement of the estate, and the physi- 
cian s bill in the last illness of deceased. 

Sixth. Where the deceased has received money in trust for any pur- 
pose, his executor or administrator shall pay out of his estate the amount 
received and not accounted for. 

Seventh. All other debts and demands of whatsoever kind, without 
regard to quality or dignity, which shall be exhibited to the court within 
two years from the granting of letters. 

Aivard to Widow and Children, exclusive of debts and legacies or be- 
quests, except funeral expenses : 

First. The family pictures and wearing apparel, jewels and ornaments 
of herself and minor children. 

Second. School books and the family library of the value of $100. 

Third. One sewing machine. 

Fourth. Necessary beds, bedsteads and bedding for herself and family. 

Fifth. The stoves and pipe used in the family, with the necessary 
cooking utensils, or in case they have none, $50 in money. 

Sixth. Household and kitchen furniture to the value of $100. 

Seventh. One milch cow and calf for every four members of her family. 


Eighth. Two sheep for each member of her family, and the fleeces 
taken from the same, and one horse, saddle and bridle. 

Ninth. Provisions for herself and family for one year. 

Tenth. Food for the stock above specified fo-r six months. 

Eleventh. Fuel for herself and family for three months. 

Twelfth. One hundred dollars worth of other property suited to her 
condition in life, to be selected by the widoiv. 

The tvidoiv if she elects may have in lieu of the said award, the same 
personal property or money in place thereof as is or may be exempt from, 
execution or attachment against the head of a family. 


The owners of real and personal property, on the first day of May in 
each year, are liable for the taxes thereon. 

Assessments should be completed before the fourth Monday in June., 
at which time the town board of review meets to examine assessments, 
hear objections., and make such changes as ought to be made. The county 
board have also power to correct or change assessmerits. 

The tax books are placed in the hands of the town collector on or 
before the tenth day of December, who retains them until the tenth day 
of March following, when he is required to return them to the county 
treasurer, who then collects all delinquent taxes. 

No costs accrue on real estate taxes till advertised, which takes place 
the first day of April, when three weeks' notice is required before judg- 
ment. Cost of advertising, twenty cents each tract of land, and ten cents 
each lot. 

Judgment is usually obtained at May term of County Court. Costs 
six cents each tract of land, and five cents each lot. Sale takes place in 
June. Costs in addition to those before mentioned, twenty-eight cents 
each tract of land, and twenty-seven cents each town lot. 

Meal estate sold for taxes may be redeemed any time before the expi- 
ration of two years from the date of sale, by payment to the County Clerk 
of the amount for which it was sold and twenty-five per cent, thereon if 
redeemed within six months, fifty per cent, if between six and twelve 
months, if between twelve and eighteen months seventy-five per cent., 
and if between eighteen months and two years one hundred per cent.,, 
and in addition, all subsequent taxes paid by the purchaser, with ten per 
cent, interest thereon, also one dollar each tract if notice is given by the 
purchaser of the sale, and a fee of twenty-five cents to the clerk for his 


Justices have jurisdiction in all civil cases on contracts for the recovery 
of moneys for damages for injury to real property, or taking, detaining, or 


injuring personal property ; for rent; for all cases to recover damages done 
real or personal property* by railroad companies, in actions of replevin, and 
in actions for damages for fraud in the sale, pturchase, or exchange of per- 
gonal property, when the amount claimed as due is not over 8200. They 
have also jurisdiction in all cases for violation of the ordinances of cities, 
toivns or villages. A justice of the peace may orally order an officer or a 
private person to arrest any one committing or attempting to commit a 
criminal offense. He also upon complaint can issue his warrant for the 
■arrest of any person accused of having committed a crime, and have him 
brought before him for examination. 


Have jurisdiction in all matters of probate (except in counties having a 
population of one hundred thousand or over), settlement of estates of 
deceased persons, appointment of guardians and conservators, and settle- 
ment of their accounts ; all matters relating to apprentices ; proceedings 
for the collection of taxes and assessments, and in proceedings of executors^ 
■administrators, guardians and conservators for the sale of real estate. In 
law cases they have concurrent jurisdiction with Circuit Courts in all 
cases where justices of the peace now have, or hereafter may have, 
jurisdiction when the amount claimed shall not exceed 81,000, and in all 
criminal offenses where the punishment is not imprisonynent in the peni- 
tentiary, or death, and in all cases of appeals from justices of the peace 
and police magistrates; excepting when the county judge is sitting as a 
justice of the peace. Circuit Courts have unlimited jurisdiction. 


Accounts jive years. Notes and written contracts ten years. Judg- 
ments twenty years. Partial payments or new promise in writing, within 
or after said period, wiMrevive the debt. Absence from the State deducted, 
and when the cause of action is barred by the law of another State, it has 
the same effect here. Slander and libel, one year. Personal injm-ies, two 
years. To recover land or make entry thereon, tiventy years. Action to 
foreclose mortgage or trust deed, or make a sale, within ten years. 

All persons in possession of land, and paying taxes for seven consecu- 
tive years, with color of title, and all persons paying taxes for seven con- 
secutive years, with color of title, on vacant land, shall be held to be the 
legal owners to the extent of their paper title. 


JMfay sue and be sued. Husband and wife not liable for each other^s debts^ 
either before or after marriage, but both are liable for expenses and edu- 
cation of the family. 



She may contract the same as if unmarried^ except that in a partner- 
ship business she can not, without consent of her husband, unless he has 
abandoned or deserted her, or is idiotic or insane, or confined in peniten- 
tiary ; she is entitled and can recover her own earnings, but neither hus- 
band nor wife is entitled to compensation for any services rendertjd for the 
other. At the death of the husband, in addition to widow's award, a 
married woman has a dower interest (one-third) in all real estate owned 
by her husband after their marriage, and which has not been released by 
her, and the husband has the same interest in the real estate of the wife 
at her death. 


Home tvorth $1,000, and the following Personal Property : Lot of ground! 
and buildings thereon, occupied as a residence by the debtor, being a house- 
holder and having a family, to the value of $1,000. Exemption continues 
after the death of the householder for the benefit of widow and family, some 
one of them occupying the homestead until youngest child shall become 
twenty-one years of age, and until death of widow. There is no exemption 
from sale for taxes, assessments, debt or liability incurred for the purchase- 
or improvement of said homestead. No release or waiver of exemption is- 
valid, unless in writing, and subscribed by such householder and v/ife (if 
he have one), and acknowledged as conveyances of real estate are required 
to be acknowledged. The following articles of personal property owned 
by the debtor, are exempt from execution, writ of attachment, and distress 
for rent : The necessary ivearing apjyarel. Bibles, school books and family 
pictures of every person ; and, 2d, one hundred dollars worth of other 
property to be selected by the debtor, and, in addition, when the debtor 
is the head of a family and resides with the same, three hundred dollars- 
worth of other property to be selected by the debtor ; provided that such 
selection and exemption shall not be made by the debtor or allowed to- 
him or her from any money, salary or wages due him or her from any 
person or persons or corporations whatever. 

When the head of a family shall die, desert or not reside with the 
same, the family shall be entitled to and receive all the benefit and priv- 
ileges which are by this act conferred upon the head of a family residing 
with the same. No personal property is exempt from execution when 
judgment is obtained for the wages of laborers or servants. Wages of a 
laborer who is the head of a family can not be garnisheed, except the sum. 
due him be in excess of $25. 



To he valid there must he a valid consideration. Special care should 
be taken to have them signed, sealed, delivered, and properly acknowl- 
edged, with the proper seal attached. Wit^iesses are not required. The 
acknowledgement must be made in this state, before Master in Chancery^ 
Notary Puhlic, United States Commissioner .^ Circuit or County Clerk, Justice 
of Peace, or any Court of Record haviiig a seal, or any Judge, Justice, or 
Clerk of any such Court. When taken before a Notary Public, or United 
States Commissio7ier, the same shall be attested by his official seal, when 
taken before a Court or the Clerk thereof, the same shall be attested by 
the seal of such Court, and when taken before a Justice of the Peace resid- 
ing out of the county where the real estate to be conveyed lies, there shall 
be added a certificate of the County Clerk under his seal of office, that he 
was a Justice of the Peace in the county at the time of taking the same. 
A deed is good without such certificace attached, but can not be used in 
evidence unless such a certificate is produced or other competent evidence 
introduced. Acknowledgements made out of the state must either be 
executed according to the laws of this state, or there should be attached 
a certificate that it is in conformity with the laws of the state or country 
where executed. Where this is not done the same may be proved by any 
other legal way. Acknowledgments where the Homestead rights are to 
be waived must state as follows : " Including the release and waiver of 
the right of homestead." 

Notaries Puhlio can take acknowledgements any where in the state. 

Sheriffs, if authorized by the mortgagor of real or personal property 
in his mortgage, may sell the property mortgaged. 

In the case of the death of grantor or holder of the equity of redemp- 
tion of real estate mortgaged, or conveyed by deed of trust where equity 
of redemption is waived, and it contains power of sale, must be foreclosed 
in the same manner as a common mortgage in court. 


Horses, mules, asses, neat cattle, swine, sheep, or goats found straying 
at any time during the year, in counties where such animals are not allowed 
to run at large, or between the last day of October and the 15th day of 
April in other counties, the oivner thereof being unknown, may he taken up 
as estrays. 

No person not a householder in the county where estray is found can 
lawfully take up an estray, and then only upon or about his farm or place 
of residence. Estrays should not he used before advertised, except animals 
giving milk, which may be milked for their benefit. 


Notices must be posted up within five (5) days in tliree (3) of the 
most public places in the town or precinct in which estray was found, giv- 
ing the residence of the taker up, and a particular description of the 
estray, its age, color, and marks natural and artificial, and stating before 
what justice of the peace in such town or precinct, and at what time, not 
less than ten (10) nor more than fifteen (15) days from the time of post- 
ing such notices, he will apply to have the estray appraised. 

A copy of such notice should be filed by the taker up with the totvn 
clerk, whose duty it is to enter the same at large, in a hook kept by him 
for that purpose. 

If the owner of estray shall not have appeared and proved ownership, 
and taken the same away, first paying the taker up his reasonable charges 
for taking up, keeping, and advertising the same, the taker up shall appear 
before the justice of the peace mentioned in above mentioned notice, and 
make an affidavit as required by law. 

As the affidavit has to he made hefore the justice, and all other steps as 
to appraisement, etc., are before him, who is familiar therewith, they are 
therefore omitted here. 

Any person taking up an estray at any other place than about or 
upon his farm or residence, or without complying with the law, shall forfeit 
and pay a fine of ten dollars with costs. 

Ordinary diligeiice is required in taking care of estrays, but in case 
they die or get away the taker is not liable for the same. 


It is unlawful for any person to kill, or attempt to kill or destroy, in 
any manner, any prairie hen or chicken or woodcock between the 15th day 
of January and the 1st day of September ; or any deer, fawn, wild-turkey, 
partridge or pheasant between the 1st day of February and the 1st day 
of October ; or any quail between the 1st day of February and 1st da}^ of 
November ; or any wild goose, duck, snijDe, brant or other water fowl 
between the 1st day of May and 15tli day of August in each year. 
Penalty : Fine not less than $5 nor more than $25, for each bird or 
animal, and costs of suit, and stand committed to county jail until fine is 
paid, but not exceeding ten days. It is unlawful to hunt with gun, dog 
or net within the inclosed grounds or lands of another tvithout permission. 
Penalty: Fine not less than $3 nor more than $100, to be paid into 
school fund. 


Whenever any of the following articles shall be contracted for, or 
sold or delivered, and no special contract or agreement shall be made to 
the contrary, the weight per bushel shall be as follows, to-wit : 





Stone Coal, 

- 80 

Buckwheat, - 

- 52 

Unslackecl Lime, 

- 80 

Coarse Salt, 

- 50 

Corn in the ear, 

- 70 

Barley, - - - 

- 48 


- 60 

Corn Meal, 

- 48 

Irish Potatoes, 

- 60 

Castor Beans, 

- 46 

White Beans, 

- 60 

Timothy Seed, - 

- 45 

Clover Seed, - 

- 60 

Hemp Seed, - 

- 44 

Onions, _ = - 

- 5T 

Malt, - - - - 

- 38 

Shelled Corn, 

- 56 

Dried Peaches, 

- 33 

Rye, - - - - 

- 56 

Oats, - - - - 

- 32 

Flax Seed, 

- 56 

Dried Apples, 

- 24 

Sweet Potatoes, - 

- 55 

Bran, - - - - 

- 20 


- 55 

Blue Grass Seed, - 

- 14 

Fine Salt, - - - 

- 55 

Hair (plastering). 


Penalty for giving less than the above standard is double the amount 
of property wrongfully not given, and ten dollars addition thereto. . 


The owner or occuiDant of every public grist mill in this state shall 
grind all grain brought to his mill in its turn. The toll for both steam 
and ivater mills, is, for grinding and bolting wheats rye^ or other grain, one 
eighth part; for grinding Indian corn, oats, barley and huckivheat not 
required to be bolted, one seventh part; for grinding malt, and chojyping all 
kinds of grain, one eighth part. It is the duty of every miller when his 
mill is in repair, to aid and assist in loading and unloading all grain brought 
to him to be ground, and he is also required to keep an accurate half 
bushel measure, and an accurate set of toll dishes or scales for weighing 
the grain. The penalty for neglect or refusal to comply with the law is 
85, to the use of any person to sue for the same, to be recovered before 
any justice of the peace of the county where penalty is incurred. Millers 
are accountable for the safe keeping of all grain left in his mill for the 
purpose of being ground, with bags or casks containing same (except it 
results from unavoidable accidents), provided that such bags or casks are 
distinctly marked with the initial letters of the owner's name. 


Owners of cattle, horses, hogs, sheep or goats may have one earmark 
and one brand, but which shall be different from his neighbor's, and may 
be recorded by the county clerk of the county in which such property is 
kept. The fee for such record is fifteen cents. The record of such shall 
be open to examination free of charge. In cases of disputes as to marks 
or brands-, such record is vrima facie evidence. Owners of cattle, horses, 
hogs, sheep or goats that may have been branded by the former oivner, 


may be re-branded in presence of one or more of his neighbors, who shall 
certify to the facts of the marking or branding being done, when done, 
and in what brand or mark they were re-branded or re-marked, which 
certificate may also be recorded as before stated. 


Children may be adopted by any resident of this state, by filing a 
petition in the Circuit or County Court of the county in which he resides, 
asking leave to do so, and if desired may ask that the name of the child 
be changed. Such petition, if made by a person having a husband or 
wife, will not be granted, unless the husband or wife joins therein, as the 
adoption must be Iw them jointly. 

The jyetition shall state name, sex, and age of the child, and the new 
name, if it is desired to change the name.' Also the name and residence 
of the parents of the child, if known, and of the guardian, if any, and 
whether the parents or guardians consent to the adoption. 

The court must find, before granting decree, that the parents of the 
child, or the survivors of them, have deserted his or her family or such 
child for one year next preceding the application, or if neither are living, 
the guardian ; if no guardian, the next of kin in this state capable of giving 
consent, has had notice of the presentation of the petition and consents 
to such adoption. If the (f!iild is of the age oi fourteen years or upwards, 
the adoption can not be made without its consent. 


There is in every county elected a surveyor known as county sur- 
veyor, who has power to appoint deputies, for whose official acts he is 
responsible. It is the duty of the county surveyor, either by himself or 
his deputy, to make all surveys that he may be called upon to make within 
his county as soon as may be after application is made. The necessary 
chainmen and other assistance must be employed bythe person requiring 
the same to be done, and to be by him paid, unless otherwise agreed ; but 
the chainmen must be disinterested persons and approved by the surveyor 
and sworn by him to measure justly and impartially. 

The County Board in each county is required by law to provide a copy 
of the United States field notes and plats of their surveys of the lands 
in the county to be kept in the recorder's office subject to examination 
by the public, and the county surveyor is required to make his surveys 
in conformity to said notes, plats and the laws of the United States gov- 
erning such matters. The surveyor is also required to keep a record 
of all surveys made by him, which shall be subject to inspection by any 
one interested, and shall be delivered up to his successor in office. A. 


certified copy of the said surveyor's record shall be prima facie evidence 
of its contents. 

The fees of county surveyors are six dollars per day. The county 
surveyor is also ex officio inspector of mines, and as such, assisted by some 
practical miner selected by him, shall once each year inspect all the 
mines in the county, for which they shall each receive such compensa- 
tion as may be fixed by the County Board, not exceeding $5 a day, to 
be paid out of the county treasury. 


Where practicable from the nature of the ground, persons traveling 
in any kind of vehicle, must turn to the right of the center of the road, so 
as to permit each carriage to pass without interfering with each other. 
The penalty for a violation of this provision is $5 for every offense, to> 
be recovered by the party injured ; but to recover, there must have 
occurred some injury to person or property resulting from the violation.. 
The owners of any carriage traveling upon any road in this State for the 
conveyance of passengers who shall employ or continue in his employment 
as driver any person who is addicted to drunkenness, or the excessive use of 
spiritous liquors, after he has had notice of the same, shall forfeit, at the- 
rate of $5 per day, and if any driver while actually engaged in driving 
any such carriage, shall be guilty of intoxicqtioyi to such a degree as to 
endanger the safety of passengers, it shall be the duty of the owner, on 
receiving 'written notice of the fact, signed by one of the passengers, and 
certified by him on oath, forthwith to discharge such driver. If such owner 
shall have such driv6r in his employ ivithin three months after such notice, 
he is liable for $5 per day for the time he shall keep said driver in his 
employment after receiving such notice. 

Persons driving any carriage on any public highway are prohibited 
from running their horses upon any occasion under a penalty of a fine not 
exceeding $10, or imprisonment not exceeding sixty days, at the discre- 
tion of the court. Horses attached to any carriage used to convey passen- 
gers for hire must be properly hitched or the lines placed in the hands of 
some other person before the driver leaves them for any purpose. For 
violation of this provision each driver shall forfeit twenty dollars, to be 
recovered by action, to be commenced within six months. It is under- 
stood by the ter')n carriage herein to mean any carriage or vehicle used 
for the transportation of passengers or goods or either of them. 

The commissioners of highways in the different tov/ns have the care- 
and superintendence of highways and bridges therein. They have all 
the powers necessary to lay out, vacate, regulate and repair all roads*' 
build and repair bridges. In addition to the above, it is their duty to 
tjrect and keep in rei:)air at the forks or crossing-place of the most 


important roads post and guide boards with plain inscriptions, giving 
•directions and distances to the most noted places to which such road may 
lead ; also to make provisions to prevent thistles, burdock, and cockle 
burrs, mustard, yellow dock, Indian mallow and jimson weed from 
seeding, and to extirpate the same as far as practicable, and to prevent 
all rank growth of vegetation on the public highways so far as the same 
may obstruct public travel, and it is in their discretion to erect watering 
places for public use for watering teams at such points as may be deemed 


The Commissioners, on or before the 1st day of May of each year, 
shall make out and deliver to their treasurer a list of all able-bodied men 
in their town, exceptirig paupers, idiots, lunatics, and such others as are 
exempt by law, and assess against each the sum of two dollars as a poll 
tax for highway purposes. Within thirty days after such list is delivered 
they shall cause a written or printed notice to be given to each person so 
assessed, notifying him of the time when and place where such tax must 
be paid, or its equivalent in labor performed ; they may contract with 
persons owing such poll tax to perform a certain amount of labor on any 
road or bridge in payment of the same, and if such tax is not paid nor 
labor performed by the first Monday of July of such year, or within ten 
days after notice is given after that time, they shall bring suit therefor 
against such person before a justice of the peace, who shall hear and 
determine the case according to law for the offense complained of, and 
shall forthwith issue an execution, directed to any constable of the county 
where the delinquent shall reside, who shall forthwith collect the moneys 
therein mentioned. 

The Commissioners of Highways of each town shall annually ascer- 
tain, as near as practicable, how much money must be raised by tax on real 
and personal property for the making and repairing of roads, only, to any 
amount they may deem necessary, not exceeding forty cents on each one 
hundred dollars' worth, as valued on the assessment roll of the previous 
year. The tax so levied on property lying witliin an incorporated village, 
town or city, shall be paid over to the corporate authorities of such town, 
village or city. Commissioners shall receive $1.50 for each day neces- 
sarily employed in the discharge of their duty. 

Overseers. At the first meeting the Commissioners shall choose one 
of their number to act General Overseer of Highways in their township, 
whose duty it shall be to take charge of and safely keep all tools, imple- 
ments and machinery belonging to said town, and shall, by the direction 
of the Board, have general supervision of all roads and bridges in their 


As all township and county officers are familiar with their duties, it 
is only intended to give the points of the law that the public should be 
familiar with. The manner of laying out, altering or vacating roads, etc., 
will not be here stated, as it would require more space than is contem- 
plated in a work of this kind. It is sufficient to state that, the first step 
is by petition, addressed to the Commissioners, setting out what is prayed 
for, giving the names of the owners of lands if known, if not known so 
state, over which the road is to pass, giving the general course, its place 
of beginning, and where it terminates. It requires not less than twelve 
freeholders residing within three miles of the road who shall sign the 
petition. Public roads must not be less than fifty feet wide, nor more 
than sixty feet wide. Roads not exceeding two miles in length, if peti- 
tioned for, may be laid out, not less than forty feet. Private roads 
for private and public use, may be laid out af the width of three rods, on 
petition of the person directly interested ; the damage occasioned thereby 
shall be paid by the premises benefited thereby, and before the road is 
opened. If not opened in two years, the order shall be considered 
rescinded. Commissioners in their discretion may permit persons who- 
live on or have private roads, to work out their road tax thereon. Public 
roads must be opened in five days from date of filing order of location^ 
or be deemed vacated. 


Whenever one or more owners or occupants of land desire to construct 
I drain or ditch across the land of others for agricultural, sanitary or 
mining purposes, the proceedings are as follows : 

File a petition in the Circuit or County Court of the county in which 
the proposed ditch or drain is to be constructed, setting forth the neces- 
sity for the same, with a description of its proposed starting point, route 
and terminus, and if it shall be necessary for the drainage of the land or 
coal mines or for sanitary purposes, that a drain, ditch, levee or similar 
work be constructed, a description of the same. It shall also set forth 
the names of all persons owning the land over which such drain or ditch 
shall be constructed, or if unknown stating that fact. 

No private property shall be taken or damaged for the purpose of 
constructing a ditch, drain or levee, without compensation, if claimed by 
the owner, the same to be ascertained by a jury; but if the construction 
of such ditch, drain or levee shall be a benefit to. the owner, the same 
shall be a set off against such compensation. 

If the proceedings seek to affect the property of a minor, lunatic or 
married woman, the guardian, conservator or husband of the same shall 
be made party defendant. The petition may be amended and parties 
made defendants at any time when it is necessary to a fair trial. 


When the petition is presented to the judge, he shall note therein 
when he will hear the same, and order the issuance of summonses and 
the publication of notice to each non-resident or unknown defendant. 

The petition may be heard by such judge in vacation as well as in 
term time. Upon the trial, the jury shall ascertain the just compensation 
to each owner of the property sought to be damaged by the construction 
of such ditch, drain or levee, and truly report the same. 

As it is only contemplated in a work of this kind to give an abstract 
of the laws, and as the parties who have in charge the execution of the 
further proceedings are likely to be familiar with the requirements of the 
statute, the necessary details are not here inserted. 


The County Board of any county in this State may hereafter alluw 
such bounty on tvolf scalps as the board may deem reasonable. 

Any person claiming a bounty shall produce the scalp or scalps with 
the ears thereon, within sixty days after the wolf or wolves shall have 
been caught, to the Clerk of the County Board, who shall administer to 
s'did person the following oath or affirmation, to-wit: "You do solemnly 
swear (or affirm, as the case may be), that the scalp or scalps here pro- 
duced by you was taken from a wolf or wolves killed and first captured 
by yourself within the limits of this county, and within the sixty days 
last past." 


When the reversion expectant on a lease of any tenements or here- 
ditaments of any tenure shall be surrendered or merged, the estate which 
shall for the time being confer as against the tenant under the same lease 
the next vested right to the same tenements or hereditaments, shall, to 
the extent and for the purpose of preserving such incidents to and obli- 
gations on the same reversion, as but for the surrender or merger thereof, 
would have subsisted, be deemed the reversion expectant on the same 


Every poor person who shall be unable to earn a livelihood in conse- 
quence of any bodily infirmity^ idiocy, lunacy or unavoidable cause, shall 
be supported by the father, grand-father, mother, grand-mother, children, 
grand-children, brothers or sisters of such poor person, if they or either 
of them be of sufficient ability ; but if any of such dependent class shall 
have become so from intemperance or other bad conduct, they shall not be 
entitled to support from any relation except parent or child. 


The ciiildren shall first be called on to support their parents, if they 
are able ; but if not, the parents of such poor person shall then be called 
on, if of sufficient ability ; and if there be no parents or children able, 
then the brothers and sisters of such dependent person shall be called 
upon ; and if there be no brothers or sisters of sufficient ability, the 
grand-children of such person shall next be called on ; and if they are 
not able, then the grand-parents. Married females, while their husbands 
live, shall not be liable to contribute for the support of their poor relations 
except out of their separate property. It is the duty of the state's 
(county) attorney, to make complaint to the County Court of his county 
against all the relatives of such paupers in this state liable to his support 
and prosecute the same. In case the state's attorney neglects, or refuses, to 
complain in such cases, then it is the duty of the overseer of the poor to 
do so. The person called upon to contribute shall have at least ten days' 
notice of such application by summons. The court has the power to 
determine the kind of support, depending upon the circumstances of the 
parties, and may also order two or more of the different degrees to main- 
tain such poor person, and prescribe the proportion of each, according to 
their ability. The court may specify the time for which the relative shall 
contribute — in fact has control over the entire subject matter, with power 
to enforce its orders. Every county (except those in which the poor are 
supported by the towns, and in such cases the towns are liable) is required 
to relieve and support all poor and indigent persons laivfuUy resident 
therein. Residence means the actual residence of the party, or the place 
where he was employed ; or in case he was in no employment, then it 
shall be the place where he made his home. When any person becomes 
chargeable as a pauper in any county or town who did not reside at the 
commencement of six months immediately preceding his becoming so, 
but did at that time reside in some other county or town in this state, 
then the county or town, as the case may be, becomes liable for the expense 
of taking care of such person until removed, and it is the duty of the 
overseer to notify the proper authorities of the fact. If any person shall 
bring and leave any pauper in any county in this state where such pauper 
had no legal residence, knowing him to be such, he is liable to a fine of 
$100. In counties under township organization, the supervisors in each 
town are ex-officio overseers of the poor. The overseers of the poor act 
under the directions of the County Board in taking care of the poor and 
granting of temporary relief; also, providing for non-resident persons not 
paupers who may be taken sick and not able to pay their way, and in case 
of death cause such person to be decently buried. 

The residence of the inmates of poorhouses and other charitable 
institutions for voting purposes is their former place of abode. 



In counties under township organization, the town assessor and com- 
missioner of highways are the fence-viewers in their respective towns. 
In other counties the County Board appoints three in each precinct annu- 
ally. A laiofid fence is four and one -half feet high, in good repair, con- 
sisting of rails, timber, boards, stone, hedges, or whatever the fence- 
viewers of the town or precinct where the same shall lie, shall consider 
equivalent thereto, but in counties under township organization the annual 
town meeting may establish any other kind of fence as such, or the County 
Board in other counties may do the same. Division fences shall be made 
and maintained in just proportion by the adjoining owners, except when 
the owner shall choose to let his land lie open, but after a division fence is 
built by agreement or otherwise, neither party can remove his part of such 
fence so long as he may crop or use such land for farm purposes, or without 
giving the other party one year's notice in writing of his intention to remove 
his portion. When any person shall enclose his land upon the enclosure 
of another, he shall refund the owner of the adjoining lands a just pro- 
portion of the value at tljat time of such fence. The value of fence and 
the just proportion to be paid or built and maintained by each is to be 
ascertained by two fence-viewers in the town or precinct. Such fence- 
viewers have power to settle all disputes between different owners as to 
fences built or to be built, as well as to repairs to be made. Each party 
chooses one of the viewers, but if the other party neglects, after eight 
days' notice in writing, to make his choice, then the other party may 
select both. It is sufficient to notify the tenant or party in possession, 
when the owner is not a resident of the town or precinct. The two 
fence-viewers chosen, after viewing the premises, shall hear the state- 
ments of the parties , in case they can't agree, they shall select another 
fence-viewer to act with them, and the decision of any two of them is 
final. The decision must be reduced to writing, and should plainly set 
out description of fence and all matters settled by them, and must be 
filed in the office of the town clerk in counties under township organiza- 
tion, and in other counties with the county clerk. 

Where any person is liable to contribute to the erection or the 
repairing of a division fence, neglects or refuses so to do, the party 
injured, after giving sixty days notice in writing when a fence is to be 
erected, or ten days when it is only repairs, may proceed to have the 
work done at the expense of the party whose duty it is to do it, to be 
recovered from him with costs of suit, and the party so neglecting shall 
also be liable to the party injured for all damages accruing from such 
neglect or refusal, to be determined by any two fence-viewers selected 
as before provided, the appraisement to be reduced to writing and signed. 


Where a person shall conclude to remove his part of a division fence, 
and let his land lie open, and having given the year's notice required, the 
adjoining owner may cause the value of said fence to be ascertained by 
fence-viewers as before provided, and on payment or tender of the 
amount of such valuation to the owner, it shall prevent the removal. A 
party removing a division fence without notice is liable for the damages 
accruing thereby. 

"Where a fence has been built on the land of another through mis- 
take, the owner may enter upon such premises and remove his fence and 
material within oix months after the division line has been ascertained. 
Where the material to build such a fence has been taken from the land 
on which it was built, then before it can be removed, the person claiming 
must first pay for such material to the owner of the land from which it 
was taken, nor shall fc;uch a fence be removed at a time when the removal 
will throw open or expose the crops of the other party ; a reasonable 
time must be given beyond the .six months to remove crops. 

The compensation of fence-viewers is one dollar and fifty cents a 
day each, to be paid in the first instance by the party calling them, but 
in the end all expenses, including amount charged by the fence-viewers, 
must be paid equally b}'- the parties, except in cases where a party neglects 
or refuses to make or maiiktain a just; proportion of a division fence, when 
the party in default shall pay them. 


Where stock of any kind breaks into any person's enclosure, the 
fence being good and sufficient, the owner is liable for the damage done ; 
but where the damage is done by stock running at large, contrary to law, 
the owner is liable where tht^re is not such a fence. Where stock is 
found trespassing on the enclosure of another as aforesaid, the owner oi 
occupier of the premises may take possession of such stock and keep the 
same until damages, with reasonable charges for keeping and feeding and 
all costs of suit, are paid. Any person taking or rescuing such stock so 
held without his consent, shall be liable to a fine of not less than three 
nor more than five dollars for each animal rescued, to be recovered by 
suit before a justice of the peace for the use of the school fund. Within 
twenty-four hours after taking such animal into his possession, the per- 
son taking it up must give notice of the fact to the owner, if known, or 
if unknown, notices must be posted in some public place near the premises. 


The owner of lands, or his legal representatives, can sue for and 
recover rent therefor, in any of the following cases : 

First. When rent is due and in arrears on a lease for life or lives. 


Second. When lands are held and occupied by any person without 
any special agreement for rent. 

Third. When j)ossession is obtained under an agreement, written 
or verbal, for the purchase of the premises and before deed given, the 
right to possession is terminated by forfeiture on con-compliance with the 
agreement, and possession is wrongfully refused or neglected to be giver, 
upon demand made in writing by the party entitled thereto. Provided 
that all payments made by the vendee or his representatives or assigns, 
may be set off against the rent. 

Fourth. When land has been sold upon a judgment or a decree of 
court, when the party to such judgment or decree, or person liolding under 
him, wrongfully refuses, or neglects, to surrender possession of the same, 
after demand in writing by the person entitled to the possession. 

Fifth., When the lands have been sold upon a mortgage or trust 
deed, and the mortgagor or grantor or person holding under him, wrong- 
fully refuses or neglects to surrender possession of the same, after demand 
in writing by the person entitled to the possession. 

If any tenant, or any person who shall come into possession from or 
undeV or by collusion with such tenant, shall willfully hold over any lands, 
etc., after the expiration the term of their lease, and after demand made 
in writing for the possession thereof, is liable to pay double rent. A 
tenancy from 3'ear to year requires sixty days notice in writing, to termi- 
nate the same at the end of the year ; such notice can be given at any 
time within four months preceding the last sixty days of the year. 

A tenancy by the month, or less than a year, where the tenant holds 
over without any special agreement, the landlord may terminate the 
tenancy, by thirty days notice in writing. 

When rent is due, the landlord may serve a notice upon the tenant, 
stating that unless the rent is paid within not less than five days, his lease 
will be terminated ; if the rent is not paid, the landlord may consider the 
lease ended. When default is made in any of the terms of a lease, it 
shall not be necessary to give more than ten days notice to quit or of the 
termination of such tenancy ; and the same may be terminated on giving 
such notice to quit, at any time after such default in any of the terms of 
such lease ; which notice may be substantially in the following form, viz: 

To , You are hereby notified that, in consequence of your default 

in (here insert the character of the default), of the premises now occupied 
by you, being etc. (here describe the premises), I have elected to deter- 
mine your lease, and you are hereby notified to quit and deliver up pos- 
session of the same to me within ten days of this date (dated, etc.) 

The above to be signed by the lessor or his agent, and no other notice 
or demand of possession or termination of such tenancy is necessar}^ 

Demand may be made, or notice served, by delivering a written or 


pn/ited, or partly either, copy thereof to the tenant, or leaving the same 
with some person above the age of twelve years residing on or in posses- 
sion of the premises ; and in case no one is in the actual possession of the 
said premises, then by posting the same on the premises. When the 
tenancy is for a certain time, and the term expires by the terms of the 
lease, the tenant is then bound to surrender possession, and no notice 
to quit or demand of possession is necessar3\ 

Distress for rent. — In all cases of distress for rent, the landlord, by 
himself, his agent or attorney, may seize for rent any personal property of 
his tenant that may be found in the county where the tenant resides ; the 
property of any other person, even if found on the premises, is not 

An inventory of the property levied upon, with a statement of the 
amount of rent claimed, should be at once filed with some justice of the 
peace, if not over $200 ; and if above that sum, with the clerk of a court 
of record of competent jurisdiction. Property may be released, by the 
party executing a satisfactory bond for double the amount. 

The landlord may distrain for rent, any time within six months after 
the expiration of the term of the lease, or when terminated. 

In all cases where the premises rented shall be sub-let, or the lease 
assigned, the landlord shall have the same right to enforce lien against 
such lessee or assignee, that he has against the tenant to whom the pre- 
mises were rented. 

When a tenant abandons or removes from the premises or any part 
thereof, the landlord, or his agent or attorney, may seize upon any grain 
or other crops grown or growing upon the premises, or part thereof so 
abandoned, whether the rent is due or not. If such grain, or other crops, 
or any part thereof, is not fully grown or matured, the landlord, or his 
agent or attorney, shall cause the same to be properly cultivated, harvested 
or gathered, and may sell the same, and from the proceeds pay all his 
labor, expenses and rent. The tenant may, before the sale of such pro- 
perty, redeem the same by tendering the rent and reasonable compensation 
for work done, or he may replevy the same. 

Exemption. — The same articles of personal property which are bylaw 
exempt from execution, except the crops as above stated, is also exempt 
from distress for rent. 

If any tenant is about to or shall permit or attempt to sell and 
remove from the premises, without the consent of his landlord, such 
portion of the crops raised thereon as will endanger the lien of the land- 
lord upon such crops, for the rent, it shall be lawful for the landlord to 
distress before rent is due. 



Any person who shall by contract^ express or implied, or partly both, 
with the owner of any lot or tract of land, furnisli labor or material, or 
services as an architect or superintendent, in building, altering, repairing 
or ornamenting any house or other building or appurtenance thereto on 
such lot, or upon an}^ street or alley, and connected with such improve' 
ments, shall have a lien upon the whole of such lot or tract of land, and 
upon such house or building and appurtenances, for the amount due to 
him for such labor, material or services. If the contract is expressed, and 
the time for the completion of the work is beyond three i/ears from the com- 
mencement thereof; or, if the time of payment is beyond one year from 
the time stipulated for the completion of the work, then no lien exists. 
If the contract is implied, then no lien exists, unless the work be done or 
material is furnished within one year from the commencement of the work 
or delivery of the materials. As between different creditors having liens, 
no preference is given to the one whose contract was first made ; but each 
shares pro-rata. Incumbrances existing on the lot or tract of the land at 
the time the contract is made, do not operate on the improvements, and 
are only preferred to the extent of the value of the land at the time of 
making the contract. The above lien can not be enforced unless suit is 
commenced within six months after the last payment for labor or materials 
shall have become due and payable. Sub-contractors, mechanics, workmen 
and other persons furnishing any material, or performing any labor for a 
contractor as before specified, have a lien to the extent of the amount due 
the contractor at the time the following notice is served upon the owner 
of the land who made the contract : 

To , You are hereby notified, that I have been employed by- 

(here state whether to labor or furnish material, and substantially the 
nature of the demand) upon your (here state in general terms description 
and situation of building), and that I shall hold the (building, or as the 
case may be), and your interest in the ground, liable for the amount that 

may (is or may become) due me on account thereof. Signature, 


If there is a contract in writing between contractor and sub-contractor, 
a copy of it should be served with above notice, and said notice must be 
served within forty days from the completion of such sub-contract, if there 
is one ; if not, then from the time payment should have been made to the 
person performing the labor or furnishing the material. If the owner is 
not a resident of the county, or can not be found therein, then the above 
notice must be filed with the clerk of the Circuit Court, with his fee, fifty 
cents, and a copy of said notice must be published in a newspaper pub- 
lished in the county, for four successive weeks. 


When the owner or agent is notified as above, he can retain any 
money due the contractor sufficient to pay such claim ; if more than one 
claim, and not enough to pay all, they are to be paid pro rata. 

The owner has the right to demand in writing, a statement of the 
contractor, of what he owes for labor, etc., from time to time as the work 
progresses, and on his failure to comply, forfeits to the owner $50 for 
every offense. 

The liens referred to cover any and all estates, whether in fee for 
life, for years, or any other interest which the owner may have. 

To enforce the lien of sub-contractors^ suit must be commenced within 
three 7nonths from the time of the performance of the sub-contract, or 
during the work or furnishing materials. 

Hotel, inn and hoarding-house keepers, have a lien upon the baggage 
and other valuables of their guests or boarders, brought into such hotel, 
inn or boarding-house, by their guests or boarders, for the proper charges 
due from such guests or boarders for their accommodation, board and 
lodgings, and such extras as are furnished at their request. 

Stable-keepers and other persons have a lien upon the horses, car- 
riages and harness kept by them, for the proper charges due for the keep- 
ing thereof and expenses bestowed thereon at the request of the owner 
or the person having the possession of the same. 

Agisters (persons who take care of cattle belonging to others), and 
persons keeping, yarding, feeding or pasturing domestic animals, shall 
have a lien upon the animals agistered, kept, yarded or fed, for the proper 
charges due for such service. 

All persons who may furnish any railroad corporation in this state 
with fuel, ties, material, supplies or any other article or thing necessary 
for the construction, maintenance, operation or repair of its road by con- 
tract, or may perform work or labor on the same, is entitled to be paid as 
part of the current expenses of the road, and have a lien upon all its pro- 
perty. Sub-contractors or laborers have also a lien. The conditions and 
limitations both as to contractors and sub-contractors, are about the same 
as herein stated as to general liens. 


means dollars, being a contraction of U. S., which was formerly 

placed before any denomination of money, and meant, as it means now, 
United States Currency. 

<£ means pounds, English money. 

@ stands for at or to. Hb iov pound, and bbl. for barrel; "^ iov per or 
hy the. Thus, Butter sells at 20@30c ^ tb, and Flour at $8@12 f bbl. 

fo for per cent and # for number. 

May 1.— Wheat sells at |1.20@1.25, "seller June." Seller June 


means that the person who sells the wheat has the privilege of delivering 
it at an}^ time during the month of June. 

Selling short, is contracting to deliver a certain amount of grain or 
stock, at a fixed price, within a certain length of time, when the seller 
has not the stock on hand. It is for the interest of the person selling 
"short," to depress the market as much as possible, in order that he may 
buy and fill his contract at a profit. Hence the " shorts "' are termed 
" bears." 

Buying long, is to contract to purchase a certain amount of grain or 
shares of stock at a fixed price, deliverable within a stipulated time, 
expecting to make a profit by the rise of prices. The " longs " are- 
termed "bulls," as it is for their interest to "operate" so as to "toss" 
the prices upward as much as possible. 


Form of note is legal, worded in the simplest way, so that the 
amount and time of payment are mentioned. 

$100. Chicago, 111., Sept. 15, 1876. 

Sixty da3^s from date I promise to pay to E. F. Brown,. 
or order. One Hundred dollars, for value received. 

L. D. LowRY. 

A note to be payable in any thing else than money needs only the 

facts substituted for money in the above form. 


Orders should be worded simply, thus : 

Mr. F. H. Coats: Chicago, Sept. 15, 1876; 

Please pay to H. Birdsall, Twenty-five dollars, and charge to 

F. D. SiLVA. 


Receipts should always state when received and what for, thus: 

$100. Chicago, Sept. 15, 1876. 

Received of J. W. Davis, One Hundred dollars, for services 
rendered in grading his lot in Fort Madison, on account. 

Thomas Brady. 

If receipt is in full it should be so stated. 


"VV. N. Mason. Salem, Illinois, Sept. 15, 1876. 

Bought of A. A. Graham. 

4 Bushels of Seed Wheat^ at $1.50 - - - - $6.00 

2 Seamless Sacks " .30 - - .60 

Received payment, $6.60 

A. A. Graham. 



An agreement is where one party promises to another to do a certain 
thing in a certain time for a stipulated sum. Good business men always 
reduce an agreement to writing, which nearly always saves misunder- 
standings and trouble. No particular form is necessary, but the facts must 
be clearly and explicitly stated, and there must, to make it valid, be a 
reasonable consideration. 


This Agreement, made the Second day of October, 1876, between 
John Jones, of Aurora, County of Kane, State of Illinois, of the first part, 
and Thomas Whiteside, of the same place, of the second part — 

WITNESSETH, that the said John Jones, in consideration of the agree- 
ment of the party of the second part, hereinafter contained, contracts and 
agrees to and with the said Thomas Whiteside, that he will deliver, in 
good and marketable condition, at the Village of Batavia, 111., during the 
month of November, of this year. One Hundred Tons of Prairie Hay, in 
the following lots, and at the following specified times ; namely, twenty- 
five tons by the seventh of November, twenty-five tons additional by the 
fourteenth of the month, twenty-five tons more by the twenty -first, and 
the entire one hundred tons to be all delivered by the thirtieth of 

And the said Thomas Whiteside, in consideration of the prompt 
fulfillment of this contract, on the part of the party of the first part, 
contracts to and agrees with the said John Jones, to pay for said hay five 
dollars per ton, for each ton as soon as delivered. 

In case of failure of agreement by either of the parties hereto, it is 
hereby stipulated and agreed that the party so failing shall pay to the 
other. One Hundred Dollars, as fixed and settled damages. 

In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands the day and 
year first above written. John Jones, 

Thomas Whiteside, 


This Agreement, made the first day of May, one thousand eight 
hundred and seventy-six, between Reuben Stone, of Chicago, County 
of Cook, State of Illinois, party of the first part, and George Barclay, of 
Englewood, County of Cook, State of Illinois, party of the second part — 

WITNESSETH, that Said George Barclay agrees faithfully and dili- 
gentl}^ to work as clerk and salesman for the said Reuben Stone, for 
and during the space of one year from the date hereof, should both 
live such length of time, without absenting himself from his occupation; 


during which time he, the said Barclay, in the store of said Stone, of 
Chicago, will carefully and honestly attend, doing and performing all 
duties as clerk and salesman aforesaid, in accordance and in all respects 
as directed and desired by the said Stone. 

In consideration of which services, so to be rendered by the said 
Barclay, the said Stone agrees to pay to said Barclay the annual sum of 
one thousand dollars, payable in twelve equal monthly payments, each 
upon the last day of each month ; provided that all dues for days of 
absence from business bv said Barclav, shall be deducted from the sum 
otherwise by the agreement due and payable by the said Stone to the said 

Witness our hands. Reuben Stone. 

George Barclay. 


A bill of sale is a written agreement to another party, for a consider- 
ation to convey his right and interest in the personal property. The 
purchaser must take actual possession of the property. Juries have 
power to determine upon the fairness or unfairness of a bill of sale. 


Know all Men by this instrument, that I, Louis Clay, of Princeton, 
Illinois, of the first part, for and in consideration of Five Hundred 
and Ten dollars, to me paid by John Floyd, of the same place, of the 
second part, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, have sold, and 
by this instrument do convey unto the said Floyd, party of the second 
part, his executors, administrators, and assigns, my undivided half of 
ten acres of corn, now growing on the farm of Thomas Tyrrell, in the 
town above mentioned ; one pair of horses, sixteen sheep, and five cows, 
belonging to me, and in my possession at the farm aforesaid ; to have and 
to hold the same unto the party of the second part, his executors and 
assigns, forever. And I do, for myself and legal representatives, agree 
with the said party of the second part, and his legal representatives, to 
warrant and defend the sale of the afore-mentioned property and chattels 
unto the said party of the second part, and his legal representatives, 
against all and every person whatsoever. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto affixed my hand, this tenth day 
of October, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-six. 

Louis Clay. 



A bond is a written admission on the part of the maker in which he 
pledges a certain sum to another, at a certain time. 



Know all Men by this instrument, that I, George Edgerton, of 
Watseka, Iroquois County, State of Illinois, am firmly bound unto Peter 
Kirchoff, of the place aforesaid, in the sum of five hundred dollars, to be 
paid to the said Peter Kirchoff, or his legal representatives ; to which 
payment, to be made, I bind myself, or my legal representatives, by this 

Sealed with my seal, and dated this second day of November, one 
thousand eight hundred and sixty-four. 

The condition of this bond is such that if I, George Edgerton, my 
heirs, administrators, or executors, shall promptly pay the sum of two 
hundred and fifty dollars in three equal annual payments from the date 
hereof, with annual interest, then the above obligation to be of no effect ; 
otherwise to be in full force and valid. 
Sealed and delivered in 

presence of George Edgerton. [l.s.] 

William Turner. 


A chattel mortgage is a mortgage on personal property for payment 
of a certain sum of money, to hold the property against debts of other 
creditors. The mortgage must describe the property, and must be 
acknowledged before a justice of the peace in the township or precinct 
where the mortgagee resides, and entered upon his docket, and must be 
recorded in the recorder's office of the county. 


This Indenture, made and entered into this first day of January, 
in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five, 
between Theodore Lottinville, of the town of Geneseo in the County 
of Henry, and State of Illinois, party of the first part, and Paul Henshaw, 
of the same town, county, and State, party of the second part. 

Witnesseth, that the said party of the first part, for and in consider- 
ation of the sum of one thousand dollars, in hand paid, the receipt whereof 
is hereby acknowledged, does hereby grant, sell, convey, and confirm unto 
the said party of the second part, his heirs and assigns forever, all and 
singular the following described goods and chattels, to wit : 

Two three-year old roan-colored horses, one Burdett organ. No. 987, 
one Brussels carpet, 15x20 feet in size, one marble-top center table, one 
Home Comfort cooking stove. No. 8, one black walnut bureau with mirror 
attached, one set of parlor chairs (six in number), upholstered in green 
rep, with lounge corresponding with same in style and color of upholstery, 
now in possession of said Lottinville, at No. 4 Prairie Ave., Geneseo, 111. ; 


Together with all and singular, the appurtenances thereunto \)elong- 
ing, or in any wise appertaining ; to have and to hold the above described 
goods and chattels, unto the said party of the second part, his heirs and 
assigns, forever. 

Provided, always, and these presents are upon this express condition, 
that if the said Theodore Lottinville, his heirs, executors, administrators, 
or assigns, shall, on or before the first day of January, A.D., one thousand 
eight hundred and seventy-six, pay, or cause to be paid, to the said Paul 
Ranslow, or his lawful attorney or attorneys, heirs, executors, adminis- 
trators, or assigns, the sum of One Thousand dollars, together with the 
interest that may accrue thereon, at the rate of ten per cent, per annum, 
from the first day of January, A.D. one thousand eight hundred and 
seventy-five, until paid, according to the tenor of one promissory note 
bearing even date herewith for the payment of said sura of money, that 
then and from thenceforth, these presents, and everything herein con- 
tained, shall cease, and be null and void, anything herein contained to the 
contrary notwithstanding. 

Provided, also, that the said Theodore Lottinville may retain the 
possession of and have the use of said goods and chattels until the day 
of payment aforesaid ; and also, at his own expense, shall keep said goods 
and chattels; and also at the expiration of said time of payment, if said 
sura of money, tog'jther with the interest as aforesaid, shall not be paid, 
shall deliver up said goods and chattels, in good condition, to said Paul 
Ranslow, or his heirs, executors, administrators, or assigns. 

And provided, also, that if default in payraent as aforesaid, by said 
party of the first part, shall be made, or if said party of the second part 
shall at any time before said promissory note becomes due, feel himself 
unsafe or insecure, that then the said party of the second part, or his 
attorney, agent, assigns, or heirs, executors, or administrators, shall have 
the right to take possession of said goods and chattels, wherever they 
may or can be found, and sell the same at public or private sale, to the 
highest bidder for cash in hand, after giving ten days' notice of the time 
and place of said sale, together with a description of the goods and chat- 
tels to be sold, by at least four advertisements, posted up in public places 
in the vicinity where said sale is to take place, and proceed to make the 
sura of money and interest promised as aforesaid, together with all reason- 
able costs, charges, and expenses in so doing ; and if there shall be any 
overplus, shall pay the same without delay to the said party of the first 
part, or his legal representatives. 

In testimony whereof, the said party of the first part lias hereunto 
set his hand and affixed his seal, the day and year first above written. 
Signed, sealed and delivered in 

presence of Theodoki-: Lottinville. [l.s.] 

Samuel J. Tilden. 



This Indenture, made this second day of June, 1875, between David 
Patton of the Town of Bisbee, State of Ilhnois, of the first part, and John 
Doyle of the same place, of the second part, 

Witnesseth, that the said David Patton, for and in consideration of 
the covenants hereinafter mentioned and reserved, on the part of the said 
John Doyle, his executors, administrators, and assigns, to be paid, kept, 
and performed, hath let, and by these presents doth grant, demise, and 
let, unto the said John Doyle, his executors, administrators, and assigns, 
all that parcel of land situate in Bisbee aforesaid, bounded and described, 
as follows, to wit : 

\^IIere. describe the land.~\ 

Together with all the appurtenances appertaining thereto. To have 
and to hold the said premises, with appurtenances thereto belonging, unto 
the said Doyle, his executors, administrators, and assigns, for the term of 
five years, from the first day of October next following, at a yearly rent 
of Six Hundred dollars, to be paid in equal payments, semi-annually, as 
lonof as said buildinofs are in o'ood tenantable condition. 

And the said Doyle, by these presents, covenants and agrees to pay 
all taxes and assessments, and keep in repair all hedges, ditches, rail, and 
other fences ; (the said David Patton, his heirs, assigns and administra- 
tors, to furnish all timber, brick, tile, and other materials necessary for 
such repairs.) 

Said Doyle further covenants and agrees to apply to said land, in a 
farmer-like manner, all manure and compost accumulating upon said 
farm, and cultivate all the arable land in a husbandlike manner, accord- 
ing to the usual custom among farmers in the neighborhood ; he also- 
agrees to trim the hedges at a seasonable time, preventing injury from 
cattle to such hedges, and to all fruit and other trees on the said premises. 
That he will seed down with clover and timothy seed twenty acres yearly 
of arable land, ploughing the same number of acres each Spring of land, 
now in grass, and hitherto unbroken. 

It is further agreed, that if the said Doyle shall fail to perform the 
whole or any one of the above mentioned covenants, then and in that 
case the said David Patton may declare this lease terminated, by giving- 
three months' notice of the same, prior to the first of October of any 
year, and may distrain any part of the stock, goods, or chattels, or other 
property in possession of said Doyle, for sufficient to compensate for the 
non-performance of the above written covenants, the same to be deter- 
mined, and amounts so to be paid to be determined, by three arbitrators, 
chosen as follows: Each of the parties to this instrument to choose one,. 


and the two so chosen to select a third ; the decision of said arbitrators 

to be final. 

In witness whereof, we have hereto set our hands and seals. 
Signed, sealed, and delivered 

in presence of David Patton. [l.s.] 

James Waldron. John Doyle. [l.s.] 


This Instrument, made the first day of October, 1875, witnesseth 
that Amos Griest of Yorkville, County of Kendall, State of Illinois, hath 
rented from Aaron Young of Logansport aforesaid, the dwelling and lot 
No. 13 Ohio Street, situated in said City of Yorkville, for five years 
from the above date, at the yearly rental of Three Hundred dollars, pay- 
able monthly, on the first day of each month, in advance, at the residence 
of said Aaron Young. 

At the expiration of said above mentioned term, the said Griest 
agrees to give the said Young peaceable possession of the said dwelling, 
in as good condition as when taken, ordinary wear and casualties excepted. 

In witness whereof, we place our hands and seals the day and year 

Signed, sealed and delivered Amos Griest. [l.s.] 

in presence of 


Notary Public. 


This certifies that I have let and rented, this first day of January, 
1876, unto Jacob Schmidt, my house and lot. No. 15 Erie Street, in the 
City of Chicago, State of Illinois, and its appurtenances ; he to have the 
free and uninterrupted occupation thereof for one year from this date, at 
the yearly rental of Two Hundred dollars, to be paid monthly in advance ; 
Tent to cease if destroyed by fire, or otherwise made untenantable. 

Peter Funk. 


This certifies that I have hired and taken from Peter Funk, his 
house and lot. No. 15 Erie Street, in the City of Chicago, State of Illi- 
nois, with appurtenances thereto belonging, for one year, to commence 
this day, at a yearly rental of Two Hundred dollars, to be paid monthly 
in advance ; unless said house becomes untenantable from fire or other 
causes, in which case rent ceases ; and I further agree to give and yield 
said premises one year from this first day of January 1876, in as good 
-condition as now, ordinary wear and damage by the elements excepted. 

Given under my hand this day. Jacob Schivudt. 



To F. W. Aelen, 

Sir : Please observe that the term of one year, for which the house 
and land, situated at No. 6 Indiana Street, and now occupied by you^ 
were rented to you, expired on the first day of October, 1875, and as I 
desire to repossess said premises, you are hereby requested and required 
to vacate the same. Respectfully Yours, 

P. T. Barnum. 

Lincoln, Neb., October 4, 1875. 


Dear Sir : 

The premises I now occupy as your tenant, at No. 6 Indiana Street^ 
I shall vacate on the first day of November, 1875. You will please take 
notice accordingly. 

Dated this tenth day of October, 1875. F. W. Arlen. 

To P. T. Barnum, Esq. 


This Indenture, made this sixteenth day of May, in the year of 
our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-two, between William 
Stocker, of Peoria, County of Peoria, and State of Illinois, and 011a, his 
wife, party of the first part, and Edward Singer, party of the second part. 

Whereas, the said party of the first part is justly indebted to the said 
party of the second part, in the sum of Two Thousand dollars, secured 
to be paid by two certain promissory notes (bearing even date herewith} 
the one due and payable at the Second Natioilal Bank in Peoria, Illinois, 
with interest, on the sixteenth day of May, in the year one thousand eight 
hundred and seventy-three ; the other due and payable at the Second 
National Bank at Peoria, 111., with interest, on the sixteenth day of May, 
in the year one thousand eight hundred and seven t3^-four. 

Now, therefore, this indenture witnesseth, that the said party of the 
first part, for the better securing the payment of the money aforesaid, 
with interest thereon, according to the tenor and effect of the said two 
promissory notes above mentioned ; and, also in consideration of the fur- 
ther sum of one dollar to them in hand paid by the said party of the sec- 
ond part, at the delivery of these presents, the receipt whereof is hereby 
acknowledged, have granted, bargained, sold, and conveyed, and by these 
presents do grant, bargain, sell, and convey, unto the said party of the 
second part, his heirs and assigns, forever, all that certain parcel of land, 
situate, etc. 

\^I}e scribing the premises.^ 

To have and to hold the same, together with all and singular the 
Tenements, Hereditaments, Privileges and Appui'tenances thereunto 


"belono-ing or in any wise appertaining. And also, all the estate, interest, 
and claim whatsoever, in law as well as in equit}^ which the party of 
the first part have in and to the premises hereby conveyed unto the said 
party of the second part, his heirs and assigns, and to their only proper 
use, benefit and behoof. And the said William Stocker, and 011a, his 
wife, party of the first part, hereby expressly waive, relinquish, release, 
^nd convey unto the said party of the second part, his heirs, executors, 
administrators, and assigns, all right, title, claim, interest, and benefit 
whatever, in and to the above described premises, and each and every 
part thereof, which is given by or results from all laws of this state per- 
taining to the exemption of homesteads. 

Provided always, and these presents are upon this express condition, 
that if the said party of the first part, their heirs, executors, or adminis- 
trators, shall well and truly pay, or cause to be paid, to the said party of 
the second part, his heirs, executors, administrators, or assigns, the afore- 
said sums of money, with such interest thereon, at the time and in the 
manner specified in the above mentioned promissory notes, according to 
the true intent and meaning thereof, then in that case, these presents and 
«very thing herein expressed, shall be absolutely null and void. 

In witness whereof, the said party of the first part hereunto set their 
hands and seals the day and year first above written. 
Signed, sealed and delivered in presence of 

James Whitehead, William Stocker. [l.s.] 

Fred. Samuels. Olla Stocker. [l.s.] 


This Indenture, made this sixth day of April, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy-two, between Henry Best 
of Lawrence, County of Lawrence, State of Illinois, and Belle, his wife, 
of the first part, and Charles Pearson of the same place, of the second part, 

Witnesseth, that the said party of the first part, for and in consideration 
■of the sum of Six Thousand dollars in hand paid by the said party of the 
second part, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, have granted, 
bargained, and sold, and by these presents do grant, bargain, and sell, 
unto the said party of the second part, his heirs and assigns, ail the fol- 
lowing described lot, piece, or parcel of land, situated in the City of Law- 
rence, in the County of Lawrence, and State of Illinois, to wit : 

\_Ee)'e describe the property.'] 

Together with all and singular the hereditaments and appurtenances 
thereunto belonging or in any wise appertaining, and the reversion and 
reversions, remainder and remainders, rents, issues, and profits thereof; 
and all the estate, rignt, title, interest, claim, and demand whatsoever, of 
the said party of the nrst part, either in law or equity, of, in, and to tht; 


above bargained premises, with the hereditaments and appurtenances. 
To have and to hold the said premises above bargained and described, 
with the appurtenances, unto the said party of the second part, his heirs 
and assigns, forever. And the said Henry Best, and Belle, his wife, par- 
ties of the first part, hereby expressly waive, release, and relinquish unto 
the said party of the second part, his heirs, executors, administrators, and 
assigns, all right, title, claim, interest, and benefit whatever, in and to the 
above described premises, and each and every part thereof, which is given 
by or results from all laws of this state pertaining to the exemption of 

And the said Henry Best, and Belle, his wife, party of the first 
part, for themselves and their heirs, executors, and administrators, do 
covenant, grant, bargain, and agree, to and with the said party of the 
second part, his heirs and assigns, that at the time of the ensealing and 
delivery of these presents they were well seized of the premises above 
conveyed, as of a good, sure, perfect, absolute, and indefeasible estate of 
inheritance in law, and in fee simple, and have good right, full power, 
and lawful authority to grant, bargain, sell, and convey the same, in 
manner and form aforesaid, and that the same are free and clear from all 
former and other grants, bargains, sales, liens, taxes, assessments, and 
encumbrances of what kind or nature soever ; and the above bargained 
premises in the quiet and peaceable possession of the said party of the 
second part, his heirs and assigns, against all and every person or persons 
lawfully claiming or to claim the whole or any part thereof, the said party 
of the first part shall and will warrant and forever defend. 

In testimony whereof, the said parties of the first part have hereunto 
set their hands and seals the day and year first above written. 
Signed, sealed and delivered 

in presence of Henry Best, [l.s.] 

Jerry Linklater. Belle Best. [l.s.] 


This Indenture, made the eightli day of June, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy-four, between David Tour, 
of Piano, County of Kendall, State of Illinois, party of the first part, 
and Larry O'Brien, of the same place, party of the second part, 

Witnesseth, that the said party of the first part, for and in considera- 
tion of Nine Hundred dollars in hand paid by the said party of the sec- 
ond part, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, and the said party 
of the second part forever released and discharged therefrom, has remised, 
released, sold, conveyed, and quit-claimed, and by these presents does 
remise, release, sell, convey, and quit-claim, unto the said party of the 
second part, his heirs and assigns, forever, all the right, title, interest, 


claim, and demand, which the said party of the first part has in and to 
the following described lot, piece, or parcel of land, to wit : 

\^Here describe the landJ] 
To have and to hold the same, together with all and singular the 
appurtenances and privileges thereunto belonging, or in any wise there- 
unto appertaining, and all the estate, right, title, interest, and claim 
whatever, of the said party of the first part, either in law or equity, to 
the only proper use, benefit, and behoof of the said party of the second 
part, his heirs and assigns forever. 

In witness whereof the said party of the first part hereunto set his 
hand and seal the day and year above written. 

»Siigned, sealed and delivered David Tour, [l.s.] 

in presence of 
Thomas Ashley. 

The above forms of Deeds and Mortgage are such as have heretofore 
been generally used, but the following are much shorter, and are made 
equally valid by the laws of this state. 


The grantor (here insert name or names and place of residence), for 
and in consideration of (here insert consideration) in hand paid, conveys 
and warrants to (here insert the grantee's name or names) the following 
described real estate (here insert description), situated in the County of 
in the State of Illinois. 

Dated this day of A. D. 18 . 


The grantor (here insert grantor's name or names and place of resi- 
dence), for the consideration of (here insert consideration) convey and 
quit-claim to (here insert grantee's name or names) all interest in the 
following described real estate (here insert description), situated in the 
County of in the State of Illinois. 

Dated this day of A. D. 18 . 


The mortgagor (here insert name or names) mortgages and warrants 
to (here insert name or names of mortgagee or mortgagees), to secure the 
payment of (here recite the nature and amount of indebtedness, showing 
when due and the rate of interest, and whether secured by note or other- 
wise), the following described real estate (here insert description thereof), 
situated in the County of in the State of Illinois. 

Dated this day of A. D. 18 . 


Know all Men by these presents, that I, Peter Ahlund, of Chicago, 
of the County of Cook, and State of Illinois, for and in consideration of 
One dollar, to me in hand paid, and for other good and valuable considers- 


tions, the receipt whereof is hereby confessed, do hereby grant, bargain, 
remise, convey, release, and quit-chaim unto Joseph Carlin of Chicago, 
of the County of Cook, and State of Illinois, all the right, title, interest, 
claim, or demand whatsoever, I may have acquired in, through, or by a 
certain Indenture or Mortgage Deed, bearing date the second day of Jan- 
uary, A. D. 1871, and recorded in the Recorder's office of said county, 
in book A of Deeds, page 46, to the premises therein described, and which 
said Deed was made to secure one certain promissory note, bearing even 
date with said deed, for the sum of Three Hundred dollars. 

Witness my hand and seal, this second day of November, A. D. 1874. 

Peter Ahlund. [l.s.] 

State of Illinois, ) 
Cook County. j I, George Saxton, a Notary Public in 

and for said county, in the state aforesaid, do hereby 

certify that Peter Ahlund, personally known to me 

as the same person whose name is subscribed to the 

foregoing Release, appeared before me this day in 

[ "^Je AL."^^ ] person, and acknowledged that he signed, sealed, and 

delivered the said instrument of writing as his free 

and voluntary act, for the uses and purposes therein 

set forth. 

Giv^n under my hand and seal, this second day of 

November, A. D. 1874. 

George Saxton, N. P. 


I, Charles Mansfield, of the Town of Salem, County of Jackson, 
Scate of Illinois, being aware of the Lincertainty of life, and in failing 
health, but of sound mind and memory, do make and declare this to be 
my last will and testament, in manner following, to wit: 

First. I give, devise and bequeath unto my oldest son, Sidney H. 
Mansfield, the sum of Two Thousand Dollars, cf bank stock, now in the 
Third National Bank of Cincinnati, Ohio, and the farm owned by myself 
in the Town of Buskirk, consisting of one hundred jind sixty acres, with 
all the houses, tenements, and improvements thereunto belonging ; to 
have and to hold unto my said son, his heirs and assiguv, forever. 

Second. I give, devise and bequeath to each of my daughters, Anna 
Louise Mansfield and Ida Clara Mansfield, each Two Thousand dollars in 
bank stock, in the Third National Bank of Cincinnati, Ohio, and also each 
one quarter section of land, owned by myself, situated in tht. Town of 
Lake, Illinois, and recorded in my name in the Recorder's officvj in the 
county where such land is located. The north one hundred and sixty 
acres of said half section is devised to ray eldest daughter, Anna Louise. 


Third. I give, devise and bequeath to my son, Frank Alfred Mans- 
field, Five shares of Railroad stock in the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, 
and my one hundred and sixty acres of land and saw mill thereon, situ- 
ated in Manistee, Michigan, with all the improvements and appurtenances 
thereunto belonging, which said real estate is recorded in my name in the 
county where situated. 

Fourth. I give to my wife, Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield, all my 
household furniture, goods, chattels, and personal property, about my 
home, not hitherto disposed of, including Eight Thousand dollars of bank 
stock in the Third National Bank of Cincinnati, Ohio, Fifteen shares in 
the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and the free and unrestricted use, pos- 
session, and benefit of the home farm, so long as she may live, in lieu of 
dower, to which she is entitled by law ; said farm being my present place 
of residence. 

Fifth. I bequeath to my invalid father, Elijah H. Mansfield, the 
income from rents of my store building at 145 Jackson Street, Chicago, 
Illinois, during the term of his natural life. Said building and land there- 
with to revert to my said sons and daughters in equal proportion, upon 
the demise of my said father. 

Sixth. It is also my will and desire that, at the death of my wife, 
Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield, or at any time when she may arrange to 
relinquish her life interest in the above mentioned homestead, the same 
may revert to my above named children, or to the lawful heirs of each. 

And lastly. I nominate and appoint as executors of this my last will 
and testament, my wife, Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield, and my eldest son, 
Sidney H. Mansfield. 

I further direct that my debts and necessary funeral expenses shad 
be paid from moneys now on deposit in the Savings Bank of Salem, the 
residue of such moneys to revert to my wife, Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield, 
for her use forever. 

In witness whereof, I, Charles Mansfield, to this my last will and 
testament, have hereunto set my hand and seal, this fourth day of April, 
eighteen hundred and seventy-two. 

Signed, sealed, and declared by Charles 
Mansfield, as and for his last will and 
testament, in the presence of us, who, 
at his request, and in his presence, and 
in the presence of each other, have sub- )>■ 
scribed our names hereunto as witnesses 

Peter A. Schenck, Sycamore, Ills. 

Frank E. Dent, Salem, Ills. 

Charles Mansfield, [l.s.] 

Charles Mansfield, [l.s.] 



Whereas I, Charles Mansfield, did, on the fourth da}^ of April, one 
thousand eight hundred and seventy-two, make my last will and testa- 
ment, I do now, by this writing, add this codicil to my said will, to be 
taken as a part thereof. 

Whereas, by the dispensation of Providence, my daughter, Anna 
Louise, has deceased November fifth, eighteen hundred and seventy-three, 
and whereas, a son has been born to me, which son is now christened 
Richard Albert Mansfield, I give and bequeath unto him my gold watch, 
and all right, interest, and title in lands and bank stock and chattels 
bequeathed to my deceased daughter, Anna Louise, in the body of this will. 

In witness whereof, I hereunto place my hand and seal, this tenth 
day of March, eighteen hundred and seventy -five. 

Signed, sealed, published, and declared to^ 

us by the testator, Charles Mansfield, as 

and for a codicil to be annexed to his 

last will and testament. And we, at 

his request, and in his presence, and in 

the presence of each other, have sub- 
scribed our names as witnesses thereto, 

at the date hereof. 
Frank E. Dent, Salem, Ills. 
John C. Shay, Salem, Ills. 


May be legally made by electing or appointing^ according to the usages 
or customs of the body of which it is a part, at any meeting held for that 
purpose, two or more of its members as trustees, wardens or vestrymen, and 
may adopt a corporate name. The chairman or secretary of such meeting 
shall, as soon as possible, make and file in the office of the recorder of 
deeds of the county, an affidavit substantially in the following form : 
State of Illinois, 


County. ( 

I, , do solemnly swear (or affirm, as the case may be), 

that at a meeting of the members of the (here insert the name of the 
church, society or congregation as known before organization), held at 

(here insert place of meeting), in the County of , and State of 

Illinois, on the day of — ^ , A.D. 18—, for that purpose, the fol- 
lowing persons were elected (or appointed) [here insert their natnes] 
trustees, wardens, vestrymen, (or officers by whatever name the}^ may 
choose to adopt, with powers similar to trustees) according to the rules 
and usages of such (church, society or congregation), and said 


adopted as its corporate name (here insert name), and at said meeting- 
this affiant acted as (chairman or secretary, as the case may be). 

Subscribed and sworn to before me, this day of , A.D. 

18—. Name of Affiant 

which affidavit must be recorded by the recorder, and shall be, or a certi- 
fied copy made by the recorder, received as evidence of such an incorpo- 

No certificate of election after the first need he filed for record. 

The term of office of the trustees and the general government of the 
society can be determined by the rules or by-laws adopted. Failure to- 
elect trustees at the time provided does not work a dissolution, but the 
old trustees hold over. A trustee or trustees may be removed, in the 
same manner by the society as elections are held by a meeting called for 
that purpose. The property of the society Vests in the corporation. The 
corporation may hold, or acquire by purchase or otherwise, land not 
exceeding ten acres, for the purpose of the society. The trustees have 
the care, custody and control of the praperty of the corporation, and can, 
when directed by the society, erect houses or improvements, and repair 
and alter the same, and may also when so directed by the society, 
mortgage, encumber, sell and convey any real or personal estate belonging 
to the corporation, and make all proper contracts in the name of such 
corporation. But they are prohibited by law from encumbering or inter- 
fering with any property so as to destroy the effect of any gift, grant,, 
devise or bequest to the corporation ; but such gifts, grants, devises of 
bequests, must in all cases be used so as to carry out the object intended 
by the persons making the same. Existing societies may organize in the 
manner herein set forth, and have all the advantages thereof. 


The business of publishing books by subscription having so often been 
brought into disrepute by agents making representations and declarations 
not authorized by the publisher ; in order to prevent that as much as possi- 
ble, and that there may be more general knowledge of the relation such 
agents bear to their principal, and the law governing such cases, the fol- 
lowing statement is made : 

A subscription is in the nature of a contract of mutual promises, by 
which the subscriber agrees to pay a certain sum for the work described ; 
the consideration is concurrent that the publisher shall publish the book 
named, and deliver the same, for which the subscriber is to pay the price 
named. The nature and character of the tvork is described in the prospectus 
and by the sample shown. These should be carefully examined before sub- 
scribing, as they are the basis and consideration of the promise to pay. 


and not the too often exaggerated statements of the agent^ who is merely 
employed to solicit subscriptions, for which he is usually paid a commission 
for each subscriber, and has yio authority to change or alter the conditions 
upon which the subscriptions are authorized to be made by the publisher. 
Should the agent assume to agree to make the subscription conditional or 
modify or change the agreement of the publisher, as set out by prospectus 
and sample, in order to hind the principal, the subscriber should see that 
such conditions or changes are stated over or in connection with his signa- 
ture, so that the publisher may have notice of the same. 

All persons making contracts in reference to matters of this kind, or 
any other business, should remember that the law as to written contracts zs, 
that they can not be varied, altered or rescinded verbally, but if done at all, 
must be done in writing. It is therefore important that all persons contem- 
plating subscribing should distinctly understand that all talk before or after 
the subscription is made, is not admissible as evidence, and is no part of the 

Persons employed to solicit subscriptions are known to the trade as 
canvassers. They are agents appointed to do a particular business in a 
prescribed mode, and have no authority to do it in any other way to the 
prejudice of their principal, nor can they bind their principal in any other 
matter. They cannot collect money, or agree that payment may be made 
in anything else hut money. They can not extend the time of payment 
heyond the time of delivery, nor hind their principal for the payment of 
expenses incurred in their buisness. 

It would save a great deal of trouble, and often serious loss, if persons, 
before signing their names to any subscription book, or any written instru- 
ment, would examine carefully what it is ; if they can not read themselves, 
should call on some one disinterested who can. 




We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect uniouy. 
establish justice, insure domestic trariquillity, provide for the common 
defense, promote the general ivelfare, and secure the blessings of liberty 
to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution 
for the United States of America. 

Article I. 

Section 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in 
a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and 
House of Representatives. 

Sec. 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of mem- 
bers chosen every second year by the people of the several states, and the- 
electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of 
the most numerous branch of the State Legislature. 

No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained to the 
age of twenty-live years, and been seven years a citizen of the United 
States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in 
which he shall be chosen. 

Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the sev- 
eral states Avhicli may be included within this Union, according to their 
respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole 
number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of 
years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. 
The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first 
meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subse- 
quent term of ten j^ears, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The 
number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand^ 
but each state shall have at least one Representative ; and until such 
enumeration shall be made the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled 
to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plan- 
tations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylva- 
nia eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five,, 
and Georgia three. 

When vacancies happen in the representation from any state, the 
Executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such 

The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other 
officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment. 

Sec. 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two 
Senators from each state, chosen by the Legislature thereof for six years ; 
and each Senator shall have one vote. 

Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first 
election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. 
The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expira- 


tion of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth 
year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that 
one-third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by 
resignation or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any state, 
the Executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next 
meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacajcies. 

No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age 
of thirty years and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and 
who shall not, when elected, be an "inhabitant of that state for which he 
shall be chosen. 

The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of the 
Senate, but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided. 

The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro 
tempore, in the absence of the Vice-President, or when he shall exercise 
the office of President of the United States. 

The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When 
sitting for that purpose they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the 
President of the United States is tried the Chief Justice shall preside. 
And no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds 
of the members present. 

Judgment, in cases of impeachment, shall not extend further than to 
removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of 
honor, trust, or profit under the United States ; but the party convicted 
shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, 
and punishment according to law. 

Sec. 4. The times, places and manner of holding elections for Sen- 
ators and Representatives shall be prescribed in each state by the Legis- 
lature thereof ; but the Congress ma}^ at any time by law make or alter 
such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators. 

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such 
meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by 
law appoint a different day. 

Sec. 5. Each house shall be the judge of the election, returns, and 
qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute 
a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to 
day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members 
in such manner and under such penalties as each house may provide. 

Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its 
members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, 
expel a member. 

Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to 
time publish the same, excepting such parts as may, in their judgment, 
require secrecy ; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house 
on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered 
on the journal. 

Neither house, during the session of Congress, shall, without the 
consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other 
place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting. 

Sec. 6. The Senators and Kepresentatives shall receive a compen- 
sation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the 
treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason. 


felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their 
attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to and 
returning from the same ; and for any speech or debate in either house 
they shall not be questioned in any other place. 

No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was 
elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United 
States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall 
have been increased during such time ; and no person holding any office 
under the United States, shall be a member of either house during his 
continuance in office. 

Sec. 7. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of 
Representatives ; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments 
as on other bills. 

Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and 
the Senate, shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the President 
1' the United States ; if he approve he shall sign it ; but if not he shall 
return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall have origi- 
nated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and 
proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration two-thirds of that 
house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objec- 
tions, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if 
approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all 
such cases the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, 
and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered 
on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned 
by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted), after it shall have 
been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he 
had signed it, unless the Congress, by their adjournment, prevent its 
return, in which case it shall not be a law. 

Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the 
Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a 
question of adjournment), shall be presented to the President of the 
United States, and before the same shall take effect shall be approved by 
him, or, being disapproved by him, shall be re-passed by two-thirds of 
the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and lim- 
itations prescribed in the case of a bill. 

Sec. 8. The Congress shall have power — 

To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts, 
and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United 
States ; but all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout 
the United States ; 

To borrow money on the credit of the United States ; 

To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several 
Str.tes, and with the Indian tribes ; 

To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on 
the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States ; 

To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and 
fix the standard of weights and measures ; 

To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and 
current coin of the United States; 

To establish post offices and post roads ; 


To promote the progress of sciences and useful arts, by securing, 
for I'mited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their 
respective writings and discoveries ; 

To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court ; 

To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high 
seas, and offenses against the law of nations ; 

To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules 
concerning captures on land and water ; 

To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that 
use shall be for n longer term than two years ; 

To provide and maintain a navy ; 

To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and 
naval forces ; 

To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the 
Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions ; 

To provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the militia, and 
for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the 
United States, reserving to the states respectively the appointment of the 
officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the disci- 
pline prescribed by Congress ; 

To exercise legislation in all cases whatsoever over such district (not 
exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the 
acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United 
States, and to exercise Uke authority over all places purchased by the 
consent of the Legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for 
the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock yards, and other needful 
buildings ; and 

To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying 
into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this 
Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any depart- 
ment or officer thereof. 

Sec. 9. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the 
states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited 
by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, 
but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten 
dollars for each person. 

The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, 
unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may 
require it. 

No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed. 

No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion 
to the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken. 

No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state. 

No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or rev- 
enue to the ports of one state over those of another ; nor shall vessels 
bound to or from one state be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in 

No money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in consequence of 
appropriations made by law ; and a regular statement and account of 
the receipts and expeditures of all public money shall be published from 
time to time. 



No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States : and no 
person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the 
consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title 
of any kind whatever, irom any king, prince, or foreign state. 

Sec. 10. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confeder- 
ation ; grant letters of marque and reprisal ; coin money ; emit bills of 
credit ; make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of 
debts ; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the 
obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility. 

No state shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts 
or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary 
for executing its inspection laws, and the net produce of all duties and 
imposts laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the 
Treasury of the United States °, and all such laws shall be subject to tha 
revision and control of the Congress. 

No state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty on 
tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any 
agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power, or 
engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will 
not admit of delay. 

Article II. 

Section 1. The Executive power shall be vested in a President of 
the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term 
of four years, and, together with the Vice-President chosen for the same 
term, be elected as follows : 

Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof 
may direct, a number of Electors, equal to the whole number of Senators 
and Representatives to which the state may be entitled in the Congress ; 
but no Senator or Representative, or person holding an office of trust or 
profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector. 

[*The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by 
ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of 
the same state with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the 
persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each ; which list they 
shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the government 
of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The Pres- 
ident of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Rep- 
resentatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. 
The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, 
if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed ; 
and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal 
number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately 
choose by ballot one of them for President ; and if no person have a ma- 
jority, then from the five highest on the list the said House shall in like 
manner choose the President. But in choosing the President, the vote 
shall be taken b}^ states, the representation from each state having one 
vote ; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members 
from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be 
necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, 

• This clause between.brackets has been superseded and annulled by the Twelfth amendment. 


the person having the greatest number of votes of the Electors shall be- 
the Vice-President. But if there should remain two or more who have 
equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice-Presi- 

The Congress may determine the time of choosing the Electors, and 
the day on which they shall give their votes ; which day shall be the same 
throughout the United States. 

No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United 
States at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible 
to the office of President ; neither shall any person be eligible to that 
office who shall not have attained the age of thirty-five years, and been 
fourteen years a resident within the United States. 

In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, 
resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said 
office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-Puesident, and the Congress- 
may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inabil- 
ity, both of the President and Vice-President, declaring what officer shall 
then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the dis- 
ability be removed, or a President shall be elected. 

The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a com- 
pensation which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the 
period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive 
within that period any other emolument from the United States or any of 

Before he enters on the execution of his office, he shall take the fol- 
lowing oath or affirmation : 

" I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the 
office of President of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, 
preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States." 

Sec. 2. The President shall be commander in chief of the army and 
navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several states, when 
called into the actual service of the United States; he may require the 
opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive 
departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective- 
offices, and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardon for offenses 
against the United States, ex-cept in cases of impeachment. 

He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the 
Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present con- 
cur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice of the Senate, 
shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of 
the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States whose 
appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be 
established by law ; but the Congress may by law vest the appointment 
of such inferior officers as they think proper in the President alone, in 
the courts of law, or in the heads of departments. 

The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may 
happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which, 
shall expire at the end of their next session. 

Sec. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress information- 
of the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such mea- 
sures as he shall judge necessary and expedient ; he may on extraordinary 


■occasions convene both houses, or either of them, and in case of disagree- 
ment between them, Avith respect to the time of adjournment, he may 
.adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper ; he shall receive 
ambassadors and other public ministers ; he shall take care that the laws be 
faithfully executed, and shall commission all the of^cers of the United 


Sec. 4. The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers of the 
United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and con- 
viction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. 

Article III. 

Section I. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested 
in one Supreme Court, and such inferior courts as the Congress may from 
time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the Supreme and 
inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall, at 
stated times, receive for their services a compensation, which shall not be 
diminished during their continuance in office. 

Sec. 2. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and 
equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and 
treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority ; to all cases 
affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls ; to all cases of 
admiralty and maritime jurisdiction ; to controversies to which the United 
States shall be a party ; to controversies between two or more states ; 
between a state and citizens of another state ; between citizens of differ- 
ent states ; between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants 
of different states, and between a state or the citizens thereof, and foreign 
states, citizens, or subjects. 

In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls, 
and those in which a state shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have 
original jurisdiction. 

In all the other cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court shall 
have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions 
and under such regulations as the Congress shall make. 

The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by 
jury ; and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes shali 
have been committed ; but when not committed within any state, the 
trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have 

Sec. 3. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levy- 
ing war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid 
and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the tes- 
timony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open 

The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, 
but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, 
except during the life of the person attainted. 

Article IV. 

Section 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the 
public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state. And 


tlie Congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which such 
acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof. 

Sec. 2. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges- 
and immunities of citizens in the several states. 

A person charged in any state with treason, felony, or other crime^ 
who shall flee from justice and be found in another state, shall, on demand 
of the executive authority of the state from which he fled, be delivered 
up, to be removed to the state having jurisdicl'on of the crime. 

No person held to service or labor in one state, under the laws thereof 
escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation 
therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered 
up on the claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due. 

Sec. 3. New states may be admitted by the Congress into this Union ^ 
but no new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any 
other state ; nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states,, 
or parts of states, without the consent of the Legislatures of the states, 
concerned, as well as of. the Congress. 

The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful 
rules and regulations respecting the territor}' or other property belonging- 
to the United States ; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed 
as to prejudice any claims of the United States or of any particular state. 

Sec. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every state in this. 
Union a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them 
against invasion, and on application of the Legislature, or of the Execu- 
tive (when the Legislature can not be convened), against domestic vio- 

Article V. 

The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it 
necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the ap- 
plication of the Legislatures of two-thirds of the several states, shall call 
a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be 
valid to all intents and purposes as part of this Constitution, when rati- 
fied by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several states, or by con- 
ventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratifi- 
cation may be proposed by the Congress. Provided that no amendment 
which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and 
eiq-ht shall in anv manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth 
section of the first article ; and that no state, without its consent, shall 
be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate. 

Article VI. 

All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adop- 
tion of this Constitution shall be as valid against the United States under 
this Constitution as under the Confederation. 

This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be 
made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made, 
under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the 
land ; and the Judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in 
the Constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding. 

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the mem- 



^ers of the several state Legislatures, and all executive and judicial offi- 
<;ers, both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound 
b}^ oath or affirmation to support this Constitution ; but no_ religious test 
.«hall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under 
the United States. 

Article VII. 

The ratification of the Conventions of nine states shall be sufficient 
for the establishment of this Constitution between the states so ratifying 
the same. 

Done in convention by the unanimous consent of the states present, the 
seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand 
seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the independence of the 
United States of America the twelfth. In witness whereof we have 
hereunto subscribed our names. 


President a7id Deputy from Virginia. 

Neiv Hampshire. 
John Langdon, 
Nicholas Gilman. 

Nathaniel Gorham, 
RuFus King. 

Wm. Sam'l Johnson, 
EoGER Sherman. 

New York. 
Alexander Hamilton. 

New Jersey. 
WiL. Livingston, 
Wm. Paterson, 
David Brearley, 
JoNA. Dayton. 

B. Franklin, 
RoBT. Morris, 
Thos. Fitzsimons, 
James Wilson, 
Thos. Mifflin, 
Geo. Clymer, 
Jared Ingersoll, 
Gouv. Morris. 

Geo. Read, 
John Dickinson, 
Jaco. Broom, 
Gunning Bedford, Jr., 
Richard Bassett. 

James M' Henry, 
Danl. Carroll, 
Dan. of St. Thos. Jenifer. 

John Blair, 
James Madison, Jr. 

North Carolina. 
Wm. Blount, 
Hu. Williamson, 
Rich'd Dobbs Spaight. 

South Carolina. 
J. Rutledge, 
Charles Pinckney, 
Chas. Cotesworth Pinckney, 
Pierce Butler. 

William Few, 
Abr. Baldwin. 



Articles in Addition to and Amendatory of the Constitution 
OF THE United States of America. 

Proposed hy Congress and ratified hy the Legislatures of the several states, 
pursuant to the fifth article of the original Constitution. 

Article I. 

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, 
or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of 
speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, 
and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. 

Article II. 

A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free 
state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. 

Article III. 

No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without 
the consent of the owner, nor in time of war but in a manner to be pre- 
scribed by law. 

Article IV. 

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, 
and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be vio- 
lated ; and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by 
oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched 
and the persons or things to be seized. 

Article V. 

No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous 
crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in 
cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia when in actual 
service in time of war or public danger ; nor shall any person be subject 
for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb ; nor shall 
be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be 
deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law ; nor 
shall private .property be taken for public use, without just compensation. 

Article VI. 

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a 
speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district 
wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have 
been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and 
cause of the accusation ; to be confronted with the witnesses against him ; 
to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and to 
have the assistance of counsel for his defense. 

Article VII. 

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed 
twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact 


tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United 
States than according to the rules of the common law. 

Article VIII. 

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, 
nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. 

Article IX. 

The enumeration, in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be 
construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. 

Article X. 

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, 
nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, 
or to the people. 

Article XI. 

The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to 
extend to any suit in law or equity commenced or prosecuted against one 
of the United States by citizens of another state, or by citizens or sub- 
jects of any foreign state. 

Article XII. 

The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot 
for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an 
inhabitant of the same state with themselves ; they shall name in their 
ballots the person to be voted for as president, and in distinct ballots the 
person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of 
all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice- 
President, and of the number of votes for each, which list they shall sign 
and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United 
States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the 
Senate shall, in presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, 
open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person 
having the greatest number of votes for President shall be the President, 
if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed ; 
and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the 
highest number not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as 
President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by 
ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be 
taken by States, the representation from each state having one vote; a 
quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two- 
thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to 
a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a Presi- 
dent whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the 
fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as 
President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of 
the President. The person having tlie greatest number of votes as Vice- 
President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be the majority 
of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have a major- 


ity^ then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose 
the Vice-President ; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds 
of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number 
shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible 
to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the 

United States. 

Article XIII. 

Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a 
punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, 
shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their juris- 

Sec. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appro- 
priate legislation. 

Article XIV. 

Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States and 
subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States, and 
of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law 
which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United 
States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, 
without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction 
the equal protection of the laws. 

Sec. 2. Representatives shall be appointed among the several states 
according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of per- 
sons in each state, excluding Indians not taxed ; but when the right to 
vote at any election for the choice of Electors for President and Vice- 
President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the execu- 
tive and judicial officers of a state, or the members of the Legislature 
thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such state, being 
twenty-one years of age and citizens of the United States, or in any way 
abridged except for participation in rebellion or other crimes, the basis of 
representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the num- 
ber of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens 
twenty-one years of age in such state. 

Sec. 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, 
or Elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or 
military, under the United States, or under any state, who, having previ- 
ously taken an oath as a Member of Congress, or as an officer of the 
United States, or as a member of any state Legislature, or as an execu- 
tive or judicial officer of any state to support the Constitution of the 
United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebelhon against the 
same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress mav 
by a vote of two-thirds of each house, remove such disability. 

Sec. 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States author- 
ized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and boun- 
ties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be ques- 
tioned. But neither the United States nor any state shall pay any debt 
or obligation incurred in the aid of insurrection or rebellion against the 
United States, or any loss or emancipation of any slave, but such debts, 
obligations, and claims shall be held illegal and void. 



Sec. 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate 
legislation, the provisions of this act. 

Article XV. 

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall 
not be denied or abridged by the United States, or by any state, on 
account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 

Sec. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appro- 
priate legislation. 


November 7, 1876. 


Adams , 









































Jo Daviess... 
Johnson ... . 


Kankakee ... 




La .Salle 




a; 0^ 

" C^ -H 



CD c;-2 




*>— s 

G.) " ^ 

< o 



— "c 


X tf 






C """*-> 










~ o 



















41 17i.... 










































2 11 


Livingston i 3550 

Logan I 2788 

Macon 3120 

Macoupin 3567 












Montgomery . 













Rock Island... 


Sangamon .... 





St. Clair 




















Total 1275958 257099 16951 130 157 






















. . . . 































■ • • . 

• • * * 




> > > > 
























. .. . 





. . • 







• * . . 


, _ 







Practical Rules for Every Day Use. 

Hoiv to find the gain -or loss per cent, when the cost and selling price 
tare given. 

Rule. — Find the difference between the cost and selling price, which 
will be the gain or loss. 

Annex two ciphers to the gain or loss, and divide it by the cost 
price ; the result will be the gain or loss per cent. 

How to change gold into currency. 

Rule. — Multiply the given sum of gold by the price of gold. 

How to change currency into gold. 

Divide the amount in currency by the price of gold. 

How to find each partner's share of the gain or loss in a copartnership 

Rule. — Divide the whole gain or loss by the entire stock, the quo- 
tient will be the gain or loss per cent. 

Multipl}^ each partner's stock by this per cent., the result will be 
each one's share of the gain or loss. 

How to find gross and net weight and price of hogs. 

A short and simple method for finding the net weight., or price of hogs^ 
when the gross weight or price is given, and vice versa. 

Note.— It is generally assumed that the gross weight of Hogs diininislied by 1-5 or 20 per cent, 
of itself gives the net weight, and the net weight increased by K or 25 per cent, of itself equals the 
«;ross weight. 

To find the net weight or gross price. 

Multiply the given number by .8 (tenths.) 

To find the gross tveight or net price. 

Divide the given number by .8 (tenths.) 

How to find the capacity of a granary, bin, or wagon-bed. 

Rule. — Multiply (by short method) the nnmber of cubic feet by 
6308, and point off one decimal place — the result will be the correct 
answer in bushels and tenths of a bushel. 

For only an approximate ansiver, multiply the cubic feet by 8, and 
point off one decimal place. 

How to find the contents of a corn-crib. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of cubic feet by 54, short method, or 



by 4^ ordinary method, and point off one decimal place — the result wil> 
be the answer in bushels. 

Note.— Ill estliiiatiiiK corn in tlie car, the quaUty and the time it lias been cribbed must he taken 
Into consideration, since corn will shrink considerahly during the Winter and Spring. This rule generally holds 
good for corn measured at the time it is cribbed, provided it is sound andcleau. 

Hoiv to find the contents of a cistern or tank. 

Rule. — Multiply the square of the mean diameter by the depth (ali 
m feet) and this product by 5681 (short method), and point off ONE 
decimal place — the result will be the contents in barrels of 31-i gallons. 

How to find the contents of a barrel or cask. 

Rule. — Under the square of the mean diameter, write the length, 
(all in inches) in reversed order, so that its units will fall under the- 
tens ; multiply by short method, and this product again by 430 ; point, 
off one decimal place, and the result will be the answer in wine gallons. 

How to measure > boards. 

Rule. — Multiply the length (in feet) by the width (in inches) and 
divide the product by 12 — the result will be the contents in square feet. 

How to measure scantlings, joists, planks, sills, etc. 

Rule. — Multiply the width, the thickness, and the length together 
(the width and thickness in inches, and the length in feet), and divide- 
the product by 12 — the result will be square feet. 

How to find the number of acres in a body of land. 

Rule. — Multiply the length by the width (in rods), and divide the- 
product by 160 (carrying the division to 2 decimal places if there is ar 
remainder) ; the result will be the answer in acres and hundredths. 

When the opposite sides of a piece of land are of unequal length, 
add them together and take one-half for the mean length or width. 

How to find the number of square yards in a floor or ivall. 

Rule. — Multiply the length by the width or height (in feet), and 
divide the product by 9, the result will be square yards. 

How to find the number of bricks required in a building. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of cubic feet by 22.^. 

The number of cubic feet is found by multiplying the length, height 
and thickness (in feet) together. 

Bricks are usually made 8 inches long, 4 inches wide, and two inches 
thick ; hence, it requires 27 bricks to make a cubic foot without mortar, 
but it is generally assumed that the mortar fills 1-6 of the space. 

How to find the number of shingles required in a roof. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of square feet in the roof by 8, if the 
shingles are exposed 4i inches, or by 7 1-5 if exposed 5 inches. 

To find the number of square feet, multiply the length of the roof by 
twice the length of the rafters. 


To find the length of the rafters, at one-fourth pitch, multiply the 
width of the building by .56 (hundredths) ; at one-third pitch, by .6 
(tenths) ; at two-fifths pitch, by .64 (hundredths) ; at one-half 
pitch, by .71 (hundredths). This gives the length of the rafters from 
the apex to the end of the wall, and whatever they are to project must be 
taken into consideration. 

Note.— By Jf or J4 pitch is meant tliat the apex or comb of the roof is to be K or M the widtli of the 
•building higher than the walls or base of the rafters. 

How to reckon the cost of hay. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of pounds by half the price per ton, 
and remove the decimal point three places to the left. 

How to measure grain. 

Rule. — Level the grain ; ascertain the space it occupies in cubic 
feet ; multiply the number of cubic feet by 8, and point off one place to 
the left. 

Note.— Exactness requires the addition to every three hundred bushels of one extra bushel. 

The foregoing rule may be used for finding the number of gallons, by 
multiplying the number of bushels by 8. 

If the corn in the box is in the ear, divide the answer by 2, to find 
the number of bushels of shelled corn, because it requires 2 bushels of eai 
(Corn to make 1 of shelled corn. 

Rapid rules for measuring land without instruments. 

In measuring land, the first thing to ascertain is the contents of any 
■given plot in square j^ards ; then, given the number of yards, find out the 
number of rods and acres. 

The most ancient and simplest measure of distance is a step. Now, 
«,n ordinary-sized man can train himself to cover one yard at a stride, on 
the average, with sufficient accuracy for ordinary purposes. 

To make use of this means of measuring distances, it is essential to 
walk in a straight line ; to do this, fix the eye on two objects in a line 
•straight ahead, one comparatively near, the other remote ; and, in walk- 
ing, keep these objects constantly in line. 

Farmers and others by adopting the following simple and ingenious con- 
trivance., may always carry with them the scale to construct a correct yard 

Take a foot rule, and commencing at the base of the little finger of 
the left hand, mark the quarters of the foot on the outer borders of the 
left arm, pricking in the marks with indelible ink. 

To find hoiv many rods in length will make an acre., the width being given. 
Rule. — Divide 160 by the width, and the quotient will be the answer. 


How to find the number of acres in any plot of land^ the number of rod» 
being given. 

Rule. — Divide the number of rods by 8, multiply the quotient by 5^ 
and remove the decimal point two places to the left. 

The diameter being given, to find the circumference. 

Rule. — Multiply the diameter by 3 1-7. 

Sow to find the diameter, ivhen the circumference is given. 

Rule. — Divide the circumference by 3 1-7. 

To find hotv many solid feet a round stick of timber of the same thick- 
ness throughout tvill contain when squared. 

Rule. — Square half the diameter in inches, multiply by 2, multiply 
by the length in feet, and divide the product by 144. 

General rule for measuring timber, to find the solid contents in feet. 

Rule. — Multiply the depth in inches by the breadth in inches, and 
then multiply by the length in feet, and divide by 144. 

To find the number of feet of timber in trees with the bark on. 

Rule. — Multiply the square of one-fifth of the circumference Id 
inches, by twice the length, in feet, and divide by 144. Deduct 1-10 to 
1-15 according to the thickness of the bark. 

Hotvard s neiv rule for computing interest. 

Rule. — The reciprocal of the rate is the time for which the interest 
on any sum of money will be shown by simply removing the decimal 
point two places to the left ; for ten times that time, remove the point 
one place to the left ; for 1-10 of the same time, remove the point three 
places to the left. 

Increase or diminish the results to suit the time given. 

Note.— The reciprocal of the rate isfouiul by inverting t lie rate ; thus 3 per cent, per month, in- 
verted, becomes >i of a month, or 10 days. 

When the rate is expressed by one figure, always ^yrite it thus : 3-1,. 
three ones. 

Rule for converting English into American currency. 

Multiply the pounds, with the shillings and pence stated in decimals,, 
by 400 plus the premium in fourths, and divide the product by 90. 


A township — 36 sections each a mile square. 
A section — 640 acres. 

A quarter section, half a mile square — 160 acres. 
An eighth section, half a mile long, north and south, and a quarter 
of a mile wide — 80 acres. 

A sixteenth section, a quarter of a mile square — 40 acres. 


The sections are all numbered 1 to 36, commencing at the north-east 

The sections are divided into quarters, which are named by the 
cardinal points. The quarters are divided in the same way. The de- 
scription of a forty acre lot would read : The south half of the west half of 
the south-west quarter of section 1 in township 24, north of range 7 west, 
or as the case might be; and sometimes will fall short and sometimes 
overrun the number of acres it is supposed to contain. 

The nautical mile is 795 4-5 feet longer than the common mile. 


7 92-100 inches make 1 link. 

25 links " 1 rod. 

4 rods " 1 chain. 

80 chains " 1 mile. 

Note. — A chain is 100 links, equal to 4 rods or 66 feet. 

Shoemakers formerly used a subdivision of the inch called a barley- 
corn ; three of which made an inch. 

Horses are measured directly over the fore feet, and the standard of 
measure is four inches — called a hand. 

In Biblical and other old measurements, the term span is sometimes 
used, which is a ler.gth of nine inches. 

The sacred cubit of the Jews was 24.024 inches in length. 

The common cubit of the Jews was 21.704 inches in length. 

A pace is equal to a j^ard or 36 inches. 

A fathom is equal to 6 feet. 

A league is three miles, but its length is variable, for it is strictly 
speaking a nautical term, and should be three geographical miles, equal 
to 3.45 statute miles, but when used on land, three statute miles are said 
to be a league. 

In cloth measure an aune is equal to li yards, or 45 inches. 

An Amsterdam ell is equal to 26.796 inches. 

A Trieste ell is equal to 25.284 inches. 

A Brabant ell is equal to 27.116 inches. 


Every farmer and mechanic, whether he does much or little business, 
should keep a record of his transactions in a clear and systematic man- 
ner. For the benefit of those who have not had the opportunity of ac- 
quiring a primary knowledge of the principles of book-keeping, we here 
present a simple form of keeping accounts which is easil}' comprehended, 
unci well adapted to record the business transactions of farmers, mechanics 
and laborers. 







Jan. 10 To 7 bushels Wheat at $1.25 























By shoeing span of Horses 

To 14 bushels Oats at 

Too lbs. Butter at 

By new Harrow 

By sharpening 2 Plows 

By new Double-Tree 

To Cow and Calf. 

To half ton of Hay 

By Cash - - - - - 

By repairing Corn-Planter. 

To one Sow with Pigs 

Bv Cash, to balance account 

$ .45 

























March 21]% 

" 21 





















3 davs' labor - at $1.25 

To 2 Shoats at 3.00 

To 18 bushels Corn at .45 

By 1 month's Labor 

To Cash 

By 8 days' Mowing at $1.50 

To 50 lbs. Flour - 

To 27 lbs. Meat$ .10 

By 9 days' Harvesting at 2.00 

By 6 days' Labor .- at 1.50 

To Cash.... - -- 

To Cash to balance account 































Length op iimk. 
MultiDlvtlie prirtcipdl (amount of money at uitcrest) by the time reduced to days; then divide this proditct 
bythequoflarolKedhydividinK360(the of days in the interest year) by the p.r cent, ot .nterest. 
a,nd the quotient thus obtained will lie the required interest. 



) 6)360 \ 185000 

60 /$223. 0000(83.70 



cent., by 45; and in like manner for any other per cent 


12 units, or things, 1 Dozen. 
12 dozen, 1 Gross. 
20 things, 1 Score. 

196 pounds, 1 Barrel of Flour. 

200 pounds, 1 Barrel of Pork. 

56 pounds, 1 Firkin of Butter. 

24 sheets of i)aper. 1 Quire. 

20 quires paper 1 Keani. 

4 ft. wide, 4 ft. high, and 8 ft. long. 

1 Cord Wood. 



Virginia. — The oldest of the States, was so called in honor of Queen 
Elizabeth, the "Virgin Queen," in whose reign Sir Walter Raleigh made 
his first attempt to colonize that region. 

Florida. — Ponce de Leon landed on the coast of Florida on Easter 
Sunday, and called the country in commemoration of the day, which was 
the Pasqua Florida of the Spaniards, or " Feast of Flowers." 

Louisiana Avas called after Louis the Fourteenth, who at one time 
owned that section of the country, 

Alabama was so named by the Indians, and signifies " Here we Rest." 

Mississippi is likewise an Indian name, meaning " Long River." 

Arkansas, from Kansas, the Indian word for " smoky water." Its 
prefix was really arc, the French word for " bow." 

The Carolinas were originally one tract, and were called "Carolana," 
after Charles the Ninth of France. 

G-eorgia owes its name to George the Second of England, who first 
established a colony there in 1732. 

Tennessee is the Indian name for the " River of the Bend," i. e., the 
Mississippi which forms its western boundary. 

Kentucky is the Indian name for " at the head of the river." 

Ohio means " beautiful ; " Iowa, " drowsy ones ; " Minnesota, " cloudy 
water," and Wisco7isi7i, " wild-rushing channel." 

Illifwis is derived from the Indian word illini, men, and the French 
suffix ois, together signifying "tribe of men." 

Michigan was called by the name given the lake, fish-weir, which was 
so styled from its fancied resemblance to a fish trap. 

Missouri is from the Indian word " muddy," which more properly 
applies to the river that flows through it. 

Oregon owes its Indian name also to its principal river. 

Cortes named California. 

Massachusetts is the Indian for " The country around the great hills." 

Connecticut, from the Indian Quon-ch-ta-Cut, signifying "Long 

Maryland, after Henrietta Maria, Queen of Charles the First, of 

New York was named by the Duke of York. 

Pennsylvania means " Penn's woods," and was so called after William 
Penn, its orignal owner. 



Dclaivare after Lord De La Ware. 

Netv Jersei/, so called in honor of Sir George Carteret, who was 
Governor of the Island of Jersey, in the British Channel. 

Maine was called after the province of Maine in France, in compli- 
ment of Queen Henrietta of England, who owned that province. 

Vermont, from the French word Vert Mont, signifying Green 

New Hampshire, from Hampshire county in England. It was. 
formerly called Laconia. 

The little State of Rhode Island owes its name to the Island of 
Rhodes in the Mediterranean, which domain it is said to greatly 

Texas is the American word for the Mexican name by which all that 
section of the country was called before it was ceded to the United States. 


States and Territories. 























New Hampshire.. 


New York 

North Carolina ... 




Kliode Island 

Soutli Carolina — 





West Vir(,'inia 





District of Columbia. 



New Mexico 


W»^hi ngton 



Total States 38,113,253 


























. 20,595 





Total Territories. 442 ,730 

Total United States 38.555.983 



New York, N. Y 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Brooklyn, N. Y 

St. Louis, Mo 

Chicago. Ill 

Baltimore, Md 

Boston, Mass 

Cincinnati. Ohio 

New Orleans, La. ... 
San Francisco, Cal... 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Washington. D. C... 

Newark. N. ,1 

Louisville, Ky 

Cleveland. Oliio 

Pittsburg. Pa 

■Jersey City, N. J — 

Detroit, Mich 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Albany. N. Y 

Providence, R. I 

Rochester, N. Y 

Allegheny, Pa 

Richmond, Va 

New Haven, C'onn... 

Charleston. S. C 

Indianapolis, Ind — 

Troy, N. Y 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Worcester, Mass 

Lowell. Mass 

Memphis, Tenn 

Cambridge, Mass 

Hartford. Conn 

■Scranton. Pa 

Reading, Pa 

Paterson. N. J 

Kansas City, Mo 

Moiulo, Ala 

Toledo. Ohio 

Portland. Me 

Columbus, Ohio 

Wilmington, Del 

Dayton, Ohio 

Lawrence, Mass 

Utica, N. Y 

Charlestown, Mass. 

Savannali, Ga 

Lynn. Mass 

F'all River, Mass.... 


298. 97T 
50, 840 




States A^■D 




(.'alifDiiiia 1 



















Nevada 1 

New Hampshire. 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina. . 



* Last Census 

Area in 









































R. R. 






























of Michigan taken in 1874. 

Statk.s and 

Rhode Island... 
•South Carolina. 





West Virginia... 

Total States. 





Dist.'Of Columbia. 



New Mexico 




Total Territories. 

Area in 
























965,032 442.730 




R. R. 









1,265 ■ 

Aggregate of U. S.. 2,915,203 38,555,983 60,852- 

* Included in the Railroad Mileage of Maryland. 





British Empire 


United States with Alaska 


Austria and Hungary 


(ireat Britain and Ireland 

German Empire 






Sweden and Norway 






jM ew Grenada 





Argentine Republic 











San Salvador 





San Domingo 

Costa Rica 



























688, .300 

Date of 









Area in 














































to Square 
















Pekln , 


St. Petersburg. 
Washington ... 




London , 




Rio Janeiro 














Buenos Ay res.. 











Sal Salvador . . . 
Port au Prince 


Monte Video... 


San Domingo... 

San Jose 



1,648,800 ■ 






















36,000 • 























By Counties. 




Bond -- 















Cumberland . 

De Kalb 

De Witt 


Du Page 














Henderson .. 







Jo Daviess... 







La Salle 


L,ee - 

Livingston .. 





























1860. ! 1850. 1840. 1830. 1830 




1 094 1 





78 16 







































































































Mc Henry 











Pike -- 






Rock Island 


Sangamon .. 





St. Clair 










Whitesides .. 


Williamson - 
Woodford . . 





























































1 1079 



1 1666 


1 1492 





















































Relating to Rates of Interest and Penalties for Usury. 

States and Territories. 









District of Columbia .. 















Mississippi .... 





New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 


Ontario, Canada 



Quebec, Canada 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 






Washington Territory , 

West Virginia 



Legal 1 

Rate al- 

Rate of 

lowed by 



per cent 

per cent. 




Any rate. 




Any rate. 


Any rate. 










Any rate. 


















Any rate. 




Any rate. 










Any rate 




Any rate 






Any rate 








Any rate 




Any rate 


Any rate 


Any rate 


Any rate. 






Any rate 






Any rate. 






Any rate. 

Penalties for Usury. 

Forfeiture of entire interest. 
Forfeiture of principal and interest. 

Forfeiture of excess of interest. 
Forfeiture of entire interest. 
Forfeiture of principal. 
Forfeiture of entire interest. 

Forfeiture of entire interest. 

Fine and imprisonment. 

Forfeiture of entire interest. 

Forfeiture of excess of interest. 

Forfeiture of entire interest. 

Forfeiture of ex. of in. above 12 per cent. 

Forfeiture of entire interest. 

Forfeiture of entire interest. 

Forfeiture of excess of interest. 

Forfeiture of ex. of in. above 7 per cent. 
No Usury Law in this State. 
Forfeiture of excess of interest. 
Forfeiture of entire interest. 

Forfeiture of entire interest. 

Forfeiture of thrice the excess and costs. 
Forfeiture of entire interest. 

Forfeiture of contract. 
Forfeiture of entire interest. 
Forfeiture of excess above 6 per cent. 

Forfeiture of excess of interest. 
Forfeiture of excess of interest. 

Forfeiture of excess of interest. 
Forfeiture of entire interest. 

Forfeiture of excess of interest 
Forfeiture of entire interest. 

* Except in cases defined by statutes of the State. 




Relating to Limitations of Actions : Showing Limit of Time in which 
Action may be Brought on the following : 

States and Tbreitories. 







District ot Columbia , 






Iowa , 














New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 


Ontario (U. Canada). 



-Quebec (L. Canada). 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 






Washington Territory. 

West Virginia 



Sealed and 





























































































































































































































S ■ 

























10 1 














Latul. WoocU'iid 

19. 329. 952 

NuinlJL-i . 

other nil -I 

Xu I liber. 
1.491. .331 



iiushels. Bushels. 
10.133.207!l9 99.5.198 


2 456.578 





Adams 287,926 

Alexander 13,836 

Bond 145,045 

Boone 137.307 

Brown 57,062 

Bureau 398,611 

(Jalhouii 37,684 

Carroll 186,864 

Cass 92.902 

Champaign 419,368 

Christian 241,472 

Clark 118.594 

Clay 146,922 

Clinton 150,177 

Coles 208.337 

Cook 348.824 

Crawford 105, 505 

Cumberland 75,342 

DeKalb 334,502 

DeWitt 168,539 

Douglas 147,633 

DuPage 164,874 

Edgar .^65,458 

Kdwards ,58.912 

Effingham 120,343 

Fayette 187, 1 96 

Ford 141,228 

Franltlin 80,749 

Fulton 228,132 

Gallatin 49,572 

Greene 175,408 

Grundv... 193,999 

Hamilton 88,996 

Hancock 311.517 

Hardin 28.117 

Henderson 140,954 

Henry 265,904 

Iroquois... 322,510 

Jackson 78,548 

Jasper 90,867 

Jetferson 118,951 

Jersey 94,147 

JoUaviess 156,517 

•Johnson 57,820 

Kane 240,120 

Kankakee 312,18-^ 

Kendall 164.004 

Knox 330.829 

r^ake 207,77n 

LaSalle 533,724 

Lawrence 87,82b 

Lee 322.21^ 

Livingston 377, 50,5 

Logan 321, 70i) 

Macon 205,25S 

Macoupin 231.05iJ 

Madison 257.032 

Marion 173.081 

Marshall 166,057 

Mason 209, 4 5^ 

Massac 25.151 

McDonough 261.635 

McHenry 230,5tb 

McLean 494.97b 

Menard 134.17b 

Mercer 222805. 

Monroe 92.810 

Montgomery 276,682 

Morgan 293,45(i 

Moultrie 144,220 

Ogle 316.883 

Peoria 170,72(t 

Perry 93.754 

Piatt 94.454 

Pike 233 785 

Pope 55.980 

Pulaski 19.319 

Putnam 37.271 

Randolph 140.764 

Richland 75.07& 

Rock Island 1.55.214 

Saline 72,309 

Sangamon 421. 748 

Schuyler 96,195 

Scott 85,331 

Shelby 310.179 

Stark 138,129 

St.Clair 231.117 

Stephenson 254.857 

Tazewell 229. 126 

Union 7.5.832 

Vermilion 360.251 

Wabash 54.063 

AVarrcn 266.187 

Washington 177 592 

Wayne 147.352 

White . 92.398 

Whitcsides ' 289.809 

AVill I 419,442 

Williamson 128.448 

Winnebago 2 H.373 

V/oodford 22.5,504 





.si, 73 Si 


83 606 
27 294 

























































9, 1 1 5 





















2 025 














































■450'. 793 















' 243. .54 i 










"1 86; 290 
























































































1,'562 621 

2. 1 1 8 































11 540 










































29,26 ; 














































1,:367 965 

























735, 25J 


















656. 3ti: 



4,221, 64( 











1,973 88' 



1., 527, 898 

;3, 198, 835 


















1,149 878 















2.154 185 

■ 70,852 
212. 62& 
124.4 73 
■ 404,482 
880 838 
1,868 682 



HISTORY is the camera througli which we view the events of countries 
and people. It records the noble deeds of the soldier and the states- 
man, and stands the proud monument of a country's greatness. It is history, 
sacred though it be, that tells us of the glory of Eden, and the purity and 
happiness of the first pair in its Elysian fields, and likewise of their trans- 
gression and fall. And through the sixty centuries that have passed since the 
world's dawn, it is history that presents to us, whether in types, in hieroglyph- 
ics or in tradition, all that we know of men and things past. The events 
which constitute the annals of a country are matters of at least some local 
interest, and be that country ever so "beautiless, barren and bleak," it con- 
tains something of sufficient importance to be engraved upon the pages of 
history. How much more important, then, that the fertile region of which we 
propose to treat in these pages should become a matter of record, and form a 
part of the history of a great State and a great country. 

A history of Coles County is a part of the history of America. Every 
portion of a thing goes to make up and becomes a part of the whole. The 
population of this county constitutes a part of the forty millions of American 
citizens who people this country, and their absolute wealth and prosperity make 
a part of our national wealth and material greatness. The intelligence of its 
people form a part of our intelligence as a nation. The patriotism and self- 
sacrificing devotion of its sons, the gallantry and prowess of its soldiers on a 
hundred battlefields, are no mean part of the pride and glory of this great 
American nation. 

The age of Coles County (as such) is two years less than half a century, 
but the date of its settlement extends back nearly a decade beyond. its organi- 
zation as a county. Within that time, the events that have transpired and the 
scenes that have been enacted upon its soil, will be the subject-matter of these 
pages. Taking it from the time of its occupancy by the Indians, we will 
endeavor to trace its progress from that wilderness state to the present period 
of its wealth and prosperity. Its growth has been rapid and wonderful beyond 
the wildest dreams of the pioneers who first set foot within its borders. 

The present territory of the county was formerly a part of the State of 
A^irginia, and ceded by her to the United States in 1784, and was called the 
Northwest Territory. Virginia Avas the home of the " Father of his Country," 


and prides herself still on being the mother of the nation's best Presidents ; so 
Coles County comes of no ignoble ancestry. In 1778, Virginia organized 
what is now Illinois into one county, which, some years later, received the name 
of St. Clair, from the then Governor of the Northwest Territory. In 1809, 
Illinois was organized into a separate Territory, and was composed at the time 
of two counties — St. Clair and Randolph. After this, Madison was set off 
from St. Clair, and Crawford was afterward set off from Madison. When 
Illinois was received into the sisterhood of States, in 1818, there were but 
fifteen counties, of which Crawford was one. This county was named for Hon. 
William H. Crawford, who was reputed an honest man, and a safe custodian of 
public money ; for under the administration of Madison and Monroe he was 
Secretary of the Treasury, and also a candidate for the Presidency in the 
Adams and Jackson campaign of 1824. During the year 1819, Clark County 
was set off from Crawford. It then embraced a large extent of territory run- 
ning up the valley of the Wabash, and far beyond, even to the Canada line, 
or British possessions. Clark County was named in honor of Gen. George 
Rogers Clarke, a native of Virginia, and a pioneer warrior of considerable 
celebrity. In 1779, more than a quarter of a century before the organization 
of Illinois into a separate Territory, he organized an army in Virginia, and 
marched it across the Alleghany Mountains to the Ohio River. A few years 
later, the world rung with the mighty achievement of Napoleon crossing the 
Alps with a great army, but to our mind, the deed no more than equaled that 
of Clarke in crossing the Alleghanies and traversing a wilderness with his little 
band of soldiers, beset and harassed by hostile savages. He had never seen a 
steamboat nor heard of a railway-train, but he understood war and the trans- 
portation of an army. He built rafts, and on them shipped his soldiers down 
the Ohio to the spot where Shawneetown now stands, and then by forced 
marches through swamps and marshes filled with water, often knee-deep to his 
men, he moved them across the country to Kaskaskia and captured that 
important post from the British. But all this belongs to State history. 


Coles County was set off from Clark in 1830. It then embraced in its 
territory what is now Cumberland and Douglas Counties. Upon its organiza- 
tion, it was christened Coles, in honor of Edward Coles, the second Governor of 
the State, and elected to that position in 1822. As a general rule, it is not 
safe to name a child or country for any man while he is yet living, though he 
be a very Solomon, for we know not how soon he may fall. There is no secu- 
rity for a good reputation but in the tomb. This side of that "bourn" the 
proudest name, the most exalted reputation may totter and fall to pieces. In 
this respect, however. Coles County's namesake died with a name untarnished. 
Edward Coles was a man eminently fit to give a name to any country. He 
was a native of Virginia, rich, and a large slave-owner, and when he emigrated 


to Illinois he brought his slaves with him. A man who loved liberty, its fires 
lighted up his soul, and its benign influence dictated his action and inspired 
him with pure purposes and prompted him to noble deeds. Of all other men, 
he demanded respect for his rights, and to the rights and personal liberty of all 
other men he accorded the same profound respect. On reaching Illinois and 
becoming a citizen of the State, he set his slaves all free, and, in addition, gave 
each head of a family among them 160 acres of land. Such was the laAv at that 
time, that a man setting a slave free in Illinois, must give a bond that it should 
never become a public charge. To this very unsavory requirement of the law. 
Coles failed to yield obedience, for which little delinquency his case was adju- 
dicated by the courts, and he was fined |2,000. This fine he was never required 
to pay, and the cause which gave rise to it will never give rise to another of a 
similar character in Illinois, in the civilized ages to come. 

Coles County, at the time of its organization, was some twenty-eight miles 
east and west, and about fifty miles north and south, but at that time, as already 
noted, it included Douglas and Cumberland Counties. At present, it is bounded 
on the north by Douglas County, on the west by Shelby and Moultrie Coun- 
ties, on the south by Cumberland, and on the east by Clark and Edgar Coun- 
ties. It embraces twenty-four sections of Township eleven north, and all of 
Townships 12 and 13, and eighteen sections of Township 14 north, in 
Ranges 7, 8, 0, 10 and 11 east, and a part of Range 14 west. Range 11 
east in this county is fractional, being only three-fourths of a mile wide. In 
the southeast part of the county there is a "jog " in the east line of three sec- 
tions wide east and west, in Range 14 west, and seven sections long north and 
and south, in Townships 11 and 12 north. When Coles County was set off 
from Clark, the latter was unwilling to give up that portion of its territory 
and inhabitants to a new county. The reason of this is found in the fact that 
it embraced the best portion of that county, and a settlement of energetic and 
intelligent people. In the north line of the county, there is also a "jog" of 
two miles north, in Ranges 11 east and 14 west. This was made to retain 
the village of Oakland in this county, when Douglas County was created. That 
village was then regarded as having great room for outgrowth and development. 
This county was unwilling to give up that portion of its territory, and the peo- 
ple of that village were unwilling to be given over to a new county organiza- 
tion. Coles County is situated in latitude 40 north and in longitude 11 
west from Washington, and embraces about five hundred square miles. Its 
general surface is undulating ; not so level as to be regarded flat, nor so broken 
as to be considered mountainous or even hilly. It forms a beautiful plateau or 
table-land, and is about eight hundred feet above the level of the Gulf of Mex- 
ico. It is largely prairie, and constitutes a part of what is known as the Grand 
Prairie. This prairie is perhaps as large in extent, as rich in soil and as 
magnificent, originally, in nature's waving fields as anv in the Mississippi 


In the topography of the county, the prairies form rather a notable feature. 
The oriofin of these great plains has been a source of much speculation. One 
theory is that the soil resulted from the decomposition of vegetable matter un- 
der water, and that the attending conditions were incompatible with the growth of 
timber. According to this view, prairies are at present in process of forming 
along the shores of lakes and rivers. During river freshets, the heaviest parti- 
cles settle nearest the channel, and here, by repeated deposits, the banks first 
became elevated above the floods. These natural levees becoming sufiiciently 
high, are overgrown with timber, and inclose large areas of bottom lands back 
from the river, by which they are frequently inundated. The waters on these 
flats, when the flood subsides, are cut ofl" from the river and form sloughs, fre- 
quently of great extent. Their shallow and stagnant Avaters are first invaded 
bv mosses and other aquatic plants which grow under the surface and contain 
in their tissues lime, alumina and silica, the constituents of clay. They 
also subsist immense numbers of small moll usks and other diminutive creatures, 
and the constant decomposition of both vegetables and animals forms a stratum 
of clay corresponding Avith that which underlies the finished prairies. As the 
marshy bottoms are, by this means, built up to the surface of the water, the 
mosses are then intermixed with coarse grasses, which become more and more 
abundant as the depth diminishes. These reedy plants, now rising above the 
surfiice, absorb and decompose the carbonic-acid gas of the atmosphere, and con- 
vert it into woody matter, Avhich at first forms a clayey mold, and afterward 
the black mold of the prairie."* 

As we have said, the prairies form a notable feature in the topography oi 
the county, the soil in them being invariably deep, rich and productive. The 
original prairie grass grew very rank, often higher than a man's head. 
As a rule, the prairies occupy the high land and the timber the low land, 
though there are some exceptions to this. Timber abounds in the county, but 
is mostly confined to the valleys of the water-courses. The varieties consist of 
all the kinds of oak, hickory, Avalnut, elm, maple or sugar tree, cottonwood, 
hackberry and perhaps some others. There are still some very fine sugar 
orchards in the valley of the Embarrass River. Speaking of these sugar 
orchards and the excellent timber of the county calls to mind a stanza from the 
compositions of a local poet of Northern Illinois on a similar subject : 

" The timber here is very good — 

The forest dense of sturdy wood ; 

The maple-tree its sweets affords, 

And walnut, it is sawn in boards ; 

The giant oak the asman hails — 

Its massive trunk is torn to rails ; 

And game is plenty in the State, 

Which makes the hunter's chances great. 

The prairie wolf infests the land. 

And the wildcats all bristling stand." 

*Davidson'8 History oJ Illinois. 


As fine poetical thought, the above effusion is of rather limited merit, but 
as descriptive of this country fifty yeai's ago, the picture it presents is a very 
true one. jNIany years ago, in the settling-up of this part of the country, tim- 
ber was regarded as quite an object. Every land-owner Avas^f the opinion he 
must have a piece of timber-land. It was believed that the settlement and im- 
provement of the country would render it eventually scarce. At one time, tim- 
ber-land sold more readily, and for a higher price than prairie. Such, how- 
ever, is not now the case, and a hulf-century of experience finds still an abun- 
dance of timber for all practical purposes.. 

Beautiful lakes, high mountains and large rivers, are not characteristic of 
Coles County. But two streams entitled to the name of river, enter its borders, 
viz., tlie Embarrass and the Kaskaskia. The latter is better known in this 
section of the country as Okaw, but nearer its mouth it is called Kaskaskia 
altogether. The Embarrass, or Ambraw, as it is almost universally pi'onounced, 
is a beautiful stream. It rises in Champaign County, flows through Douglas 
and this county from north to south, and makes a tributary of the Wabash. It 
is the dividing line between Morgan and Oakland Townships, Charleston and 
Ashraore, and Pleasant Grove and Hutton Townships. Before the days of rail- 
ways and lightning news-carriers, this river was navigable, for an early statute 
of Illinois so declared it to be. During the time the law was in force, numer- 
ous vessels were built on this river, at a point near what is noAv known as 
Blakeman's Mill, and Avhich went by the high-sounding name of the " boat- 
yard." Some of these vessels Avent doAvn and out of the Embarrass, and down 
the Wabash, Ohio and Mississippi to New Orleans, and others foundered in the 
" Dark Bend," a spot Avhere the sun never shines, except at high noon. These 
vessels were called flatboats, and were usually loaded with the surplus products 
of the country, consisting of such articles as would be of small loss if they never 
reached a market. This stream abounds in fine varieties of fish, viz., bass, cat, 
buffalo, pike and many others. The Okaw meanders through the township of 
Okaw, in the northwest part of the county. It is a dull, sluggish, running 
stream. The water is muddy, has not sufficient action to clear and purify 
itself of " wiggle-tails," and other such " vermin." Under the law, it, too, was 
a navigable river for shallow water-craft, and is a tributary of the " Father of 
Waters." There are two other streams Avhicli have their source in this county, 
both of which are too small to be called rivers, and rather large to be styled 
creeks. Tlieyare the little Wabash and the Kickapoo, and each takes its name 
from powerful tribes of Indians once dwelling in this region of country. They 
begin or "head" in the immediate neighborhood of each other, but the Wabash 
runs to the southwest and the Kickapoo to the cast. There is also a small 
stream in Morgan Township, rejoicing in the oily appellation of Greasy Creek, 
which possesses some notoriety, by reason of the peculiar manner it acquired 
its name. In the pioneer days, hogs were "mast" fatted altogether, and in 
that neighborhood many hogs were stolen and butchered. It was the custom 


of the people, before turning their hogs on the "mast," to give them certain 
ear-marks, by which each man was enabled to identify his own hogs. To destroy 
the evidence of ownership, the thieves would cut off the heads of the hogs 
stolen, and throWpthem into this creek. The decomposition made the water 
greasy, hence the name Greasy Water or Greasy Creek. On one occasion, these 
pioneer pork-packers were overtaken in a deep ravine in the woods killing 
hogs. When discovered, they were in the act of " scalding" a lot, but their 
heads hud been cut off as usual. When asked why they took the heads off at 
so early a stage of the proceedings, they answered that they " never could get a 
good scald on a hog while his head Avas on." In Ashmore Township is a creek 
that bearing the perfumed name of Pole Cat, so called from the great numbers of 
popular feline pet, to be found in an early day, in its immediate vicinity. This 
classic stream, like Greasy Creek, also has its legend. The following story is 
told in connection with the origin of its name : A new-comer to the neighbor- 
hood, encountered one of these little monsters on the banks of this stream. In 
the combat that ensued, he learned through practical demonstration the start- 
ling power of " this kind of a cat " to defend itself when assailed by an enemy. 
The new-comer was so overwhelmed with the success of the animal's defense, 
that he buried his clothes on the battle-ground, and returned home in the cos- 
tume of the Georgia Major, minus the spurs and the paper collar, and there- 
upon christened the stream by the name of Pole Cat. In the township of Hut- 
ton there are two small streams called respectively Whetstone and Hurricane ; 
in Pleasant Grove are also two little streams, Indian and Clear Creeks, and in 
East Oakland, Brush Creek. 

In the county are numerous groves, or small bodies of timber, isolated from 
the main timber. What circumstances gave rise to their growth, or how long 
they have been growing, is not within the knowledge of those now living. 
Dodge Grove is in Mattoon Township, about two miles northwest of the city, 
and takes its name from this circumstance : In the early days, there lived a 
family near it, of the name of Whitley, and they owned a race-mare, known as 
the " Dodge Filly." On a notable occasion they took her to Springfield to the 
races. These races took place twice a year, called the spring and fall meetings. 
They staked the filly on a race, and lost. Being loath to give her up, they run 
her off and concealed her in this grove for three weeks. The party winning 
the mare came in search of her, and had the officers of the law to scour the 
country, but they failed to find her. Thus the filly dodged capture, and the 
grove captured the name of Dodge. Dead Man's Grove is in La Fayette Town- 
ship, on the north branch of Kickapoo Creek, and was formly called Island 
Grove. It took its present name from the fact that a man Avas found dead 
in the grove in March, 1826, supposed to have frozen to death. There was 
snow on the ground at the time, and, when found, the corpse was *' sitting at 
the root of a tree with a bridle thrown over the shoulders." The man's name 
was Coffman, and he lived in the Sand Creek settlement. He was carried by 


Samuel Kellogg on horse-back, without coffin or escort, to the Parker settle- 
ment, on the Embarrass, for inquest and burial. Seven miles north and west 
of Charleston, in Hickory Township, standing out in the open prairie, are 
what is called the Seven Hickories. They acquired that name because formerly 
there were just seven hickory trees constituting all there was of the grove, and 
what seems somewhat singular is, that hickory is a species of timber that never 
grows in the prairies. The original trees have paid the debt of nature, but a 
numerous progeny still survive. In Humbolt Township near the village of the 
same name, on a little stream called Flat Branch, is the Blue-Grass Grove. It 
was formerly a camping-place of the Indians, and their ponies ate out the wild 
grass, when the blue-grass, as it invariably does in this country, sprang up spon- 
taneously in its place. It thus became the first blue-grass " patch " in the 
county, and hence the name of Blue-Grass Grove. The Dry Grove and Buck 
Grove are near neighbors, and are about four miles south of Mattoon. The 
great number of deer, of the antlered sex, killed by the pioneer sportsmen 
gave rise to the name of the Buck Grove. Dry Grove has borne that name 
from time immemorial. It is supposed to have been named by the "first man," 
and that, too, in a dry time, otherwise its name would have been diff'erent, and 
more appropriate. In the south part of the county, in the town of Pleasant 
Grove, is a prairie called Goose-Nest Prairie. The inhabitants have always 
been proud of the title, but the rest of the world seem amused at the novelty of 
the name, and the people's peculiar pride of it. About the year 1827, a 
pioneer, named Josiah Marshall, was looking at the country, and coming into 
this prairie from the summit of a knoll in its midst, observing on one hand trees 
literally dripping with wild honey, and on the other, nature's waving meadows, 
and beneath him a soil, deep, rich and productive, and probably having in his 
mind's eye the peculiar richness of a goose egg, in an ecstacy of delight 
exclaimed in an uplifted voice, " this is the very goose-nest." It has since 
borne the name. Just west of this prairie, in the the same township, is a point 
of timber known as "Muddy Point," but has no significance in history, save 
the peculiar appropriateness of the name. In the east part of the county is a 
portion of a prairie called Parker's Prairie, so-called from George Parker, its 
original settler. 


Prior to 1824, what is now Coles County was a wilderness waste, unin- 
habited by civilized man. If any pale-face before that time had ever come 
within its borders as an actual settler, it is not known whence he came, who he 
was or whither he went. The red man of the forest held high carnival over 
the land, his camp-fires were seen in the distance, and it was his war-whoop 
and his death-song that broke the stillness, while his wigwam was the only 
specimen of a habitation made with human hands. Old Bruin reigned king of 
the wild beasts ; the panther screamed, the wolf howled, and the gray-eyed owl 
hooted without the presence of civilized man to " molest or make them afraid." 


The forest was undisturbed except by the bhizc of the tomahawk, and the soil 
untrodden, save by the wild beast and the savage and his pony. A half-century 
or more, Avhite people have witnessed the grand march of civilization over this 
land, and to-day scarce a trace is left of the former presence of the aborigines 
of the country. In 1824, the first settlement was made in Coles County, by 
men whom God made white, and blessed with the light of civilization. Of the 
first emigrants, but few remain. Most of them have paid nature's last great 
debt, and the memories of those remaining are so impaired by age that but few 
facts can be obtained. The first settlers came from Crawford County on the 
Wabash River, where they had lived many years, building and dwelling in 
forts, and skirmishing with the Indians. As pioneers, they possessed an exten- 
sive experience. They were John Parker and his sons, among whom were 
Daniel, Benjamin, Silas, George and James Parker and families, and Samuel 
Kellogg and his Avife Mary, in all fourteen souls, the latter of whom alone is 
livino-. The Parker's were formerly from Tennessee, and were good old-fash- 
ioned people. They dressed plain, lived rough and seemed to love the hard- 
ships and to delight in the adventures incident to the settlement of a new 
country. The soldier who leaves his home, sunders the ties of affection and 
bids adieu to loved ones, to do battle (or his country, deserves well of its people. 
So, too, the pioneer, who goes out from the home of his childhood, leaving 
behind him the hallowed associations of youthful days, and the cherished objects 
of love and aifection, hewing his way into the wilderness, and there settles down 
to build up a new country, and open a highway for civilization, is also worthy 
of credit among his fellow-countrymen. 

Benjamin Parker built the first log cabin, and thus became the first actual 
settler in Coles County, fifty-five years ago. That cabin was built on the east 
bank of the Embarrass River, just opposite the place where Blakeman's mill 
was afterward erected, and was in what is now Hutton Township. It was a rude 
affair, and a fair sample of pioneer strength and awkwardness, but nevertheless 
turned the rain, broke the force of the sun's burning rays, resisted the chilling 
blasts of winter, and kept out the cold, damp air of night. It also answered 
the purpose of a dwelling-house, and consisted of parlor, dining-room, kitchen 
and bed-rooms enough to sleep fourteen persons. The walls were of unhewn 
logs, and floor of puncheons, neither hewn nor " planed." It was covered with 
clapboards, weighed down with poles in lieu of being nailed ; the chimney was 
made of sticks and clay, and the " back walls " and "jambs " of the same mate- 
rial, except the quantity of clay was increased. The liolp to "raise" this 
cabin came from Crawford County, a distance of sixty miles. In those days, a 
house-raising was regarded as a " big thing " and were usually accompanied 
with a quilting, wool-picking or sewing " bee," to furnish an excuse for the 
women to come together for a little quiet gossip, though not perhaps, as at the 
present day, to talk of Mrs. Jones' new bonnet, or Mrs. Smith's old dress 
made over, or the way Mrs. Brown had her back-kiiir " fixed last Sunday." 


Those little gatherings were occasions for much good eating and drinking, the 
latter, however, being indulged in by the men only. And the best wrestler, 
the furthest jumper, and the swiftest runner Avere the heroes, and the best 
fighter wore oft' the belt, for at that early period fighting was always included 
in the popular amusements of the day. 

John Parker, familiarly known as " High Johnny " Parker, and the pro- 
genitor of all the Parkers (of this early settlement) was a soldier of the Revo- 
tionary War — one of the heroes of that long and doubtful struggle that finally 
resulted in the independence of the " greatest country the sun shines on." 
Samuel Kellogg, mentioned as one of this little colony, was a soldier in the 
Black Hawk campaign of 1832, and has since died, but, as already stated, his 
widow is still living, and at present a resident of Charleston. But of the pio- 
neers of this early settlement further particulars will be given in the township 

In the fall of 1824, Seth Bates and his sons, David and^John Bates, and 
his stepsons, Levi and Samuel Doty, came to the county, and in the summer of 
1825 made a settlement on Kickapoo Creek, in the present town of La Fayette, 
These were the first inhabitants in that region, and the settlement was made on 
what is now the Doctor Monroe farm. John Bobbins and William Wagner 
came in a year or two later. The former put up a mill in the neighborhood, 
and the latter started a tan-yard. Samuel Frost came the next year after Rob- 
bins and Wagner, and was one of the first merchants in this settlement, as noted 
elsewhere, and also carried the first mail through from Paris to Vandalia. In 
1826, Van Eastin settled in this neighborhood; in 1828, his brother John M. 
Eastin came, and their father, Charles Eastin, in 1830. The following story 
is told of the Eastins, as illustrative of the proverb that " fine feathers make 
fine birds," or at least are supposed to do so. John Eastin, just prior to coming 
to this county, had married Miss Jennie Reed. The first Sunday they spent 
in the wilderness of Coles County, they attended church rigged out in their 
" wedding toggery," and their " new store clothes " created quite a sensation in 
this then backwoods settlement, and elicited remarks from everybody. The 
next morning before breakfast, six men came to see him to borrow money for 
the purpose of buying land, supposing from his extravagant style of dress, that 
he must be rich and have money to loan, when he really had but $6 to his name- 
In 1828, James Phipps settled in this neighborhood. As early as 1828 or 1829, 
James Ashmore, William Ewing and William Williams came in and settled 
on the south side of Kickapoo. 

A settlement was made in the present township of Ashmore as early as 
1825. The first white people in this section were the Dudleys and La- 
ban Burr, all bachelors, thus forming a kind of second Eden, as Eden was be- 
fore its quiet was disturbed by Mother Eve. To trace the genealogy of the 
Dudleys, it would be necessary to go back to Dudley Castle, Staffordshire, En- 
gland, and begin with Earl Dudley, in the fourteenth century, following it doAvn 


through a long line of nobles, of whom one of the most powerful was Robert 
Dudley, Earl of Leicester, and figured conspicuously during the reign of Eliz- 
abeth, the Virgin Queen of England. Their published genealogy is authentic, 
giving the descent of the Dudleys here mentioned from this noble family. The 
first one in the United States was Thomas Dudley, Governor of " Massachu- 
setts Bay Colony." Many of his descendants held important positions in colo- 
nial times, and are to be found in almost every State of the Union at the present 
day. Many of them figured prominently in our struggle for independence, 
and their survivors and descendants are leading citizens of the country. The 
original settlers in this section were James and Guilford Dudley, and there are 
still sons of these pioneers living in the township of Ashmorc, and are more par- 
ticularly mentioned in that chapter. James Wells, Christopher Sousely, Jo- 
seph Henry, John Mitchell, William Austin, H. J. Ashmore and John Carter 
were also early settlers in this section. From them have descended some of the 
solid and substantial men of the county. 

The first settlement was made on " Goose-Nest" Prairie in 1829. Rev. 
Daniel Barham and sons John and Nathan, and Thomas Barker, put up the 
first cabin in this little paradise, in the spring of the year mentioned above. 
This settlement Avas in what is now Pleasant Grove Township, and embraced 
as fine a body of land as may be found in Coles County. Michael Taylor and 
his son Elijah, John and Patrick Gordon, and Dow Goodman, came in the 
same year, and found shelter in the same nest. Zeno Campbell, the Balahes 
and others, also came during this year and entered claims on "Goose-Nest" 
Prairie, or adjacent thereto. In the fall of 1830, John J. Adams, Mark 
Baker and William Wayne settled in the neighborhood. The Muddy Point 
settlement was likewise in Pleasant Grove Township. The first squatters here 
were Isaac Francher and Buck Houchin, who pitched their tents in this local- 
ity in 1827. Jack Price came in 1828 ; Joseph Glenn, Daniel Edson (not the 
inventor of the phonograph), Daniel Beals and his sons, in 1829, and William 
Dryden and Alfred Balch in the same year. In the fall of 1830, William 
Gammill and sons, his sons-in-law, A. Balch and Isaac Odell and Abner John- 
ston, came in and settled in this neighborhood. 

A settlement was made on the west side of the Embarrass River, south of 
Greasy Creek, in the territory now embraced in Morgan Township, in 
1829-30. Daniel McAllister, Benjamin Clark and William Shattun were the 
pioneers of this settlement. They were men of strong arms and brave hearts, 
well calculated to brave the dangers of a wilderness. They went to Big Creek 
(Edgar County) to mill, and sent their children four miles to school, and were 
thankful for even such conveniences as those." The widow of Benjamin Clark 
was the last survivor of these pioneers and three years ago (we do not know 
whether she is still living) was a hearty and hale old lady for her time of life. 
She spent eight weeks among the wolves and panthers during the winter of 1830, 
with six small children, while her husband had gone back to the settlements 


for provisions. There are few ladies of the present day but would shrink from 
such an undertaking, and it is with no disparagement to the sex that we make 
the observation. Our women are as true and noble, and capable of as great 
sacrifices when necessity demands them, as at any other age of the world, even 
that heroic period when they severed from their heads their "golden tresses" 
and wove them into bow-strings for their fathers, brothers and husbands to 
defend their hearths and homes. But think of living in a wilderness for two 
long, weary months alone with half a dozen helpless children, beyond the reach 
of help. The bravest woman might well shrink from it. 

The territory now embraced in Oakland Township contained settlements as 
early as 1829. In this year Samuel Ashmore settled in this region. Soon 
after his settlement, his sons H. J. and W. C. Ashmore came to the neighbor- 
hood. Samuel Hogue and James Black, sons-in-law of Samuel Ashmore, set- 
tled here also about the same time as those above mentioned. Where Oakland 
village now stands, settlements were made by Enoch Sears, Eli Sargent, Asa 
Redden and others. David Winkler and the Hoskinses settled on Brushy 
Fork. At the time of these settlements, the aborigines of the country were in 
possession of it, and had a village or trading-post in this vicinity. They were 
friendly, however, and lived with their pale-face neighbors in peace and har- 
mony. In 1831, Stanton Pemberton and his sons came to the Ashmore settle- 
ment. A mill was built here at an early day by a man named Stevens, and a 
few years later another was built by Redden. 

The first settlement made in what is now Charleston Township was in 1826. 
In that year, Enoch Glassco and sons, and J. Y. Brown, came to the county 
and settled about a mile north of the present city of Charleston. In 1827, the 
Parkers came from the Embarrass River Settlement and located on what is 
now Anderson's Addition to Charleston. About the same time, Hiram 
Steepleton and Isaac Lewis were added to the settlement. In 1829, Michael 
Cossell, Jr., came to the place, and the next year his father, and brothers Isaac 
and Solomon Cossell came in and made settlements. In the same year, Charles 
Morton and family settled in the little community. He was an energetic and 
enterprising man. He settled on what is now the Decker farm, and built a 
horse-mill, upon which many a pioneer ground the meal for his " corn- 
dodgers." Mr. Morton is mentioned in another chapter of this work as the 
first merchant, and one of the prominent business men of the county. Jesse 
Veach also settled in the present town of Charleston. He came first to Illinois 
in 1824, and to Coles County in 1825. After this, he returned to Crawford 
County, where he " took unto himself a wife," and, in 1831,. came back to 
Coles County, where he still lives, enjoying the fruits of a well-spent life. 

John Hutton came to Illinois in 1816, and, in 1824-25, settled in what is 
now Hutton Township. Says Capt. Adams, in his Centennial Address, he 
"made a hand building the first cabin, heard the first prayer made and the first 
sermon preached, and mourned at the first funeral in the present territory of 


the county." In 1826, a settlement was made by the Parkers on what was 
known as Parker's Prairie, and which lies partly in liutton Township. George 
Parker and his sons Joseph, Daniel and Jephthah were the first in this immedi- 
ate neighborhood, and from them this beautiful prairie received its name. 
Joseph Parker killed a large bear, in 1828, near Buyess Berkley's, and many 
other members of the Bruin ftimily were slaughtered in an early day by the 
pioneers. Tn the fall of 1826, there was a settlement made at a place called 
'* Dog Town," which was also in the present town of Hutton. James Nees 
was the first settler in this section, but was very soon joined by Charles Miller 
and William Cook. Joshua Painter, Hugh Doyle, James Ashby and John C. 
Davis soon after made settlements in the same neighborhood. Anthony Cox, 
William Waldruff and Joel Connelly settled, also, in what is now Hutton, in 
1828, and Daniel Evinger soon after. The latter put up a carding-machine on 
what was known as the John Flenner farm. 

About 1826, a settlement was made at Wabash Point, in the present town- 
ship of Paradise. The first white settler was Daniel Drake. In 1827, Thomas 
Hart and his sons settled in this neighborhood, and in July, 1828, Silas and 
Adam Hart and others of the same name came to the settlement, so that if 
there was any part of the country that had a heart, it was this Wabash 
Point settlement. These people were a law unto themselves, and tolerated 
no lawlessness in their midst. When one committed a misdemeanor, Judge 
Lynch came to the front and gave to the culprit but a short shrift. In 
illustration of his peremptory manner in disposing of the cases upon his 
docket, the following instance is given : On a certain occasion, a man 
living in the settlement was caught in the act of appropriating to himself 
another's cowhide and potatoes. A court was at once organized, with 
Thomas Hart, Jr., as Judge. Silas Hart was appointed attorney for the 
defendant, and William Higgins and others, jurors. The trial resulted in a 
verdict of guilty, and the punishment fixed at twenty -nine lashes and banish- 
ment from the settlement. After the lashes had been administered, the 
defendant was shown a star, in the direction of his " Old Kentucky Home," 
and bade to follow it, as did the Avise men of the East. He waited not 
for the advice to be repeated, nor stood upon the order of his going ; he 

In 1826, Charles Sawyer made a settlement in the southern part of what 
is now Mattoon Township. His family came on the next spring ; but a short 
time previous to their arrival, a man named Nash came to the settlement and 
occupied Sawyer's house. He injured himself one day, "carrying a log, to 
make a bee-gum," from the efiects of which he died. This was the first death 
in the Wabash Settlement, which Avas principally in what is now Paradise 
ToAvnship, as already stated, but extended into Mattoon Township. John 
Sawyer was another of the pioneers of this settlement. These are said to have 
been without bread in their families as much as three weeks at a time. They 


went five miles beyond Springfield to mill, and blazed the trees on the route, 
in order to find their way back home, and swam the Okaw River into the bar- 

About 1833, a settlement was made in the present town of Okaw. John 
Whitney and four sons, William Bridgman and Jesse Fuller were the first squat- 
ters in this section. Henry and Hawkins Fuller and Nathaniel Dixon came in 
1835. The year previous, however, the settlement was increased by the arrival 
of P. M. Ellis, the Elders and Fred. Price, these people used to splice teams 
and go a day's journey to a horse-mill. In wet weather, they would go to San- 
gamon River, near Decatur, or to Parker's Mill, on the Embarrass River. 


Thus we have taken a brief glance at a few of the first permanent settle- 
ments made in Coles County. We have passed over the settling of the 
county in thi« brief manner, in order to avoid, as much as possible, repetition. 
In the township histories, which follow, the settlement of each will be taken 
up and considered separately, and everything of interest will be fully and faith- 
fully given, while in this chapter, matters pertaining more particularly to the 
county at large will be noticed. 

The pioneers of a country are always subjected to many inconveniences, 
and live a hard and rough life. When immigrating to a new country, one 
leaves behind all the comforts and luxuries of civilization, to endure hunger 
and cold, and most of all, to brave the dangers of a wilderness. At the time 
of settling this country, it was inhabited by wild beasts, and wild men but little 
less savage than the wild beasts themselves. They came here poor, and for 
years the struggle with poverty was a hard one. Think of a family without 
bread for three weeks, and living on wild meat, potatoes and parched corn ! As 
we look around us to-day, at the waving fields of "golden grain, ripening for 
the harvest," the droves of cattle grazing on the rich pastures, and the almost 
innumerable car-loads of grain and stock shi})ped to distant points, it is hard to 
realize what it was fifty years ago, and what the pioneers of that day under- 
went to produce this grand transformation. In the Centennial Address of Capt. 
Adams, already referred to, he says : " The early settlers were generally poor, 
and livsd on Congress land. Considerable improvements were often made on 
land before it was entered. The custom not to enter each other out was the 
local law of the neighborhood. It sometimes occurred that entries were made 
of lands by others than the actual occupants. This invariably stirred up the 
righteous indignation of the settlement, and a meeting would be called, resolu- 
tions adopted and a plan of operation laid out. They at once went to work, 
tore down the house on the land and hauled it ofi", filled up the well, gathered 
the crop, pulled up the fruit-trees and garden stuff", and removed the fences and 
other improvements. And then, if the party entering another out made a fuss 
about it h'? had lo climb a jack-oak or ride a rail." 


Not only were the people hard run to live, to " keep soul and body together," 
but when we consider the tools and implements they had to work with, we won- 
der in our minds how they managed to live at all. The old "bar share" and 
"Gary" plows would be objects of great curiosity to the present generation, in 
this age of magnificent plows — plows that will almost turn the soil, if put in 
the field, without team or driver. An old farmer told us the other day, that 
for years after he settled in the neighborhood, there was but one wagon in the 
settlement, and one grindstone "and upon the latter," said he, "we used to 
grind our Gary plows when they become too dull to plow well." And yet we 
complain of hard times I Why, we don't know the meaning of the word, 
as compared to these early settlers, who broke down the barriers between 
the wilderness and civilization. Again, quoting from Capt. Adams, " They 
hauled hay eight miles in winter on hand-sleds, sold their horse-collars to 
buy bread for their children ; rocked their babies in sugar-troughs, and stood 
guard over them to keep the wolves off, and fed them on venison and wild 


Nor is the credit all due to the "lords of creation," in the privations 
endured in these early days. Noble women lent their presence to " gild the 
gloom" of wilderness life, and cheerfully shared the toils and cares met with 
in their new homes. Figuratively they put their hands to the plow, and, in 
cases of emergency, did not hesitate to do so literally. They drove oxen, 
assisted in planting, cultivating and harvesting the crops, besides attending to 
their household duties ; and these last were much more onerous than at the 
present day. Then they included the spinning and weaving into cloth, flax, cotton, 
and wool. The wool was carded into rolls at the carding mill or machine, spun 
into yarn on the "big wheel " by the wives and daughters, woven into cloth and 
manufactured into garments by the same busy hands, for the family wear. If a 
lady was so fortunate as to possess a calico dress, she was the envy of her 
"set," just as the "lady of the period," who robes in satin and a "love of a 
bonnet," is the envy of her less fortunate sisters at the present day. But the 
half-century that has passed has made many changes, and brought us many 
improvements. We have grown much older in many respects, if not wiser, 
and become more extravagant in our desires and more luxurious in our tastes. 
We cannot think of living on what our fathers lived on fifty years ago. Our 
very appetites have changed. The "corn-dodgers" and fried bacon our parents 
were glad to get, if set before us at the present day, would cause us to elevate 
our "Grecian noses" to an angle of ninety degress. But this is as it should 
be. We live in an age of improvement, and it is but just that all should move ou 
together. It is not in a spirit of grumbling or dissatisfaction that we have fallen 
into a moralizing mood, but by way of contrasting the past and present, and of 
showing the grand march of improvement for the past fifty years. When we 
look back over the years that are gone, at the changes and improvements wrought 
in the land, we are almost ready to attribute it to the power of Aladdin's won- 


derful lamp. As a cap-sheaf to the reflections we have been indulging in, we 

give the following gem from the "poet laureate" of Coles County : 

"The old log cabin with its puncheon floor — - 
The old log cabin with its clapboard door ! 
Shall we ever forget its moss-grown roof, 
The old rattling loom with its warp and woof? 
The old stick chimney of ' cat and clay,' 
The old hearthstone where we used to pray ? 
No! we'll not forget the old wool-wheel. 
Nor the hank on the old count-reel ; 
We'll not forget how we used to eat 
The sweet honey-comb with the fat deer-meat ; 
We'll not forget how we used to bake, 
That best of bread, the old Johnny-cake! " 


When the first white people came to Coles County, there were plenty of 
Indians in this portion of Illinois. They were the Pottawatomies, Kickapoos 
and Winnebagoes. From Davidson and Stuve's History of Illinois, which con- 
tains the most complete history of the aborigines inhabiting this country, that 
we have ever read, we make a few extracts with reference to the tribes that 
once occupied this section of the State : " The early traditions of the Winne- 
bagoes fixes their ancient seat on the west shore of Lake Michigan, north of 
Green Bay. They believed that their ancestors Avere created by the Great 
Spirit, on the lands constituting their ancient territory, and that their title of it 
was a gift from their Creator. The Algonquins named them after the bay on 
which they lived, Ween-ni-ba-gogs, which subsequently became anglicized in the 
form of Winnebagoes. They were persons of good stature, manly bearing, had 
the characteristic black circular hair of their race, and were generally more 
uncouth in their habits than the surrounding tribes. Their language was a deep 
guttural, difficult to learn, and shows that they belonged to the great Dacotah 
stock of the West. Anciently, they were divided into clans distinguished by 
the bird, bear, fish and other family totems. How long they resided at Green 
Bay is not known. * * * * Coming down to the era of 

authentic history. Carver, in 1766, found them on the Fox River, evidently 
wandering from their ancient place of habitation, and approaching Southern 
Wisconsin and the northern part of Illinois and Iowa, where portions of the 
tribe subsequently settled, while others wandered further south. * * 

* * * In the war of 1812, they remained the allies of England, and 

assisted in the defeat of Col. Croghan, at Mackinaw, Col. Dudley at the rapids 
of the Maumee, and Gen. Winchester, at the River Raisin. In the Winnebago 
war of 1827, they defiantly placed themselves in antagonism to the authority 
of the General Government, by assaulting a steamboat on the Mississippi, 
engaged in furnishing supplies to the military post on the St. Peters. 

" The Kickapoos, in 1763, occupied the country southwest of the southern 
extremity of Lake Michigan. They subsequently moved southward, and at a 


more recent date, dwelt in portions of the tcnitory on the ^Mackinaw and Sanga- 
mon Rivers, and had a village on Kickapoo Creek, and at Elkhart Grove. They 
Avere more civilized, industrious, energetic and cleanly than the neighboring 
tribes, and, it may also be added, more implacable in their hatred of the Ameri- 
cans. They were among the first to commence battle, and the last to submit 
and enter into treaties. Unappeasable enmity led them into the field against 
Gens. Harmer, St. Clair and Wayne, and they were first in all the bloody 
charges at Tippecanoe. They were prominent among the Northern nations, 
wdiich, for more than a century, waged an exterminating war against the Illinois 
Confederacy. * * * * When removed from Illinois, they still retained 
their old animosities against the Americans, and went to Texas, then a province 
of Mexico, to get beyond the jurisdiction of the United States. They claimed 
relationship with the Pottawatomies, and perhaps with the Sacs and Foxes, and 
Shawn ees. 

'• The Pottawatomies are represented on early French maps as inhabiting 
the country east of tlie southern extremity of Lake Michigan. At the mouth 
of the St. Joseph, falling into this part of the lake, the Jesuits had a mission- 
ary station, which, according to Marest, was in a flourishing condition as early 
as 1712. Here, an unmeasured distance from civilization, for more than half a 
century, the devoted missionaries labored for their spiritual weltare. These 
years of toil and self-denial were, however, little appreciated ; for, in Pontiac's 
war, th^y proved themselves to be among the most vindictive of his adherents. 
Disguising their object under the mask of friendship, they approached the 
small military post located on the same river, and, having obtained ingress, in 
a few minutes butchered the whole of the garrison except three men. From 
this locality, a portion of the tribe passed around the southern extremity of the 
lake into Northeastern Illinois. Time and a change of residence seem not to 
have modified their ferocious character. Partly as the result of British intrigue, 
and partly to gratify their thirst for blood, they perpetrated, in 1812, at Chi- 
cao"0, the most atrocious massacre in the annals of the Northwest. After their 
removal from Illinois, they found their way to the Indian Territory, and, in 
1850, numbered 1,500 souls." 

The foregoing extracts give a pretty authentic history of the tribes that 
claimed this county fifty years ago as a part of their hunting-grounds. There 
is much in the nature of the Indian to loathe and abhor, and there is, too, 
much to pity and deplore. They claimed this great country, originally, by 
right of possession, if not of discovery, and it was no more than human nature 
that they should maintain their right to it to the last extremity. From a lack 
of civilization, they committed acts of barbarity shocking in the extreme, but, 
to a certain extent, excusable througli ignorance of the "higher law" of 
humanity ; and even their deeds of cruelty, barbarians though they were, were 
often equaled by their more civilized but little less barbarous white neighbors. 
In an early day, we are told, they had a trading-post near where the village of 



Camargo now stands. In was established by two French Canadians, we believe, 
named Vesor and Bullbery. They also had a cemetery, or burying-ground in 
this vicinity, and, once a year, a grand powwow was held within its precincts. 
They were friendly toward the whites then sparsely scattered through the 
country, and, in their limited and ignorant Avay, religious. Says Capt. Adams 
in the address several times referred to in these pages : " Their ideas of heaven 
and hell they represented on dressed deerskins. On one side was painted a 
huge fire, and toward it some Indians going with bottles in their hands. This 
was a representation of hell, or the bad hunting-ground. On the other side 
were painted beautiful woods, abounding with deer, looking pleasant, and 
Indians going that way, dressed finely and seemingly happy. This was heaven, 
or good hunting-ground." The following legend belonged to the Pottawato- 
mies, and formed the basis of their theology and origin : "They believe in two 
Great Spirits — Kitchemenedo, the good or benevolent spirit, and Matche- 
monedo, the evil spirit. Some have doubts which is the most powerful ; but 
the great part believe that the first is — that he made the world and called all 
things into being, and that the other ought to be despised. When Kitche- 
monedo first made the world, he peopled it with a class of beings who only 
looked like men; but they were perverse, ungrateful, wicked dogs, who never 
raised their eyes from the ground to thank him for anything. Seeing this, 
the Great Spirit plunged them, with the world itself, into a great lake and 
drowned them. He then withdrew it from the water and made a single man, a 
very handsome young man, who, as he was lonesome, appeared sad. Kitche- 
menedo took pity on him and sent a sister to cheer him in his loneliness. After 
many years, the young man had a dream which he told to his sister. ' Five 
young men,' said he, ' will come to your lodge-door to-night to visit you. The 
Great Spirit f )rbids you to answer or even to look up and smile at the first 
four ; but when the fifth comes, you may speak and laugh and show that you 
are pleased.' She acted accordingly. The first of the five strangers that 
called was Usama, or tobacco, and, having been repulsed, he fell down and 
died; the second, Wapako, or a pumpkin, shared the same fate; the third, Esh- 
kossimin, or melon, and the fourth, Kokees, or the bean, met the same fate; 
but when Tamin, or Montamin, which is maize, presented himself, she opened 
the skin tapestry door of her lodge, laughed very heartily, and gave him a 
friendly reception. They were immediately married, and from this union the 
Indians sprang. Tamin forthwith buried the four unsuccessful suitors, and 
from their graves there grew tobacco, melons of all sorts, and beans ; and in 
this manner the Great Spirit provided that the race which he had made should 
have something to offer him as a gift in their feasts and ceremonies, and also 
something to put in their akeeks, or kettles, along with their meat." * 

Davidson, in his history of Illinois, speaking of the psychology of the 
Indians, says : " Prominent among these was the idea that every natural 

» Schoolcraft. 


phenomenon was the special manifestation of the Great Spirit. In the rautter- 
ings of the thunder-cloud, in the angry roar of the cataract, or the sound of the 
billows which beat upon the shores of his lake-girt forests, he heard the voice 
of the Great Spirit. The lightning's flash, the mystic radiance of the stars, 
were to him familiar displays of a spirit-essence which upheld and governed all 
things, even the minute destinies of men ; while the Indian attributed these to 
the Great Spirit, an antagonistical deity Avas created in his theology, whom he 
regarded as the potent power of malignancy. By this dualty of deities, he 
was careful to guard his good and merciful God from all imputations of evil 
by attributing all the bad intentions and acts which afflict the human family to 
the Great Bad Spirit." ' 

The Indians, it is said, never killed a wolf. Old pioneers say that they 
held that the wolf, like the Indian, made its living by hunting, and, therefore, 
it would be wrong and cowardly to kill it. Even their dogs would not molest 
a wolf, and the ravenous little savages would follow a band of Indians for hours 
to pick up any dead or wounded game left by them along their route. Mr. 
Brown, of Ashmore, relates a circumstance that occurred near his father's, of 
an Indian who, in a frenzy of religious excitement, shot and killed a warrior. 
He was, by the tribe, considered crazy, and taken to a grove near by and tied 
to a tree (rather a novel insane asylum, and as it proved an ineffectual one), from 
which the Indian succeeded in making his escape. The incident is more 
particularly referred to in the history of Ashmore Township. 

Coles County claims its Indian battle-grounds. Though she can make no 
pretensions to any such memorable battles as Tippecanoe or the River Raisin, 
there is a tradition (but somewhat dim and misty) of two battles with the 
Indians fought on the " sacred soil" of Coles County, at or very near the same 
place. As the story goes, the first occurred in 1815, between a corps of 
Government surveyors, protected by a sufficient guard of armed men, and a 
large band of Indians. The whites were encamped on the Embarrass Hills, a 
little distance west of Blakeman's Mill, and, in addition to being well armed, 
were protected with artillery. The Indians, in their usual style of battle-array, 
attacked them upon the flank, and with blood-curdling war-whoops threw the 
engineers and their guard (for a time) into confusion. They soon rallied, how- 
ever, and ascertaining the enemy's position, formed their line of battle and 
opened upon them with their artillery. A general engagement followed, which 
continued some time with great severity, finally resulting in the defeat of the 
Indians, with considerable slaughter. This is the prevailing tradition, but how 
much of it is true, we are unable to say. 

The other battle referred to occurred in 1818, between the "Illinois 
Rangers," under command of Gen. Whiteside, a pioneer Indian fighter, who 
figured conspicuously in his day in the Indian wars of Illinois, and a large 
band of Kickapoos, Pottawatomies, and Winnebagoes. The Indians had col- 
lected in force in the Upper Embarrass country, and proceeding to the Kas- 


kaskia settlement, committed many depredations among the scattered settlers. 
Among other things, they stole and drove off a large number of horses and 
cattle. Gen. Whiteside, then in command of the Illinois Kangers, as they 
were called, followed their trail to the site of the Blakeman Mill, where 
it crossed the Embarrass River. Near this point, the Rangers came up with 
the Indians, and at once prepared to give them battle. Skirmishers were 
thrown out, and a line of battle formed. A charge was ordered, and a shout 
from the Rangers was answered by one from the savages, and the neio-h- 
boring hills soon echoed with the roar of battle. For some time the fight 
raged fiercely, but the Indians were defeated and the captured property re- 
taken. How many were engaged on both sides, and the losses sustained 
by each, are not known. Like the account given of the battle with the Gov- 
ernment surveyors, it is traditional. The trees in the neighborhood, however, 
show signs of war, we have been told, and the scars made upon them with 
fire-arms have been seen by many living witnesses. But these little " scrim- 
mages " between the white and red races on the soil of Illmois are long past, 
and in a few years more there will be none left who remember the red man's 
wigwam within the borders of the State. 


It has been said by a late writer that " the native American mind tends as 
naturally to self-government as the duck takes to the water." The organiza- 
tion of new counties into corporate bodies with legal existence, while yet there 
are but a few hundred voters within their limits, is proof positive of the trite 
remark. In 1830, the population of this part of the country had increased 
to such an extent (for a wilderness) that the people began to think of forming 
a new county. What is now Coles County was then a part of Clark, as we 
have already stated, and Darwin, the county seat, was remote from the settle- 
ments of this region. In the year above mentioned (1830), a petition to the 
Legislature to have Coles set off from Clark County, was circulated by Joseph 
Henry, George Hanson and Andrew Caldwell. During the session of 1830-31 
the act was passed by the Legislature creating the new county, which em- 
braced in its limits, as mentioned in the beginning of this history, the pres- 
ent counties of Coles, Cumberland and Douglas. The following is the act 
of organization : 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the People of the State of Illinois, represented in the General As- 
sembly, That all that tract of country within the following bounds, to wit : Beginnino' at the 
northeast corner of Section Four, in Township Sixteen north, in Range Fourteen west of the 
second principal meridian; thence west on the line dividing Townships Sixteen and Seventeen, 
to the eastern boundary of Range Six, east of the third principal meridian ; thence south on 
said line the line dividing Ranges Six and Seven, the eastern boundaries of Macon and Shelby 
Counties, to the southwest corner of Clark County, Township Nine north, Rano-e Six ; thence 
east on the line dividing Townships Eight and Nine, to the southeast corner of Section Thirty- 
one, the east boundary of fractional Range Eleven east; thence north on said line, which is the 
division between fractional Range Eleven and Range Fourteen, to the northeast corner of Section 


Nineteen, in said Range Eleven, in Township Twelve north ; thence to the northeast corner of 
Section Twenty-one, in said Township Twelve, and Range F'ourteen ; thence north on sectional 
lines, the center of said range, to the place of beginning, shall form a new county, to be called 

Sec. 2. For the purpose of fixing the permanent seat of justice of said county, the follow" 
ing persons are appointed Commissioners, viz.: William Bowen, of Vermilion County, Jesse 
Essarey, of Clark County, and Joshua Barber, of Crawford County; which Commissioners, or 
fl majority of them, shall meet at the house of Charles Eastin, in said county, on the fourth Mon- 
drty in January next, or within five days thereafter, and being duly sworn before some Justice 
of the Peace of the State, faithfully and impartially to take into view the convenience of the 
people, the situation of the present settlement, with a strict view to the population and settle- 
ments which will hereafter be made and the eligibility of the place; shall proceed to explore 
and carefully examine the country, determine on and designate the place for the permanent seat 
of justice of the same : provided, the proprietor or proprietors of the land shall give and con- 
vey by deed of general warranty, for the purpose of erecting public buildings, a quantity of 
land, in a square form, or not more than twice as long as wide, not less than twenty acres. But 
should the proprietor or proprietors of the land refuse or neglect to make the donation afore- 
said, then and in that case the said Commissioners shall fix said county seat (having in view the 
interest of the county) upon the land of some person who will make the donation aforesaid. If 
the Commissioners shall be of the opinion and decide that the proper place for said seat of jus- 
tice is or ought to be on land belonging to Government, they shall so report, and the County 
Commissioners shall purchase one-half quarter-section, the tract set forth, in their name, for 
the use of the county. The Commissioners appointed to locate the seat of justice shall, so soon 
as they decide on the place, make a clear report to the Commissioners' Court of the county, and 
the same shall be recorded at length in their record-book. The land donated or purchased shall 
be laid out into lots, and sold by the Commissioners of the county to the best advantage, and the 
proceeds applied to the erection of public buildings, and such other purposes as the Commission- 
ers shall direct; and good and sufficient deeds shall be made for the lots sold. 

Sec. 3. An election shall be held at the several places of holding elections as now laid off 
by Clark County, in said Coles County, on the Saturday preceding the first Monday in February 
next, for one Sheriff, one Coroner, and three County Commissioners, for said county, who shall 
hold their offices until the next general election in 1832, and until their successors be qualified. 
And it shall be the duty of the Clerk of the Circuit Court of said coiinty, and if there be none, 
then the Recorder or Judge of Probate, to give at least fifteen days' notice previous to said elec- 
tion, and who shall appoint the judges and clerks of said election, who shall be legal voters ; and 
the returns of said election shall be made to the Clerk of the Circuit Court, Recorder or Judge 
of I'mbate, as the case may be, and by him, in the presence of one or more Justices of the Peace, 
opened, and they jointly shall give to the persons elected Commissioilers, certificates; and that 
of the Sheriff and Coroner to forward to the Governor ; which election in all other respects be 
conformable to law. 

Sec. 4. All courts shall be held at the house of Charles Eastin in said county, and con- 
tinue to be held there until public buildings shall be erected for the purpose, unless changed to 
another place by order of the County Commissioners' Court, who shall make the same a matter 
of record. 

SKr. 5. The Commissioners appointed to locate the county seat, shall be allowed $2 per day 
each, for every day necessarily employed in locating the same, to be paid by said county. 

Approved, December 25, 1830. 

This act gave to Coles County a legal being, and steps were at once taken 
to put the machinery of existence into operation. According to the provision 
of the act creating it a county, an election was held in February, 18-31, at 
Ashmore's, the only voting place in the county, and about sixty votes were cast. 
At this election, George Hanson, Andrew Caldwell and Isaac Lewis were 


elected County Commissioners, and constituted a County Court for the transac- 
tion of county business ; a system which continued in force until the adoption 
of a new State Constitution in 1848. The Commissioners mentioned in the 
foregoing act to locate the seat of justice, viz., Bowen, Essarey and Barber, 
met, and after a thorough investigation of all eligible points suggested, decided 
on the present site of Charleston. Charles Morton and and Benjamin Parker 
owned the land, and each donated twenty acres for town purposes, as provided 
in the act of organization. In February, 1831, the survey was made by Thomas 
Sconce, first County Surveyor, and in April of the same year, the first sale of 
lots was made. The Commissioners gave the name of Charleston to the county 
seat, in honor of Charles Morton, one of the men who donated twenty acres of 
land to the county. Feeling under some obligations to Mr. Morton for the 
assistance he rendered them while engaged in locating the town, they told his 
wife that they had determined to call the place Mortonville, when she offered 
an amendment to their proposition, sa;ying that if they desired to compliment 
her husband in that way, to add the last syllable of Morton to Charles, and call 
their town Charleston. They accepted her suggestion, and thus the capital of 
the county received its name. 

During the year 1831, the first Court House of Coles County was erected^ 
down on the " town branch," as the murky little stream is called. It was built 
of hewed logs, covered with "clapboards," floored with sawdust and provided 
with wood benches for seats. This served as a temple of justice until 1835, 
when the brick building, still in use, was erected. Originally, it was an old- 
style edifice, of the pattern still to be seen in many of the counties of Illinois^ 
but has been modernized, remodeled and transformed into quite an imposing 
structure, with an altogether attractive appearance. It stands in the center of 
a handsome square, thickly planted with maple-trees, and surrounded by a sub- 
stantial iron fence. In a few years more, when the trees get their growth, the 
public square of Charleston will be a beautiful spot, and an ornament to the 

The first Jail was a little log cabin, in the south part of the town, which, in 
an early day, perhaps, served the purpose of a prison ; but in this enlightened 
age-, when crime has become a science, and criminals a band of professional ex- 
perts, would prove but a frail barrier between them and liberty. The present 
Jail is in the Court House buildino;. 

The first Circuit Court was held at the house of Col. Flenner, three miles 
west of Charleston. Hon. William Wilson was the presiding Judge. This 
session of Court is thus described : " The Judge sat on a log, the lawyers on 
rotten chunks, and the parties engaged in litigation swung to the bushes." 
James P. Jones was Circuit Clerk, and was appointed by Judge Wilson at this 
session. Jones was a resident of Clark County, and his appointment to the 
office of Circuit Clerk excited the just indignation of the Coles County people. 
They felt themselves competent to fill any office in their county, and well qualified 


to receive the salary pertaining to it ; and to have an outsider step in and relieve 
them of the responsibility of trying the experiment was a blow to their pride not to 
be forgiven. The first records of the Circuit Court are non sunt inventa, and 
hence, few particulars of the sessions for two or three of the first years can be 
obtained now. The first record-book in the Circuit Clerk's office begins with 
the April term, 1835, Hon. Justin Harlan presiding. 

As we have said, George Hanson, Andrew Caldwell and Isaac Lewis were 
elected the ' first County Commissioners. They held the first session of their 
Court in 1831, at the house of Charles Eastin, in the Kickapoo settlement, and 
appointed Nathan Ellington Clerk, who thus became the first County Clerk of 
Coles County. In 1832, Isaac Lewis, Andrew Clarke and James S. Martin 
were elected Commissioners, and, in 1831, were succeeded by Stephen Stone, 
Nathaniel Parker and Eben Alexander, who, in turn, were succeeded in 1836, 
by A. N. Fuller, Alex. Miller and James S. Martin, and they by F. L. Moore, 
H. J. Ashmore and James M. Ward in 1838. The records here show a change 
in electing the Commissioners ; electing one each year, instead of three every 
two years, and that in 1840, John Wright succeeded Ashmore ; James Gill in 
1841, succeeded Moore, and William Collom succeeded Moore in 1842. In 
1843, Isaac Gruell and H. J. Ashomre succeeded Wright and Gill. In 1844, 
John Cutler succeeded Ashmore, F. L. Moore succeeded Collom in 1845, John 
M. Logan succeeded Gruell in 1846, and F. G. Frue succeeded Cutler in 

The Constitution of 1848 provided that the County Court should consist of 
a County Judge and two Associate Justices. Under this new regime, W. W. 
Bishop was the first County Judge, and John M. Logan and H. J. Ashmore 
were chosen the first Associate Justices. This branch of the Court continued, 
with frequent changes of officers, until the adoption of township organization, 
which went into effect in the spring of 1860, as will be noticed under another 
head. As a matter of history, and for the benefit of the reader, we append a 
list of the different officers from the organization of the county, the date of 
their election and the terms of their official service, as compiled by Capt. 
Adams, and published in his Centennial Address. The list was prepared with 
great care, is said, by those well posted, to be substantially correct, and presents 
a valuable record to all who are interested in such matters, or have occasion to 
refer to it. The list is as follows : 

Sheriff. — At the February election of 1831, Ambrose Yocum was elected 
the first Sheriff of the county, and re-elected in 1832, but died before his term 
expired. William Jeffries was elected in 1834, and held two terms, when he 
was succeeded by Albert Compton in 1838, who continued in office until 1846. 
L. R. Ilutchason was then elected, and served two terms, and was succeeded in 
1850 by" Richard Stoddert ; he was succeeded by Thomas Lytle in 1852 ; Lytle, 
by John R. Jeffries in 1854, and he by H. B. Worley in 1856. Worley was 
succeeded by M. Jones, in 1858 ; he by I. H. Johnston in 1860 ; John H. 


O'Hair succeeded Johnston in 1862, and James B. Hickox succeeded him in 
1864, and, in turn, was succeeded by G. M. Mitchell in 1866, when C. C. 
Starkweather was elected in 1868, followed in 1870 by A. M. Brown, who was 
succeeded in 1872 by Owen Wiley, and Wiley by George Moore in 1874 ; 
James M. Ashraore succeeded Moore in 1876, and he was succeeded by John 
E. Brooks in 1878, the present incumbent. 

Probate Judge. — James P. Jones was the first Probate Judge. At the 
time of the organization of Coles County, this office was filled by appointment 
of the Governor. In 1834, Jones was succeeded by John F. Smyth, and in 
the same year, Smyth was succeeded by S. M. Dunbar ; he by William Collom 
in 1835 ; Collom by Reuben Canterbury in 1837 ; he by John W. Trower. 
Robert S. Mills succeeded Trower in 1843 ; W. W. Bishop succeeded him in 
1847, and filled the office until 1857, when he was succeeded by Gideon 
Edwards, who died in office in 1864. J. P. Cooper was appointed to fill the 
vacancy, and, in 1865, McHenry Brooks was elected, and was succeeded in 
1869 by A. M. Peterson, who was followed by W. E. Adams in 1873; and, in 
1877, J. R. Cunningham, the present Judge, was elected. 

County Clerk. — As before stated, Nathan Ellington was the first County 
Clerk, and filled the office until 1839, when he was succeeded by Loran D. 
Ellis, who soon after fled the country, and Ellington was appointed to fill the 
vacancy. Ellington was followed, in 1840, by Enos Stutsman, who resigned 
his office, and Samuel Huffman was appointed to fill the vacancy. Tn 1853, 
James McCrory succeeded Huffman, and held the office until 1861, when he 
was succeeded by Jacob I. Brown. Brown was succeeded by W. E. Adams in 
1865; Adams by Richard Stoddert in 1873, and he, in 1877, by the present 
Clerk, W. R. Highland. 

Coroner. — Robert A. Miller was the first Coroner, and, in 1836, was 
succeeded by Ichabod Radly, who canvassed the entire county on foot for the 
office. (He deserved it.) Preston R. Mount followed Radly in 1838 ; A. G. 
Mitchell followed Mount in 1842, and William Harr followed Mitchell in 1844. 
Stephen Stone was elected in 1846, and was succeeded by James W. Morgan 
in 1858, and he by S. F. Crawford in 1860 ; he, in 1861, by Dr. Samuel Van 
Meter, who was succeeded by D. P. Lee in 1862, and he by A. G. Mitchell in 
1864 ; Mitchell by 0. D. Hawkins in 1868 ; he by Joel W. Hall in 1870 ; 
Hall by D. H. Barnett in 1872, and he by Lewis True in 1874. 

Circuit Clerk. — James P. Jones, as stated, was the first Circuit Clerk, and 
was succeeded by Nathan Ellington, who held the office until his death in 1855, 
when his son, James D. Ellington, was appointed to fill the vacancy. In 1856, 
George W. Teel was elected, holding the office two terms, and, in 1864, was 
succeeded by H. C. Wortham, and he by W. N. McDonald in 1872. He died 
in December following his election, and A. H. Chapman was appointed Clerk 
p-o tempore, and was succeeded in June, 1873, by E. E. Clark, who was suc- 
ceeded, in 1877, by the present incumbent, W. E. Robinson. 


Recorder. — James P. Jones was the first Recorder of Coles County. He 
was succeeded in the office, in 1834, by John F. Smyth, and he Ly S. M. Dun- 
bar in December of the same year. Nathan Ellington received the office in 
1835 ; John W. Trower in 1843 ; Ellington again in 1846, and Enos Stuts- 
man in 1847, who held the office until the adoption of the new Constitution of 
1848, when the office of Recorder was consolidated with that of Circuit Clerk. 
Treasurer. — A. G. Mitchell was the first County Treasurer, and was suc- 
ceeded by Richard Sto.ldert in 1843, who held the office until 1849, when he 
was succeeded by Thomas Ly tie, and he by Jacob I. Brown in 1 851 ; Brown 
by D. C. Ambler in 1855 ; he by A. Y. Ballard in 1857 ; he by Abram 
Highland in 1859 ; he by D. H. Tremble in 1863 ; he by H. M. Ashmore in 
1869 ; he by George Moore in 1871 ; he by W. B. Galbreath in 1873, and he 
by J. F. Goar in 1877, the present Treasurer of the county. 

Surveyor. — The first Surveyor of the county was Thomas Sconce, who was 
succeeded by Joseph Fowler in 1835 ; he by Sconce again in 1839. Lewis R. 
Hutchason was elected in 1843, and was succeeded by Thomas Lytle in 1847 ; 
he by John Meadows in 1852 ; he by William A. Brun in 1855 ; he by Lewis 
B. Richardson in 1859 ; he by Thomas Lytle again in 1861 ; he by James S. 
Yeargin in 1864 ; he by George A. Brown in 1867 ; he by John H. Clark in 
1869, and he by the present incumbent, John L. Aubert, in 1875. 

School Commissioner. — Charles Morton was the first School Commissioner 
of the county, and held the office until 1841, when he was succeeded by James 
Alexander, and, in 1845, he was succeeded by James B. Harris ; he by H. 
Mann in 1849 ; he by Gideon Edwards in 1851 ; he by James A. Mitchell, 
and he by W. H. K. Pile in 1861 ; he by Elzy Blake in 1865 ; he by Rev. S. 
J. Boveli in 1869 ; he by Rev. Allen Hill in 1873, and he by Prof. T. J. Lee 
in 1877, who is now in office. 

State's Attorney. — In 1860, J. R. Cunningham was chosen State's At- 
torney for the judicial circuit of which Coles County was a part. This 
position he held for four years. The new Constitution, adopted in 1870, gave 
to each county an attorney. The first appointment under this new order of 
things, was Col. A. P. Dunbar, who was succeeded by J. W. Craig. Robert 
M. Gray is the present State's Attorney. 

Legislators. — The first Representative of Coles County in the General 
Assembly of the State was Dr. John Carrico, in the session of 1832. In 1834, 
James T. Cunningham was a member of the Legislature from this county. He 
also served in the sessions of 1837 and 1840 ; was a candidate for the Consti- 
tutional Convention in 1848, and was the choice of his party for Congress in 
the campaign of 1860. He came from Kentucky to Coles County in 1830, 
and was a man of good judgment, liberal views, and skilled in the details of 
finance. In the sessions of the Legislature of 1836-37, and in 1844, and in 
1855, Col. A. P. Dunbar represented the county, and served with Lincoln and 
Douglas. He gave to Douglas the name of Little Giant ; introduced the bill 


for moving the capital from Vandalia to Springfield ; also a bill allowing fees 
to jurors, which position had before been honorary; also a resolution asking 
Congress to reduce the postage on mail matter,* and Illinois thus became the 
first State to move in that direction. In the General Assemblies of 1838 and 
1842, Hon. 0. B. Ficklin represented the county. He is a native of Kentucky, 
but in an early day settled in Wabash County, and afterward in Coles. He 
was appointed, by the Legislature, Prosecuting Attorney for this Circuit, and, 
in his ofiicial capacity, once prosecuted a colored woman here for murder. She 
was poor, and the other attorneys in attendance volunteered to defend her. 
Mr. Ficklin closed the case in a vigorous speech, and after he sat down, the 
woman observed, that she " believed in her soul dat Massa Ficklin had done 
her as much harm as good in his speech." Mr. Ficklin has served several 
terms in Congress, and for a long term of years as a delegate to the Democratic 
National Conventions, and is at present, together with Hon. H. A. Neal, a 
man of fine ability, member of the State Legislature. 

In 1838, Dr. B. Monroe was elected State Senator. He was from Ken- 
tucky, and came to this county in 1833, and possessed fine business qualifica- 
tions. In the sessions of the Legislatures of 1836t and 1846, U. F. Snider 
represented Coles County. He was born in Elizabethtown, Ky., and came to 
Charleston in 1838, where he lived until 1860, when he went to Chicago. 
Under the administration of Gov. Duncan, he was Attorney General of the 
State. As a lawyer, he was eminent in his profession, and as a public speaker 
had few if any peers in the Western country. Joseph Fowler in 1842, W. D. 
Watson in 1852, W. W. Craddock in 1858,*^ Dr. John Monroe in 1862, Col. J. 
M. True in 1866, and Hon. G. W. Parker in 1868, have all, honorably to 
themselves, represented Coles County in the Legislature of the State. In 1870, 
Hon. James A. Cunningham and Hon. A. Jeffries were the representatives; 
were wise law-makers and watchful guardians of the rights of the people. In 
1874, Hon. C. B. Steele and Hon. James A. Connolly represented the county, 
and were able legislators. In the Congress of the United States of 1864 
and 1866, Hon. H. P. Bromwell, now of Denver, Colo., but for many years 
a resident of Coles County, represented this Congressional District. He was 
a man of brilliant talents and a lawyer of fine ability. Dr. Thomas P. Trower 
and Thomas A. Marshall were delegates from this county to the Constitutional 
Convention of 1848. Col. Marshall was also State Senator in 1858, and 
during his term, by right of seniority, was Lieutenant Governor. 

Thus, we have noted the formation of the county, together with the differ- 
ent branches of county ofiices and government, and the names of the incum- 
bents of these offices down to the present time, with a brief glance at the county's 
law-makers and counselors. Before passing from this part of our work, it may 
be of some interest to say a few words of township organization. When the 

* Postage on letters wag twenty-five cents, jiayable at the office of delivery, 
fin 1836, he was living in Greenup (now Cumberland County). 


county was formed, it was divided or laid off into a number of civil townships 
or election precincts. The names and boundaries of these precincts we are un- 
able to give, as the first record of the County Commissioner's Court cannot be 
found. When the county adopted township organization in 1859, the fall of 
which year the vote was taken, there were three Commissioners, viz., John 
Hutton, John Monroe and James T. Cunningham, appointed to lay off the 
county into townships. They accordingly divided it into twelve civil town- 
ships, as follows : Hutton, Ashmore, East Oakland, Morgan, Seven Hickory, 
Milton (now Humbolt), North Okaw, Mattoon, Paradise, Pleasant Grove, 
Charleston and La Fayette, their boundaries and names still remaining the same 
to the present time, as may be seen by reference to the map in the front part of 
this work, except Milton, the name of which has been changed to Humbolt. 
The first Board of Supervisors were John Hutton, Hutton Township; John Hoots, 
North Okaw ; Joseph Edman, Pleasant Grove ; Milton W. Barnes, Ashmore ; 
William R. Jones, La Fayette ; Richard Stoddert, Charleston ; James Monroe, 
Mattoon ; A. R. Sutherland, Milton ; Samuel Rosebrough, Seven Hickory : 
Nathan Thomas, Morgan ; George W. McConkey, East Oakland, and Adam 
W. Hart, Paradise. The Board held its first meeting May 7, 1860, and or- 
ganized by making George W. McConkey temporary Chairman, but, afterward, 
James Monroe was elected permanent President of the Board. The county is 
still under township organization. 


In opening up a new country, one of the first enterprises inaugurated for 
the public good is a mill, for with all the inventions of the age there has been 
no discovery as yet made to enable the human family to get along without eat- 
ing. We have it upon good authority that in the early times people were 
sometimes without bread for three weeks in succession, but there is no evidence 
that they were destitute of all other kinds of provisions at the same time. Mill 
facilities, fifty years ago, were very limited in this section of the country. The 
first mill of any note in the county was what is now known as the Blakeman 
Mill, on the Embarrass River, and was built in 1829 by the Parkers, just fifty 
years ago.* To this mill, we are informed, men came forty and fifty miles on 
horseback, with a bushel and a half of corn, and it frequently was frost-bitten. 
"This mill," said an old gentleman. " run all the year, except when cows came 
along and drank the river dry." It may have been this thoughtless act on the 
part of the cattle that suggested the introduction into the country of horse- 
mills. They were a dry-weather mill, and during the dry season were kept 
pretty busy. Charles Morton built one of these dry-weather mills in the 
neighborhood of Charleston, in an early day, which was of benefit to a large 
scope of country. One of the early mills was built on Kickapoo Creek, by a 
man named Robbins, but it was a frail structure, and could only grind one grist 

*It wag subsequently moved to the opposite side of tlie river and became the Blakeman Mill. 


of a bushel and a half of corn from Monday morning to Saturday night. A 
man named Stevens built a mill in what is now Oakland Township, very early, 
and soon after, Redden built one in the same neighborhood. Redden's mill is said 
to have been a curiosity in its way, in this, that it had a buckwheat bolt attached. 
Chadd built one a few years later, on a new plan, but without a buckwheat bolt. 
If the stories told of it be true, it was a very remarkable mill, and far superior 
to the mills of the present day. The proprietor boasted that on a certain occa- 
sion he ground a bushel of wheat on his mill and bolted it on Redden's bolt, and 
the one bushel turned out one hundred pounds of superfine flour, and two and a 
half bushels of bran. (It may have been that the mill was no better than those 
of the present day, but a better quality of wheat was grown then.) -But these 
mills were a "big thing" in their day, as well as a useful institution of the 

The first store opened in the county was by Charles Morton. When he 
came to the county in 1830, he brought a stock of goods with him, and opened 
them out in a small pole cabin, near the present city of Charleston, and, upon 
the laying-out of the town, moved within its corporate limits. He established 
his store upon one of the eligible corner lots, and thus the mercantile business 
was begun, not only in the county, but in its metropolis. Other stores were 
opened a few years later at Kickapoo, Hitesville and other points in the 
county. Morton was not long allowed a monopoly of the mercantile trade of 
Charleston, but on the principle that "competition is the life of trade," soon 
had plenty of company. Mr. Morton was also the first Postmaster in the 
county. This fact is disputed by some, however, who claim that George Han- 
son established a post office at Wabash Point some time before there was one at 
Charleston. Samuel Frost carried the first mail through the county. The route 
was from Paris to Yandalia, then the capital of the State. 

Tan-yards were among the enterprises of the pioneer days. People then 
were not ashamed to wear, but were glad to get, sfioes of home manufacture. 
Many of the pioneers were sufficiently versed in the lore of St. Crispin 
to make shoes, and their genius Avas called into question at the approach of 
winter. To satisfy the demand for " shoe-leather," tanneries w^ere established 
where the peoples' "cowhides " and deerskins were made into leather. One 
of these early tanneries was established by William Wagner in the Kickapoo 
settlement. Another was established at Charleston by David Eastin, which 
afterward became the property of the Stodderts, and was operated by them for 
years, in fact, until tan-yards went out of fashion. Carding machines were also 
included among the early industries of the county. As we have stated in an- 
other page, the pioneer ladies manufactured the family clothing. Nearly every 
family raised a few sheep. The w^ool produced by these useful animals was 
carded into rolls by these machines, when they were taken in hand by the 
women, spun into yarn on the " big wheel," and then woven into cloth on the 
old " rattling loom." One of the first carding-machines in the county was 


established or built by John Kennedy in Charleston soon after it was laid out 
as a town. Daniel Evinger built a carding machine on Parker's Prairie, about 
1828, which is supposed to have been the very first institution of the kind in 
the county. But these machines, tan-yards and horse-mills have long ago be- 
come obsolete, the latter have been superseded by fine steam-mills, the tan-yards 
by " brought-on " boots and shoes and the jeans and "linsey-woolsey" by 

store goods. 

Among the first blacksmiths in the county were two men of the name of 
Owens and Harman, who had the first shop in Charleston. John Carter, of 
Ashmore, was another of the early blacksmiths, and also P. K. Honn, who for 
many years kept a shop at Hitesville. (For a beautiful tribute to this class of 
mechanics, the reader is referred to Longfellow's poem entitled "The Village Black- 
smith.") Other mechanics and trades-people came in, the settlements flourished 
and grew prosperous upon the products of their own enterprise. In this 
small and humble way, the foundation was laid for the power and greatness 
enjoyed at the present day. 


As to who was the first white child born in the present territory of Coles 
County, it is not possible to state definitely. As is usually the case, we hear of 
a great many first ones — so many, indeed, that it is hard to decide to whom the 
honor belongs. The child of Daniel Drake, whose wife has been mentioned as, at 
the age of 54 years, giving birth to a child about 1826-27, was probably the first 
birth in the county. Drake was one of the pioneers of the settlement at Wa- 
bash Point. Another of the first births was a son of James Nees, born in 
March, 1827, in the settlement now known by the poetical name of Dog Town. 
Probably there are other first ones, but we have no time to look them up. Suf- 
fice it, many have been born to take up the trials and troubles of earth. 

" Angels weep when a babe is born, 
And sing when an old man dies." 

In 1824, the vear that the first settlement was made in Coles County, a 
Mrs. Whitten died in the settlement on Parker's Prairie, and was the first death 
of a white person in the county. James Nash, who settled at Wabash Point 
in 1827, and soon after fatally injured himself carrying a heavy log of wood, as 
noticed on another page, was the first death in that neighborhood. Daniel Drake 
and Charles Sawyer cut down trees, split out puncheons and of them made the 
coffin in which Nash was buried. 

Among the early marriages may be noted that of James Jeems and a Miss 
Bates, which occurred in 1827, and is said to have been the first wedding sol- 
emnized in the present territory of the county. Jeems went to Darwin, on the 
Wabash River, then the county seat of Clark County, for the marriage license, 
as did also Levi Doty, who married soon after to a Miss Phipps. Apropos of 
weddings, the following anecdote is not inappropriate to the subject. We wish 


to state, however, Ly way of preface to the story, that should the participants 
in it take offense at having their old jokes resurrected and recorded upon the 
pages of hi.story, we warn them to vent their rage upon Capt. Adams. He 
furnished us the facts, and we take shelter behind his elephantine proportions. 
In early times, there lived in Charleston a Justice of the Peace nained H. C. 
Dunbar, and a well-known business man — Richard Stoddert. These two 
worthy individuals were in the habit of playing practical jokes on each other, 
and rather serious ones sometimes, as the sequel Avill show. One bleak, dreary 
day, ill the month of Marcii — as disagreeable as March days can sometimes be 
— Mr. Stoddert told 'Squire Dunbar that a friend of his in the north part of 
the county, some eighteen or twenty miles from town, was to be married on 
that day, and had requested him (Stoddert) to send Dunbar up to perform the 
ceremony. Dunbar, nothing doubting, mounted his horse and rode up to the 
designated place to tie the knot, but upon arriving, discovered that it was one 
of Stoddert's jokes. lie said nothing, but, indulged internally, perhaps, in a 
few pages of profane history, returned home through the March blasts, taking 
it all good-naturedly, and l)idod liis time to pay off Stoddert in his own coin. 
An opportunity was soon prcsenfed. It was a custom at that day, at parties 
and gatherings of young people, by way of giving zest to the evening's enter- 
tainment, to get up a sham wedding of some couple who had been " keeping 
company," or were particularly sweet on each other, and have a sham ceremony 
performed with all due solemnity by some sham official or sham clergyman. 
Soon after Dunbar's "fruitless trip " above mentioned, one of these social par- 
ties came off in Charleston, and, with the design of retaliating upon Stoddert, 
Dunbar went to the County Clerk's office and procured a marriage license for 
Stoddert and a certain young lady, with whom he had been keeping company 
for some time. Armed with this document, he repaired to the party, and so 
engineered matters as to get up the usual sham wedding between Stoddert and 
his sweetheart. As a Justice of the Peace, he was, of course, called on to per- 
form the (supposed) sham ceremony. Confronting the pair with all the solem- 
nity he would have used had it been a pre-arranged wedding "for keeps," 
he asked the usual questions required by law, and was answered satisfactorily, 
winding up by informing them that, as they were aware, he was an officer, 
authorized by law to perform the marriage ceremony, and asked if it was their 
" desire to be united in holy wedlock." They answered in the affirmative, and, 
holding the license in his hand (which they supposed was but a piece of blank 
paper, used for the sake of appearance), he went through the marriage ceremony 
in full, received the responses, and solemnly pronounced them " man and wife," 
turned away and made out the certificate with the usual witnesses, went over to 
the Clerk's office, made a return of the license and had the certificate recorded 
that night, without a hint to the pair of the genuineness of the proceedings. 
The next day, however, the matter leaked out, and so many of Stoddert's 
friends joked him about being maiiied in the novel manner described, that he 


went to the Clerk's office to investigate, and found it true — the papers in the 
case returned and recorded in due form. He then went to the girl and told 
her what had occurred, when quite a little excitement arose. She cried and 
Stoddert — swore (perhaps), not that they objected to each other, but to the way 
they had been inveigled into it. At last, Stoddert told her that they had better 
make the best of a "horrid joke" and call it genuine. She responded that 
perhaps she would never be able to do any better in the selection of a husband, 
and so the sham wedding was turned into a genuine affair. Before leaving the 
subject we will add that, if all reports be true, Charleston never knew a hap- 
pier couple than the one united in this romantic manner. Long years of wedded 
life were passed in the greatest harmony, and when, a few years ago, the good 
woman passed from earth, she was most sincerely mourned by the partner of 
her sorrows and joys. He is still living, an honored citizen of Charleston. 
'Squire Dunbar is living in Texas, or was at the last known of him, enjoying 
the reflection, doubtless, that he paid Stoddert for his joke, with interest. 

The first practicing physician in Coles County was Dr. John Apperson, 
His practice extended over a large scope of country, and his office was usually 
on horse-back. Often when he slept, his saddle was his pillow, the soft side of 
a puncheon or the green earth his bed, and the blue sky his covering. Dr. 
Carrico was another of the early practitioners in the healing art, and was fol- 
lowed soon after by Dr. Ferguson, who doctored the people of Coles County for 
more than forty years. Col. Dunbar was the first licensed lawyer of the county, 
and for some time had an open field for the exercise of his legal talent. A 
more minute history of the professions is given in the township histories. 

J OLD settlers' association. 

In 1878, the idea was conceived of forming an association of the old settlers 
of Coles County still surviving, for the purpose of keeping up the old associa- 
tions of the pioneer days, and preserving the reminiscences of the wilderness, 
in which they long ago planted their homes. With this object in view, a meet- 
ing assembled in the city of Charleston, on the 19th of October last, and was 
called to order by Hon. 0. B. Ficklin. Col. A. P. Dunbar was chosen Chair- 
man of the meeting, and Capt. W. E. Adams was appointed Secretary. Col. 
Dunbar briefly stated the object of the meeting to be " the renewal of old 
acquaintances, and giving brief sketches of the early history and settlement of 
Coles County, and the organization of a society to be known as the Coles 
County Old Settlers' Society." I. J. Montfort, Isaac N. Craig and Thomas G. 
Chambers were appointed a committee to report a plan for the organization of 
such a society. The following is their report : " This association shall be known 
as the Coles County Old Settlers' Society. The object of this Society shall be 
to keep in lively remembrance the hardships and privations incident to the 
early settlers of new countries, and especially of this county, and thereby 
promote the same economy among the rising generation as was practiced by 


them. The officers shall be a President, and a Vice President for each town- 
ship, a Secretary and five Directors. The duties of the officers provided for 
as above shall be the same as performed by such officers in all deliberative 
bodies and societies. It shall be the duty of the Board of Directors to call 
annual meetings of this society on the last Thursday in August of each year, 
and make necessary arrangements for such meetings. The officers shall hold 
their positions for one year." A committee, consisting of 0. B. Ficklin, 
Bichard Stoddert and Dr. S. Van Meter, was appointed, to define what an old 
settler is, and who shall be members of this society. Following is their definition : 
" Whosoever shall have lived in the State of Illinois thirty years is considered 
an old settler by this association, and shall be eligible to become a member of 
this Society." At this meeting, Thomas G. Chambers was chosen President of 
the association for the ensuing year, and W. E. Adams, Secretary. The fol- 
lowing gentlemen were chosen Vice Presidents : Albert Compton, Charleston ; 
Thomas E. Woods, Mattoon ; Adam W. Hart, Paradise ; J. K. Ellis, Okaw ; 
James Shoemaker, Humbolt ; James McCrory, La Fayette; I. J. Montfort^ 
Pleasant Grove; Ely B. Adams, Ilutton ; Peter K. Honn, Ashmore ; J.J. 
Pemberton, Oakland ; Yancey E. Winkler, Morgan ; and Isaac Perisho, 
Hickory. J. W. Frazier, Abram Highland, Dr. S. Van Meter, Col. A. P. 
Dunbar and George Birch were chosen Executive Committee. 

The Charleston Plaindealer closes its account of the proceedings of this 
meeting of the old settlers as follows: "Brief speeches were made by Col. J. 
J. Adams,* who has lived in the county for forty-eight years, and has heard 
the scream of the panther and the war-whoop of the Indian, and by Isaac 
Perisho, who had been a resident of Illinois since 1825 ; and by William Rigsby, 
who had seen the Court House built and sowed the blue-grass seed in the Court 
House yard ; and by Uncle John Bates, who came here in 1824, and has seen 
the wilderness blossom as the rose ; and by Dr. Van Meter, who has been in 
the country for fifty years, and carried his corn to mill on his back and hired 
the miller to take his oxen and grind his grist for him ; and by Aunt Polly 
Kellogg, who came here in 1824, saw the first mill built, and heard the first 
sermon preached, and attended the first funeral in the county. Job W. Brown, 
P. K. Honn, George Birch, Y. E. Winkler, Jeptha Parker, Michael Hall, 
Isaac Craig, and many other old settlers were in attendance. The Vice Presi- 
dents are requested to enroll all old. settlers in their respective townships. The 
last Thursday in August, 1879, was fixed as the time for the next annual 
meeting." We would add that it is the intention to keep up the meetings, and 
to maintain the association permanently. 


Some modern sage, imbued with a poetical view in his composition, has very 

wisely declared: ,,„.,., .i, -a 

•' " Tis education forms the common mind, 

Just as the twig is bent the tree's inclined." 

■ A soldier of the Mexican war, and recently deceased. 


And when our forefathers declared in their ordinance of 1787, that kn v.vl;;l :c, 
in connection with religion and morality, was "necessary to the g'> > 1 .; i\\,m-ii- 
raent and happiness of mankind,'.' and enjoined that "schools, and ilu iiuaris 
of education, should forever be encouraged," they suggested in that ordinance the 
verv bulwark of American liberty and freedom. The first free-school system 
of the State was adopted thirty years before the present one. Schools flourished 
in almost every neighborhood, says Gov. Ford in his history of Illinois, and 
" the law Avorked reasonably well." Gov. Coles, in his Message to the Legis- 
lature of 1824-25, directed attention to the liberal donation of Congress in 
lands for educational purposes, asking that they be husbanded as a rich treasure 
for future generations, and, in the mean time, to make provision for the support 
of local schools. During this session, Hon. Joseph Duncan, subsequently 
Governor (then Senator), introduced a bill, afterward passed, to which the 
following is the preamble : " To enjoy our rights and liberties, we must 
understand them ; their security and protection ought to be the first object of 
a free people ; and it is a well-established fact that no nation has ever continued 
long in the enjoyment of civil and political freedom which was not both virtuous 
and enlightened. And believing that the advancement of literature always has 
been, and ever will be, the means of more fully developing the rights of men — 
that the mind of every citizen in a republic is the common property of society, 
and constitutes the basis of its strength and happiness — it is, therefore, con- 
sidered the peculiar duty of a free government, like ours, to encourage and 
extend the improvement and cultivation of the intellectual energies of the 
whole." Stuve, in his history of Illinois, speaking of this act, says: " It was 
provided that common schools should be established, free and open to every class 
of white citizens between the ages of five and twenty-one ; and persons over 
twenty-one might be admitted on such terms as the Trustees should prescribe. 
Districts, of not less than fifteen families, were to be formed by the County 
Courts, upon petition of a majority of the voters thereof; officers were to be 
elected, sworn in, and their duties were prescribed in detail. The system was 
full and complete in all particulars. The legal voters were empowered at the 
annual meeting to levy a tax, in money or merchantable produce at its cash 
value, not exceeding one-half of one per cent, subject to a maximum limitation 
of $10 to any one person. But, aside from this tax, the best and most efiective 
feature of the law, in principle, the great stimulant of our present system, was 
an annual appropriation by the State of $2 out of every $100 received into 
the Treasury, and the distribution of five-sixths of the interest arising from the 
school funds, apportioned among the several counties, according to the number 
of white children under the age of twenty-one years, which sums were then re- 
distributed by the counties among their respective districts, none participating 
therein where not at least three months' school had been taught during the 
twelve months preceding. In this law were foreshadowed some of the most 
valuable features of our present free-school system. But it is asserted that the 











law of 1825 was in advance of the times ; that the people preferred to pay 
their tuition fees, or do without education for the children, rather than submit 
to the bare idea of taxation, however it might fall in the main upon the wealthier 
property-holders, for the benefit of all ; and the law was so amended, in 1827, 
as to virtually nullify it, by providing that no person should be taxed for the 
maintenance of any school, unless the consent was first obtained in writing, and 
the continuance of the State appropriation of |2 out of every $100 received 
into the Treasury, being its very life, was denied." In the foregoing extract 
is portrayed something of the first school laws of Illinois, and their virtual abolish- 
ment developed the rude system of schools of the pioneer days in Coles County. 
The school fund was not sufficient to support the schools, and the people obviated 
the difficulty' by some one, specially interested, taking a paper, going to the 
parents and having them sign as many scholars, at $1.50 apiece (that was the 
standard price), as they could send to school. If a sufficient number were sub- 
scribed they had a school, if not, the children ran wild and unrestrained as the 
prairie winds, at least, so far as pertained to schools. Nor were schoolhouses 
built then by general taxation, as they are now, but by gratuitous contribution. 
This contribution usually consisted in a man taking his ax and cuttino- locrs, or 
taking his team and hauling them from the timber to the building-site, or 
carrying the hod while the chimney was in process of erection, or of " rivino- " 
boards to cover it, etc., etc. These schoolhouses were built of logs, often with- 
out hewing, raised one story high, and, as an old settler informed us, " white- 
washed inside and outside with original Illinois mud, floored with rude 
puncheons, and cracks between them through which the small children some- 
times fell." With a fire place extending across one end of the room, benches 
made of trees split, open, and wooden pins put in for legs, the half of two logs 
cut out, and white domestic tacked over it (the pioneer glass window), completes 
the picture of the original schoolhouse. In these rude temples of learning the 
pioneer's child acquired his education. There were no grades then, and but 
few classes, for in a school of twenty or thirty pupils, there would be found as 
many arithmetics, geographies and readers as there were extant in the English 
language. But the adoption of the free-school system, entered upon in 1855, 
marks the turning-point in the history of common-school education of the 
State, and abolished forever the rude and imperfect system hitherto in force. 
The donation by Congress of the Sixteenth Section of every Congressional 
Township, or, if sold, lands equivalent thereto, as contiguous as might be, for 
the use of the inhabitants of such township for school purposes, amounted to 
over 998,000 acres, and which, had it been properly managed and husbanded, 
would have given the people such an ample school fund as would have saved 
them from any local taxation. At the session of the Legislature of 1854. that 
august body took the first step in the right direction, .by the enactment of a 
law separating the office of Superintendent of Public Instruction from that of 
Secretary of State, and creating it a distinct department of the State govern- 


ment, the incumbent to receive a salary of $1,500, and Gov. Matteson appointed 
the Hon. N. W. Edwards State Superintendent of Common Schools. This 
most important office, at that juncture, was bestowed upon Mr. Edwards on 
account of his long experience in public life, and from the conviction that he 
would carry into effect the hopes of the people and the designs of the Legis- 
lature in creating it. In January following, he submitted to the General 
Assembly a full report upon the condition of the public schools throughout the 
State, ably urged the education of the children of the State at the public 
expense, and presented a well-drawn bill for a complete system of free schools, 
which, with some alterations, became a law. The act bore date February 15, 
1855, and embraced all the essential principles now in force."* But, however 
interesting our school history may be to the friends of education, we cannot 
follow it through all of its mutations, but have already trespassed upon time 
and space, and will only add, that there is not a State west of the Alleghanies 
whose educational interest and common-school system is so well developed, so 
well protected and so well adapted to the wants of the people and the spirit of 
the age, as the State of Illinois. With a few statistical facts from the last 
report of Prof. T. J. Lee, County Superintendent of Schools, to the Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction, which are of special interest to the people of the 
county, we will pass on to other branches of our work : 

Number of schools taught in the county 121 

" " pupils enrolled 7,937 

Male teachers employed (1st grade) 66 

" " " ('2d grade) 41 

Female " " (1st grade) 59 

" " " (2d grade) 67 

Total number of teachers employed 233 

Average merit of their certificates 8.3 

Months taught by males 526 

" " " females 582 

Average number of months taught previous 88 

Average age of these teachers (years) 27 

Average monthly wages (males) $48.88 

" (females) $30.60 

Amount paid teachers , 14-4,607.99 

Number of persons between 6 and 21 years 9,099 

" between 12 and 21 unable to write 20 


Referring to the qualifications of teachers. Prof. Lee says: "Shortly after 
coming into office, I deemed it best to reduce, gradually, the number of certifi- 
cates by raising the grade of qualifications, and adopted the following rules con- 
cerning certificates : " 1. Scale : 5, very poor ; 6, poor ; 7, tolerable ; 8, good ; 9, 
very good ; 10, perfect. 2. For First Grade — Average of 8, with no branch 
below 7. 3. For Second grade — Average of 7, with no branch below 5. After 
twelve months teaching, same mark as for First Grade. 4. Only bona-fide ap- 
plicants to teach in this county will be examined. 5. Reference of good moral 

♦Stuve's History of Illinois. 


character required of applicants unknown to Superintendent. 6. In addition 
to above, aptitude for the business of teaching will be required. 7. No re-ex- 
amination under three months after rejection. 8. No certificate now held will 
be renewed or another issued instead, except on personal application for re- 
examination. 9, All examinations must be begun and completed on the same 
day ; therefore applicants should come to the office early in the day. 10. No 
certificates will be issued except at published time and place." Prof. Lee closes 
his report as follows : " Our common school system is yet an experiment. Give 
it time to grow, and it may yet unfold into that perennial blessing, and those benef- 
icent propositions dreamed by its founders. Its growth cannot be hastened — 
but retarded rather — by certain Utopian ideas that now, unhappily for it, seem 
to be gaining ground. Let us call a ' halt ' and wait. Let all who are ' called ' 
to help administer the system strive in every good way to bring it up equal to 
the provisions already made for it, before attempting new excesses." 


The sound of the Gospel in Coles County is coeval with the first settle- 
ment made in its limits. John Parker, the old patriarch of the Parker family 
was a Baptist preacher of the " hard-shell " or " ironside" persuasion, and used to 
proclaim the word of God to the pioneers on the Sabbath — when it was not a 
good day to hunt bees. Daniel Parker was also a preacher of the same denom- 
ination, and, as the Parkers were the first settlers in the county, so were they 
the first preachers. "• High " Johnny Parker, as the old man was familiarly 
called, preached the first sermon in Coles County in 182-4, the year the first 
settlement was made. He was a plain, old-fashioned man, hewn out of rou^h 
timber, and "preached salvation by election, without money and without 
price." This sermon (the first in the county) was preached in a small log cabin 
in the Parker settlement, and it is said that every inhabitant of the county 
was there, and had abundant room, for eleven souls constituted the entire 
adult population. Father Parker closed this original religious service of the 
county in these words : " Brethren, we have wandered far into the wilder- 
ness, but even here death will find us." The Rev. Mr. Newport was another 
of the "hard-shell" divines who figured prominently in the early relio-ious 
history of the county. The early settlers were a conscientiously religious 
people. Even prior to the era of schoolhouses and churches, they had 
meetings under the shade-trees on the river-banks, and in private houses, 
dedicated by common usage to religious services. Says Capt. Adams in 
his Centennial Address : " We have seen one of these private houses, not 
exceeding twenty feet square, containing three or four beds and all the house- 
hold and kitchen furniture of a large family, hold a big congregation of zealous 
worshipers. In the early days, the old, young and even small children went to 
church. During the services it sometimes occurred that a half-dozen of these 
little ones, all with one accord, would raise their plaintive cries ; nevertheless, 


the services proceeded without any apparent disturbance. The occasional man- 
ifestations of some of these people were strikingly singular. Some would shout and 
some would pray and others scream at the top of the voice. Some would clap 
their hands until blistered, and others faint away, but all seemed happy, recog- 
nizing it as the Lord's doings." 

An early minister of the Presbyterian Church was Rev. Isaac Bennett. 
" He dropped down among us," says one, " as softly as the morning light, and 
could not brook any religious excitement, or even the music of a child during 
his discourse." Rev. Mr. Martin was another of the early preachers of 
Coles County. But we have not space to particularize each of these 
pioneer soldiers of the cross. Without the hope of earthly reward, they 
preached the glad tidings to perishing sinners, and sought to gather them 
into the fold of Christ. Reverently asking the blessing of God upon all 
they did, their lives were simple ; their wants few and easily satisfied ; their 
teachings plain and unvarnished, touched with no eloquence save that of their 
daily living, which was seen and known of all men. 

In what year the first church-building was erected in the county is not 
known, but subsequently to 1830, as at that date, we are informed, there was 
not an edifice which had been erected purposely for a temple of worship. Before 
the building of schoolhouses, the cabin of the settler was used in winter, 
and in summer, "the groves, God's first temples," served their humble wishes. 
But now, some sixty-five church-buildings may be enumerated in the county. 
Not only in the towns and cities, but in every village and hamlet, their lofty 
spires "pierce the clouds." Even in many neighborhoods in the country are 
neat and commodious church-houses. 

In connection with the church history, it may not be out of place to say a 
few words of the benevolent institutions existing in the county. Freemasonry 
and Odd Fellowship follow close in the wake of the Christian church, and, in 
their way, exert almost as great an influence for good as the church itself. 
They teach a belief in God, the immortality of the soul and the resurrec- 
tion of the body. Gathered around their altars, their votaries can sub- 
scribe to their simple articles of faith, and join in one united prayer and 
praise to the great Architect of the universe. These institutions have organ- 
ized bodies in Charleston, Mattoon, Etna, Ashmore, Muddy Point, Oakland, 
Paradise, Hutton and Milton. In the city of Charleston are Charleston Lodge, 
No. 35, A., F. & A. M.; Keystone Chapter, No. 54, Royal. Arch Masons ; 
Charleston Lodge, No. 609, I. 0. 0. F.; Kickapoo Lodge, No. 00, I. 0. 0. F.; 
and Coles Encampment, No. 94, I. 0. 0. F. ; in Mattoon — Mattoon Lodge, 
No. 260, A., F. & A. M.; Circle Lodge, No. 707, A., F. & A. M.; Mattoon 
Chapter, No. 85, Royal Arch Masons ; Godfrey de Bouillon Commandery, No. 
44, Knights Templar; Harmony Lodge, No. 551, I. 0. 0. F.; Coles County 

Lodge, No. 260, I. 0. O: F. ; Mattoon Encampment, No. , I. 0. 0. F. ; 

also, Mattoon German Lodge, No. 414, I. 0. 0. F., and Eureka Lodge, No. 


13, Colored Masons ; in the village of Etna, Wabash Lodge, No. 179, 
A., F. & A. M., and Etna Lodge, No. 519, I. 0. 0. F.; in Oakland— Oak- 
land Lodge, No. 219, A., F & A. M., and Oakland Lodge, No. 545, I. 0. 0. F.; 
in Milton — Milton Lodge, No. 275, A., F. & A. M., and Humboldt Lodge, No. 
636, L 0. 0. F.; in Ashmore— Ashraore Lodge, No. 390, A., F. & A. M.; 
in Muddy Point— Etna Lodge, No. 396, A., F. & A. M.; in Milton Station 
— Elwood Lodge, No. 589, A., F. & A. M.; in Paradise — Miles Hart Lodge, 
No. 595, A., F. & A. M., and in Hutton — Hutton Lodge, No. 698, 
A., F. & A. M. 


An association entitled the Coles County Agricultural Society was formed 
at Charleston on the 24th day of May, 1841, and held three successive fairs, 
the first, October 1, 1841, the second, October 1, 1842, and the third, Sep- 
tember 27, 1843. The permanent officers of the Society for 1841 were as 
follows : James Hite, President ; B. F. Jones, H. J. Ashmore and M. Ruflf- 
ner, Vice Presidents ; T. A. Marshall, Treasurer, and J. F. Whitney, Secre- 
tary. The officers for 1842 were : Thomas Monson, President ; Michael 
Ruffner, Isaac Gruwell, Vice Presidents ; L. R. Hutchason, Treasurer ; D. J. 
Van Deren, Secretary; and for 1843, James T. Cunningham, President; 
George H. Nabb and Fountain Turner, Vice Presidents ; L. R. Hutchason, 
Treasurer; D. J. Van Deren, Secretary; Laban Burr, John A. Olmstead, 
John Hite, Joel Connelly, John Apperson, B. F. Jones, Thomas Monson, 
Thomas Farris, R. A. Miller and William Frost, a Board of Directors.* 

The following extract is from the records: "From 1843 to 1855, the 
Society appears to have been entranced in a sort of Rip Van Winkle sleep, a 
"rpasterly inactivity " of eleven years' duration, until the passage of the two 
acts of the Legislature of Illinois, February 14, 1855, and February 15, 1855, 
the first to encourage the formation of county agricultural societies, and the 
last, a general act of incorporation of agricultural and horticultural societies 
and associations for improving. the breeds of domestic animals, whereupon the 
Society appears to have awakened from its lengthy slumber, and recommenced 
its labors with more of vigor, comeliness of proportion and hope to its friends 
than prior to that wise legislative aid by the State, and accordingly, in the 
spring of 1855, a re-organization was effected, and a constitution and by-laws 
adopted, as was then supposed, in conformity with the acts above referred to. 
The records under the new organization are said to be lost, so that the present 
Secretary is unable to give a history of its proceedings for 1855. Certain it is, 
however, the Society held a fair in the fall of that year, but what was contained 
in its list of premiums, who were judges, who competitors, to whom and for 
what premiums were awarded, is enshrouded in darkness. Nor is the present 
Secretary able to give a full list of the officers elected for that year, but as far 
as informed, the following is believed to be correct: James T.Cunningham, 

*These fairs were held on the commons, we are told, the Society having no grounds of its own. 


President; D. J. Van Deren, Secretary; B. F. Jones, J. K. Decker, M. F. 
Hackett, a portion of the Board of Directors ; Thomas G. Chambers, Treas- 
urer. The present Secretary is informed that the Society, having complied 
with the act of February 14, 1855, received from the Treasurer of State the 
sum of $50, as authorized by that act. Before the election of the present 
Secretary, but at what time he is not informed, the Society had purchased seven 
and three-fifths acres of land for the use of the same for its fair grounds, and 
had paid the sum of $100 in part payment for the same, the title to which 
remains yet unperfected." 

The act of February 14, 1855, referred to in the foregoing records, is as 

follows : 

An Act to encourage the formation nf County Agricultural Societifs. 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the people of the State of Illinois, represented in the General 
Assembly, That whenever the President and Treasurer of any County Agricultural Society shall 
certify that the sum of (at least) fifty dollars has been collected, and is in the hands of the 
Treasurer for the use of said society, the Tre.isurerof this State shall, when called upon for that 
purpose, pay to the said Treasurer or fiscal agent or officer of said society, the sum of fifty dol- 
lars ; and the receipt of said Treasurer of such society therefor shall entitle the said Treasurer 
of this State to a credit for that amount in the settlements of his account as such State Treasurer. 

Sec. 2. The said sum of fifty dollars, thus appropriated, shall be expended in the purpose 
of premiums, to be procured and distributed under the direction of said societies respectively in 
the manner prescribed in the constitution, by-laws, or other regulations of said societies. 

Sec. 3. This act shall take effect and be in force from and after its passage. 

The act of February 15, 1855, also alluded to in the extract from the 
minutes of the Society, provides for the incorporation of such societies, the 
mode of forming them, who shall be members, etc., and gives the usual privi- 
leges of all corporate bodies. But its great length and lack of interest to the 
general reader, are sufficient excuses for omitting it here. Under these acts 
the Society revived, as already stated, took new lease of life, and commenced 
business in earnest. The minutes, however, of the first meeting, under the 
new dispensation, being lost, the proceedings of that fair are " as a sealed book." 
The proceedings of 1856 are given in full, together with the premium-lists, 
officers and all matters of interest occurring during the year. At a meeting of 
Society held in the Court House, June 2, 1856, the following officers were 
elected for the ensuing year: John Cofer, President; William Miller, Vice 
President ; H. J. Keeler, Secretary ; Thomas G. Chambers, Treasurer ; B. F. 
Jones, J. T. Cunningham, J. K. Decker, M. F. Hackett and James Hammett, 
Executive Committee. At a meeting of the officers, held soon after their 
election, they met and made out a list of pi'emiums, also a list of Avhat should 
be exhibited. It is as follows : 


Horses. — Best stallion, 4 years old and over, Class 1, No. 1 '?6 00 

Second best '^ *^0 

Best stallion, 3 years old. Class 1, No. '1 3 00 

Second best : 2 00 

Best stallion, 2 years old, Class I, No. o 3 00 


Horses. — Second best 2 00 

Best stallion, 1 year old, Class 1, No. 4 3 00 

Second best 2 00 

Best sucking horse-colt, Class 1, No. 5. 3 00 

Second best 2 00 

Best brood-mare, 4 years old and over, Class 2, No. 1 6 00 

Second best 3 00 

Best filly, 8 years old, Class 2, No. 2 3 00 

Second best 2 00 

Best filly, 2 years old. Class 2, No. 3 3 00 

Second best 2 00 

Best filly, 1 year old. Class 2, No. 4 3 00 

Second best 2 00 

Best sucking mare-colt, Class 2, No. 5 3 00 

Second best 2 00 

Best pair horses or mares. Class 3, No. 1 5 00 

Best saddle horse or mare. Class 3, No. 2 3 00 '' 

Best buggy horse or mare, Class 3, No. 3 3 00 

Jacks. — Best jack, 3 years old and over, Class 4, No. 1 3 00 

Second best 2 00 

Best jack, 2 years old, Class 4, No. 2 3 00 

Second best 2 00 

Best jack 1 year old. Class 4, No. 3 3 00 

Second best 2 00 

Best sucking jack-colt, Class 4, No. 4 3 00 

Second best 2 00 

Jennies. — Best jenny, 3 years old and over, Class 5, No. 1 3 00 

Second best 2 00 

Best jenny, 2 years old. Class 5, No. 2 3 00 

Second best 2 00 

Best jenny, 1 year old, Class 5, No. 3 3 00 

Second best 2 00 

Best sucking jenny colt. Class 5, No. 4 3 00 

Second best 2 00 

Mules. — Best pair of mules. Class 6, No. 1 5 00 

Best sucking mule-colt. Class 6, No. 2 3 00 

Catile. — Best bull, 4 years old and over, Class 7, No. 1 5 00 

Second best 3 00 

Best bull, 3 years old. Class 7, No. 2 3 00 

Second best 2 00 

Best bull, 2 years old, Class 7, No. 3 3 00 

Second best 2 00 

Best bull, 1 year old. Class 7, No. 4 3 00 

Second best 2 00 

Best sucking bull-calf. Class 7, No. 5 3 00 

Second best ^. 2 00 

Best cow, 4 years old and over, Class 8, No. 1 8 00 

Second best 3 00 

Best heifer, 3 years old, Class 8, No. 2 3 00 

Second best 2 00 

Best heifer, 2 years old. Class 8, No. 3 3 00 

Second best 2 00 

Best heifer, 1 year old, Class 8, No. 4 3 00 


Caillc. — Second best 2 00 

Best sucking lieifer-calf, Class 8, No. 5 3 00 

Second best 2 00 

Best pair work cattle, Class 9, No. 1 .5 00 

Sheep. — Best buck, Class 10, No. 1 §2 00 

Second best buck 1 00 

Best ewe, Class 10, No. 1 2 00 

Second best ewe 1 00 

Swine. — Best boar, 1 year old and over, Class 11, No. 1 3 00 

Best boar 6 months old and under 12 months old. Class 11, No. 2... 3 00 

Best pig under 6 months old, Class 11, No. 3 2 00 

Best breed-sow, 1 year old and over, Class 11, No. 4 3 00 

Best breed-sow, 6 months and under 12 months old, Class 11, No. -5, 3 00 

Poultry. — Best pair of chickens, Class 12, No. 1 2 00 

Second best pair of chickens 1 00 

Farming Utensils. — Best sod plow. Class 13 3 00 

Best Subsoil plow, Class 13 3 00 

Best harrow. Class 13 2 00 

Best land-roller, Class 13 2 00 

Best mower and reaper combined, Class 13 .5 00 

Best thresher and separator. Class 13. 5 00 

Best seed-sower. Class 13 3 00 

Best hay-rake, Class 13 2 00 

Mechanical Department. — Best harness for all purposes, Class 14, No. 1 3 00 

Second best harness for all purposes 2 00 

Best riding-saddle, Class 14, No. 2 3 00 

Second best riding-saddle 2 00 

Agricultural Products. — Best acre of wheat (dimension and quality indorsed 
by responsible, disinterested party), to be reported to the 
Secretary prior to November 10, with instruction as to soil, 
time and manner of sowing, tillage of ground, species of 

wheat, etc.. Class 15, No. 1 5 00 

Best acre of corn (with same conditions as to the wheat, etc.), 

Class 15, No. 2 5 00 

Fruit Department. — Greatest and best variety of apples, with siatement as to 
soil, slope of ground, etc., and any concurrent facts or con- 
ditions by which it is believed its superiority had been 

induced. Class 16, No. 1 3 00 

Second best and greatest variety (same statement) 2 00 

Greatest and best variety of fruits, with statement as above relative 

to each, species, etc.. Class 16, No. 2 3 00 

Second greatest and best variety (same statement) 2 00 


Dairy. — Best 5 lbs. butter, with process of manufacture, Class 17, No. 1 2 00 

Best 10 lbs. cheese, with process of manufacture, Clasi^ 17, No. 2... 2 00 

Domestic Manufactures. — Best fancy quilt, Class 18, No. 1 2 00 

Best coverlet, Class 18, No. 2 2 00 

Best cai-pet, 10 yards and upward. Class 18, No. 3 2 00 

Best rag carpel, 10 yards and upward, Class 18, No. 4 2 00 

Best woolen cloth, 10 yards and over, Class 18, No. 5 3 00 

Best jeans, 10 yards and over, Class 18, No. 6 2 00 

Best flannel, 10 yards and over (white, striped or plaid), Class 18 

No. 7 2 00 


Domestic. Manufactures. — Best pair of blankets, Class 18, No. 8 2 00 

Best yarn socks. Class 18, No. 9 50 

Best cotton hose. Class 18, No. 10 50 

Fancy or Needle Work. — Best specimen fancy needle work. Class 19, No. 1... 3 00 
Best quality, embracing the greatest variety, of articles useful and 

ornamental, Class 19, No. 2 , 5 00 

At a meeting held August 2, 1856, the Board passed a resolution to adopt 
the list of premiums as above given, and appointed a committee to prepare the 
fair grounds for the forthcoming exhibition. At a subsequent meeting, an 
agreement was made with D. J. Van Deren and H. J- Keeler to inclose the 
grounds. At a meeting September 13, it was ordered that a well be dug and 
curbed upon the Society's grounds ; badges were ordered for life members, and 
for the officers. Robert Leith was appointed Marshal ; E. W. True, J. R. 
Jeffries, James Shoemaker, William Jones and Richard Champion, Deputy 
Marshals, together with some other unimportant matters pertaining to the fair 
soon to take place, were arranged. 

The fair came off on the 24th and 25th of September, and, from the entries 
made in the different classes, seems to have been a very interesting and success- 
ful meeting. Particularly were the stock classes well represented, and a num- 
ber of entries made in each class. The Secretary published a report which is 
copied in the records, showing the list of Judges for the articles and stock 
adjudged, and the names of those to whom premiums were awarded, but its 
extreme length forbids its insertion in this work, however interesting it might 
prove to our readers, especially those who are engaged in stock-raising. 

But it is impossible to follow the Society through all the years since its 
re-organization in 1855. Suffice it, that at the present time it is in a flourish- 
ing state, and the people of the county are justly proud of their association. 
The last meeting took place in September, 1878, occupying five days, the 17th, 
18th, 19th, 20 th and 21st ; the premium -list embraces ten pages of closely 
printed matter in a pamphlet printed for gratuitous distribution. The grounds 
of the Society comprise twenty-four acres well improved, substantially inclosed, 
with stock-stalls and all necessary buildings, and of a total value of about 
$6,000. The present officers are as follows, viz., S. D. Dole, of Mattoon, 
President ; James Shoemaker, of Loxa, I. J. Montfort, of Charleston, T. G. 
Chambers, of Charleston, M. B. Valodin, of Oakland, Vice Presidents ; E. R. 
Connely, Samuel Van Meter, C. E. Wilson, Adam Millar and Isaac Flenner, 
Board of Directors; R. S. Hodgen, Secretary, and J. K. Decker, Treasurer. 

The farmers of Coles County have for years past devoted considerable 
attention to the improvement of their stock, and many of them are at present 
engaged largely in breeding blooded horses, cattle and hogs. Of horses, the 
Norman stock is being introduced in the county, and as draft horses are popu- 
lar, while other blooded horses are receiving some attention. W. A. Whitte- 
more, H. M. Ashmore, J. W. Wright and I. N. Gibbs are specially engaged in 
breeding fine horses. Blooded cattle are being more extensively raised, as this 


section of the country is more favorably adapted to cattle than horses. S. C. 
Ashmore, William Millar, Ambrose Edwards and Isaac Flenner make a 
specialty of Short Horns. R. L. Reat, of Herefords and Jerseys, and R. S. 
Hodgen, of Jerseys. 

Shepard &, Alexander are known, not. only over the State of Illinois, but 
throughout the entire country, for their fine breed of Poland-China hogs. 
Their fine specimens of this famous stock of hogs have been exhibited at Chi- 
cago, St. Louis, Indiana State Fair, Illinois State Fair, Kansas State Fair, 
and all the surrounding county fairs, where they have been invariably awarded 
the highest prizes. But we shall refer more particularly to this snbject in the 
history of Charleston Township. 

In conclusion of the history of the Agricultural Society and the fine 
stock of the county, we deem it of some general interest to the reader, to 
append the following abstract from the Assessor's returns for 1878, as showing 
the amount of stock, its value, together with other property, and the grain 
produced for the past year : 

Assessed valuation. 
Horses, number of head 10,402 $ 208 628 

Cattle, " " 15,973 143,875 

Mules and asses, number of he:id ],393 80,975 

Sheep, number of head 6,971 5,948 

Hogs, " " 35,176 39,746 

Steam engines 20 6,010 

Fire-proof safes 50 1,353 

Carriages and wagons 3,664 48,067 

Watches and clocks 3,552 7,754 

Sewing machines 1,575 14,854 

Piano-fortes 179 8,366 

Melodeons and organs 167 4 579 

Improved lands 268,863 3,333,290 

Unimproved lands 49,491 249,074 

Improved town and city lots 2,46 5 769,909 

Unimproved town and city lots 3,384 76,325 

Total value of assessed property in the county* §5,642,818 

No. of acres of wheat in 1878 19,500 

No. of acres of corn in 1878 100, P16 

No. of acres of oats in 1878 10,075 

No. of acres of meadow in 1878 24,549 

No. of acres of other field products 6,300 

No. of acres of inclosed pasture 97,408 

No. of acres of orchard 6,708 

No. of acres of wood-land 53,200 


"The poor ye have with you alway." Originally, the mode of taking 
care of the poor of the county, was through an officer in each township or elec- 
tion precinct, styled " Overseer of the Poor," who looked after the welfare of the 

♦Several items of taxable property not given in the above table. 


poor and needy, supplied their wants and, at a regular meeting, brought his 
bill before the County Board. But this system was found to be rather expen- 
sive, the county, it is said, having paid out as much as |12,000in a single year 
for the benefit of its poor. So this mode was changed to a county farm. Some 
time during the war the county purchased a small tract of land in Pleasant 
Grove Township, but becoming dissatisfied with this, from some cause or other, 
probably its location at the very edge of the county, it was sold in 1865, and 
forty acres bought in La Fayette Township. After using this a few years in 
the capacity of a county farm, it was sold and 258 acres purchased in 1870, in 
Ashmore Township. Upon this farm substantial buildings have been erected, 
and all necessaries and conveniences prepared for taking care of the poor com- 
fortably. The main building is a substantial two-story brick, and will accom- 
modate about sixty persons. This farm, at the time of its purchase by the 
county, was well improved, having a comfortable frame residence, barns and all 
necessary outbuildings, so that the only additional expense to the purchase of 
the land was the erection of the brick building above referred to. Upon a 
written request to the Superintendent of the farm, Joshua Ricketts, Esq., we 
received the following, which we give in full, as it contains much of general 
interest, as well as some valuable hints : " The number at present in our County 
Poorhouse is thirty-three. This is about the average for the year. There are 
twenty-one females and twelve males. Four of the inmates are over eighty 
years of age ; two of them are white and two black. One of these blacks is 
supposed to be at least 100 years old. The blacks are both females, and were 
slaves until freed by the emancipation proclamation of President Lincoln. Old 
John Golliday, well known to many of the citizens of the county, having been 
a resident for over forty years, was once the lawful owner of 400 acres of good 
land in Morgan Township, but by not doing right, he lost it all, and now has to 
betaken care of at the expense of the public. I am convinced that fully nine- 
tenths of all pauperism in this county may be traced either directly or indi- 
rectly to the use of intoxicating drinks. Not that there were that number who 
were drunkards, but the sin of others has, in many cases, visited the children 
to the third and fourth generations. It is but a few days since a poor, degraded 
creatare left the house to return to his old haunts, where he can again wallow 
in the ditch, steeped in the fire of the still. This same man said that he felt 
as if could drink fully three inches of whisky, so anxious was he to get back 
to his old rum-holes. I am thoroughly satisfied that there would be no real neces- 
sity for poorhouses if intoxicating liquors were banished from the land. 

" As to the mode of conducting the house, we have a set of rules for the gov- 
ernment of inmates, which are hung up in the house so that all can know what 
is required of them. The Supervisors of the various townships are ex-officio 
Overseers of the Poor of their respective townships, and by their order the Su- 
perintendent receives and takes under his care those who are dependent and help- 
less. The county owns some two hundred and fifty-eight acres of land, about 


two hundred acres of which is plow and grass land : the remainder is principally 
timber-land. On the farm is a brick building 38x58 feet, two stories high, apd 
a kitchen attached to the main building, extending some 28 feet in length and 
16 in width, with a large porch facing the east. There is also a very comfortable 
dwelling for the Superintendent and his family and a large barn, with some 
smaller buildings. There is an orchard of about one hundred and fifty bear- 
ing trees, consisting of apples, peaches and cherries. In the summer time, the 
paupers are employed some portion of the time in cultivating tobacco, of which 
weed they are, as a rule, very fond." 

The Superintendent has to enter into a contract with the Board of Super- 
visors, and give a heavy bond, obligating himself to take care and treat kindly 
and humanely all who may be placed under his care, stipulating the kind and 
variety of food that shall be furnished. It is now nine years since the county 
bought the farm where the Poorhouse is now located, eight miles east of Charles- 
ton, immediately on the Indianapolis & St. Louis Railroad. There were twen- 
ty-seven paupers moved from the old house, four miles west of Charleston, to 
this place, October 25, 1870, of which number there are remaining on hand at 
the present time seven — two men and five women. There have been thirty-two 
deaths at the house, out of some two hundred and fifty persons who have 
been received and cared for. The attending physician (A. T, Robertson), says 
it is remarkable what cures have been effected. Most of those who have 
died were far gone when received. The oldest person who died was Mrs. Anna 
Higgenbotham, a cousin to Gen. Winfield Scott. 


To obtain an accurate idea of the railroads of Coles County, one must go 
back before the day of railroads and note briefly their causes. 

The first railways in the world began in the collieries in England, and were 
simple tramways — wooden rails — on which the cars were hauled by mules. As 
in many places the way from the collieries to the coal-yards was up an inclined 
plane, the cars were hauled by the mules up the plane, and allowed to return 
by their own gravity. " By little and by little," as Charles Dickens would say, 
the tracks were extended to the shipping points, and, finally, to the chief 
markets. Then the laborers began to ride to and from their daily tasks ; then 
others rode ; then a car made to carry only laborers and those desiring to ride 
was placed on the track ; steam began now^ and then to be recognized as an 
important factor among the immense motive powers of the world, and, about 
1825, George Stephenson invented and placed in successful operation an engine 
that drew a train of cars over a wooden railway, protected by an iron covering, 
at the rate of twelve miles an hour. This road ran from one town to another, 
over vale and hill, up-hill and down, astonishing the incredulous English, who 
prophesied only dire disaster and distress would attend the operating of such a 
monster. Soon the railways, operated by steam, and carrying a train of cars 


that "annihilated both time and space," were coming rapidly into use in the 
mother country. The American nation, not to be outdone, had caught the con- 
tagion, and, in 1830, the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad commenced active opera- 
tions to open a similar line, extending westward from that city. In 1826, a 
tramway was built from Quincy, Mass., the home of the Adams family, to the 
granite quarries, a few miles away — the pioneer railroad in America. On this 
primitive affair only mules or horses were used, and it was never put to any 
other purpose than the hauling of granite from the quarries. 

From 1830 to 1835, railroads in the East received a considerable impulse. 
Improvements of all kinds were being made, a speed of twenty and thirty 
miles an hour was attained, and the benefits of their construction and use were 
becoming more apparent. 

About this time, it began to occur to the denizens of the Prairie State that 
their domain was the best place in all the world for such enterprises. " For," 
argued they, " have we not a rich, productive soil, an even country, requiring 
but little preparation, and needing no expensive grading, filling or costly 
bridges. Does not our land bring forth plenty, and, if we had proper means 
for transporting our products away and bringing money and settlers back to us. 
what a country we would be ! " 

A desire always finds a favorable argument and some way to accomplish its ends. 

True, there was no money to build such works, and Pennsylvania and other 
Eastern States which had entered on such schemes had invariably been the losers; 
for " rings " would form and steal what they could not get honestly. Yet Illinois 
soon found a way, and the attempt was made. In his message to the General As- 
sembly, at the session of 1885, Gov. Joseph Duncan urged the Legislature, now 
ripe for action, to the furtherance of schemes that were so brilliant in their pros- 
pects. That body responded by such subsidies and grants to internal improvements 
as to astonish even the sanguine Governor himself. Before they stopped, so 
infatuated were they with the glorious future so enchantingly spread out before 
them, they had entailed a debt of more than $14,000,000, all confidently 
expected to be paid by the improvements themselves and by the consequent 
increase in property. 

The Utopian scheme dazzled the eyes of the Governor, the Legislature and 
the people. They saw nothing but the most prosperous times ahead, and began 
at once a system of financiering that in the end well nigh impoverished the 
State. Gold and silver, the money of the world from its infancy, could, of 
course, not be had for the fulfillment of the plans, and a system of bonds was 
instituted, based on the faith of the State, redeemable in a series of years, and 
payable in coin in the banks in New York. It was confidently predicted that 
the bonds would not only sell at par, but would command a premium. Thoy 
were to be paid from the proceeds of the canal and railroads, and were adver- 
tised as the best securities to be had. The first installment went off easily ; but 
human greed began to exhibit itself, and " rings " were formed, and, before any 


one was aware, the bonds of Illinois, Indiana and Ohio — for tliese States were 
in the meshes of the same visionary scheme — began to decline. When work 
began on the Illinois and iNIichigan Canal, on the Illinois Central Railroad and 
a few other such enterprises, laborers flocked to the State, prices of everything 
advanced, and the day of prosperity so confidently predicted in the early stages 
of the " plan," seemed now at hand. The men of the day, blinded by the ap- 
parent success of the scheme, like men of this day, seemed to overlook 
the fact that every article of trade, whether food, labor or merchandise, ad- 
vanced with the influx of currency issued by the State banks, brought into life 
by the scheme, and that in this respect things were no cheaper than before. 
Now, at first $1 would buy but little less than before. Soon it took $2 to buy 
what $1 would before, and so on, till, when the system collapsed, $100 of State 
money would buy only as much as $16 in gold. 

The projected works were simply marvelous in extent. Almost every county 
in Illinois was to have a railroad, and in those where none were projected, 
$200,000 was to be distributed. Work was to begin at both ends of the rail- 
roads and the canal, and in any other places where heavy grades were encountered. 
Among the projected routes was one from Cairo to the northern limit of the 
State, especially to meet the southern end of the canal, this was to run through 
or near Coles County. Another was projected from Terre Haute, Ind., west- 
ward to Alton, 111. It was stipulated by the " Alton interest," as that faction 
was known in the Senate, that no road should terminate at St. Louis. That 
city was a rival to Alton, which confidently expected to overtake and pass her 
opulent neighbor, and, in time, completely overshadow her. Hence, no favors 
were to be shown the foreign rival. She must be put down some way, and 
that way could be aided by refusing all means of ingress and egress, 
save through Alton. For this reason, the road from Terre Haute westward, 
must stop at Alton, and all business coming from the East must center there. 
That the railroad was to be built no one for a moment doubted. It was to be 
known as the Terre Haute & Alton Railroad, and contracts for its construction 
were let early in the life of the Internal Improvement system. Work began at 
both ends and progressed centerward. Grading and filling was done at each ex- 
tremity, the route determined on, and for a short time progressed favorably. As 
the bonds of the State declined in value, and its currency fell in a like ratio, 
the demands of the laborer, unskilled in finance, and caring only for their pay, 
became more and more exorbitant, and when the failure of the system came, 
they abruptly abandoned the State, with all manner of maledictions cast upon it. 
The work on the railroad did not reach Coles County. That on the Illinois 
Central suff"ered a similar fate, and no signs of railroads appeared here, save in 
the surveyor's lines and stakes, and in the losses some of its people suffered 
from the collapse, and return to a specie basis. 

The hard times that followed have almost an unequaled history. The 
decline in fictitious values, the distress of many people who had caught the 


contagion of suddenly growing rich without giving an equivalent for the pros- 
perity, the fall of real estate, the high price of produce, and, more than all, 
the dread of emigrants, who feared to link their lives with a commonwealth 
whose taxes for the future seemed unbearable, gave the State a reputation any- 
thing but agreeable. 

It was young, however, full of resources, and confident in its powers. 
Able men took the helm ; a series of redeemable, long-time bonds was issued, 
the canal, through additional loans, w^as completed ; and by the time the Mexican 
war began to agitate the minds of the American people the bonds of Illinois had 
risen, first to forty, then fifty, then seventy, and now to ninety cents on the 
dollar. To its everlasting credit it must be recorded, all were paid ; and to-day 
the debt of the State is only a nominal sum, which could be paid at any time. 
Whatever may be said of the system of Internal Improvements, it must be 
recorded that the people learned a lesson, dearly, too, that it does not pay 
municipalities to assume the construction of such works, and that it is always 
disastrous to entail a debt in expectation of future greatness and ability to dis- 
charge it. Where such a course succeeds once, it will fail a hundred times ; 
and even if succeeding, it is only by unnatural methods. 

The reverse of the system was so great that no attempts were made to com- 
plete any of the unfinished roads for over twelve years. Of all the grand 
system of internal railroads in Illinois, but one, the Northern Cross Railroad, 
was the only one that reached practical results. Of that, in the spring of 
1837, some eight miles were built, and, on November 8, the first locomotive 
that ever turned a wheel in the Mississippi Valley was placed and made a trial- 
trip, running out and back on the eight miles of the old flat bar track. The road 
was finished on to Jacksonville, and, in the spring of 1842, to Springfield, where 
it terminated. The little locomotive, minus a spark-arrester and cow-catcher, 
was a terror to cattle and buildings, throwing the one ruthlessly from the track, 
and burning the other with its sparks. It was, after running a year or so, run 
oif the track by a drunken engineer, and sold to Gen. Semples, of Alton, who 
nearly bankrupted himself in a fruitless endeavor to make a steam road-wagon 
of it. Mule-power superseded the engine on this road until about 1847, when 
the track was sold (being worn out, and the strap rails stolen for sled shoes by 
the surrounding populace) to a company of capitalists, for |100,000, one-tenth 
of its cost, and by them remodeled, equipped, completed and the beginning of the 
present Wabash Railway was the result. 


In 1850, the next railroad was made in Illinois. By February of that 
year, the Chicago & Galena (now Chicago & North-Western)*was finished as far 
as Elgin, and an excursion-train ran between the two cities. A great revival 
in railroad interests sprang up. Among those sharing in the awakening was the 
old Terre Haute & Alton Road, which a second time comes into the narrative. 


Work began under a new corporation in 1851. The old route was deter- 
mined on, as much of it at either end could yet be used. As has been stated, 
no grading had been done in Coles County. The Illinois Central, whose early 
history is analagous to that of the Terre Haute & Alton, was surveyed while 
work was being done on the latter road, and an agreement made between the 
two roads stipulated that whichever got to the place of contact last should 
bear the expense of crossing. Work went vigorously on through 1853, 1854 
and 1855, and, in order to accomplish the feat, the Terre Haute & Alton Road 
hastily graded their route and reached Mattoon first. This was accomplished 
in the winter of 1855. As fast as either end of the roads was completed, cars 
were put on, the intervening links being traversed by stages which carried pas- 
sengers who desired to travel in the then incomplete condition of the roads. 
This road completed its bed and ran a train of cars through from Terre Haute 
to Alton a little before the holidays in the winter of 1855-56. The gradino- 
was very incomplete, many places the engine being unable to pull but few cars 
at a time. When "stuck," as the natives called it, fence-rails were used as an 
assistant motive power, or neighboring horses or oxen borrowed to help haul 
the engine over the incline. 

About the time of the building of this and the Central road, a policy 
arose on the part of the residents of Central Illinois known as the " State's 
Policy." It more particularly affected those on the line of the Terre Haute & 
Alton Road, whose terminus was Alton, which by the people of that city, always 
a rival of its great foreign neighbor, was considered as one of the public cor- 
porations that would in time enable her to become what she sought to be — 
the emporium of the Mississippi Valley. This policy party sprung suddenly 
into existence when the Ohio & Mississippi, and the Vandalia — then known as 
the Brough Road — attempted to get charters. They must not center at a 
point opposite St. Louis ; they must come to Alton or not be built. No track 
was allowed to be laid from Alton to the river on this side of St. Louis, 
and for two years this "policy" threatened the serious failure of these two 
corporations. It was extremely narrow, selfish and bigoted, and was handled 
without gloves by the foreign press and by the people on the line of these two 
roads striving to get a crossing in Illinois. Xot until 1852-53, did the party 
lose its power in the State Legislature, and not till a new body was elected from 
the people, who, by this time began to see its narrowing effects, were the 
desired charters allowed. 

Senators Douglas and Young wrote letters to prominent men in Illinois 
urging them to abandon the idea, and pointing out to them the fact that the 
grant to the Central Railroad could not have been obtained, had such a "pol- 
icy" been known to exist. 

Owing to this feeling, mainlj^, the Terre Haute & Alton Road was built 
from the city on the Wabash to her aspiring neighbor on the Father of Waters; 
and, owing to this same polic}'' lurking then in the minds of the citizens of that 



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place, was the road for a number of years compelled to transfer its freight and 
passengers to boats, and float them to the mighty emporium on the western 
bank of the same mighty stream. It was finally overcome, however. A track 
was built to the east side of the river, opposite St. Louis, where, until the erec- 
tion of the present grand bridge, the ferry-boat transferred them over the river. 

With the change of terminus, a change of name occurred, and when the 
connection was eftected with the road leading eastward to the capital of Indiana, 
the name assumed its present form. 

Now it connects with the " Bee Line," eastward, and forms a continuous 
route from the cities of the Mississippi Valley to those on the Atlantic seaboard. 

Mr. E. B. McClure, the General Superintendent, is a citizen of Coles 
County, residing at Mattoon. Here is what what may be termed the " Half- 
way House," and here are some of the principal offices. The car-shops of this 
Company were removed from Litchfield, in 1870, and erected on a lot of ground 
donated by the residents of the northeast part of town, where they are placed. 
They were secured through a donation of |60,000 on the part of Mattoon, in 
whose history a full account of them may be found. 


Like the Indianapolis & St. Louis, the Illinois Central had its rise in the 
Internal Improvement system of 1835, and, like that road, went down in the 
collapse of the system in 1840. Some work was done on the road during this 
period, chiefly at the northern end — its connection with the canal. It was 
intended to connect the canal and the junction of the rivers at Cairo by means 
of this road ; and from published statements of the late Judge Sidney Breese 
and letters of Stephen A. Douglas, we learn the idea originated as early as 
1835, the commencement of the system referred to. 

The revival of railroads and the consequent improvement in property 
received a great impulse in Congress by the grant of 3,000,000 acres of 
land to the State of Illinois for the construction of the Central road. A more 
munificent grant of land could hardly be imagined at that date, and to the 
Senators and Representatives in Congress of that session is the grant due. 
The provisions of the grant were that the road was to be completed in ten 
years. In case of failure, the unsold lands were to revert to the General Gov- 
ernment, and for those sold the State was to pay the Government price. The. 
belt of land was to include each alternate section for a width of twelve sections, 
the odd-numbered sections to be the property of the railroad, the even-num- 
bered ones to be the property of the Government, and to be sold at not less 
than double the ordinary price (|1.25 per acre), i. e., $2.50 per acre. 

The lands in this belt not already sold were to be withdrawn from market 
and to remain so until the location of the road was permanently decided upon. 
The State found itself in possession of the grant of land at the session of 1850, 
and 1851, and as the act of Congress had passed the September previous, the 


intervening time had been assiduously taken up by the press and stump of the 
State in advocating and discussing plans for carrying out the project. It may 
be remarked here that every plan brought forward was secretly fed by private 
interests as much or more than by public good. Each town on any line from 
Cairo to La Salle knew it was destined to be the one the road should pass 
through. The session of the State Legislature was harassed by various monop- 
olists, who saw in the brilliant prospects an easy way to secure wealth, and who, 
for a time, seriously crippled the enterprise. Many persons were strongly in 
favor of the State engaging in the work as it had done twelve years before, and 
advocated the payment of the State indebtedness by means of the sale of the 
lands and profits from the lands. 

The maxim that " A burnt child dreads the fire" was exemplified here. 
The State did not care to repeat the experiment it had so disastrously attempted 
a few years before; especially so when an unexpected solution of the problem 
of how to best build the road presented itself. 

Robert Schuyler, Geoi'ge Griswold, Gouverneur Morris, Jonathan Sturgis, 
George W. Ludlow and John F. A. Sanford, of New York City, and David A. 
Neal, Franklin Haven and Robert Rantoul, Jr., of Boston, came before the 
Legislature, represented by one of their number, and offered, if the State would 
give them the grant of land, they would build and equip the road, and have it 
in running order by the year 1854 ; that by the 4th day of July, in that year, 
the road would be completed. There was a speedy, unlocked for solution of the 
whole question. A company of capitalists step forward, propose to complete and 
equip the road in a given length of time, much shorter than the State could 
hope to — to, in fact, relieve them of all care in the matter, and, when done, to 
pay annually into the treasury 7 per cent of all its gross earning in lieu of all 
taxes. State and municipal. It is said, in their eagerness to obtain the road, 
the capitalists would have bound themselves to pay 10 per cent as readily as 7 ; 
but that that was engineered through the Assembly by a prominent citizen of 
Illinois, who was secured for this purpose by the company. After a little delay 
in getting the Commissioner of the Land Office, at Washington, to convey the 
land to the company, work was begun. At the outset, much strife was engen 
dered over the route the road should take, several towns vying with each other 
in their efforts to obtain not only the road through their midst, but the com- 
mencement of the branch to Chicago. The question was finally decided by the 
State selecting a route as direct as possible, through a region containing as 
much unsold land as possible, thereby gaining all the land she could. The 
main line ran from Cairo north to Central City, where the Chicago branch 
diverged in the direction of that city, taking in its route Coles County. The 
main stem continued north through Decatur, Bloomington, La Salle, Avhere it 
encountered the soutliern end of the canal, and on northward, ending at Galena. 
Thus, by rare sagacity, a company of capitalists found themselves in possession 
of a magnificent railway, built from the proceeds of bonds issued by them 


secured by the lands, without the outlay of a dollar of their own money. They 
set aside a certain part of the lands, the proceeds of which were to be applied 
to the interest on the bonds. The prices realized for all these lands ranged 
from |5 to |55 per acre, and as the road opened, an immense region of hitherto 
unproductive lands, the sales on the part of both the road and the Government 
were simply enormous. The Government was the real gainer, for much of the 
lands had been in the market over thirty years and had not found a purchaser. 
Now, the railway promised a speedy outlet for farm produce ; towns and 
villages sprung into existence with Western-like prodigality, and before a decade 
of years had passed, the enterprise had yielded a hundred-fold. It was the 
first subsidy granted any railroad by the Government — a practice which, we are 
prone to say, has, in a measure, been somewhat abused. 

The Illinois Central Road was completed and in full running order by the 
winter of 1856, a year and a half from the time the memorialists agreed to 
make it, they having been delayed in getting the grant of land properly deeded 
to them by the Commissioner of the Land Office at Washington. Construction- 
trains were running that winter, and on January 1, 1856, says Mr. Frank Alli- 
son, of Mattoon, a passenger-train made the first run from Chicago to Cairo. 

This railway is one of the longest in the West, and from the 7 per cent of 
its earnings a revenue accrues to the State amounting now to over a half-million 
dollars annually. This, the Company has at various times endeavored to reduce 
or change ; but the people have set their faces against it, and, not long since, 
have placed it beyond the reach of the Legislature, by a constitutional amend- 
ment to the organic law of the State. 


In addition to the two extensive lines of railway crossing the county, three 
others have been added since the war ; none, however, so great or having such 
history as their predecessors. 

The close of the late rebellion threw upon the country a large force of 
unemployed men, and a vast amount of capital. This latter was used in open- 
ing new enterprises, and, as the States had learned to let such affairs alone, men 
with tact and energy stood ready to enter upon them. A railroad from Mattoon 
to Danville ; from Mattoon to Gray ville, thence to Evansville ; from Charleston 
to several other towns in the State, was proposed, while roads in various direc- 
tions across the county were projected. Of these enterprises we will mention 
none save the successful ones : the Grayville & Mattoon, the Decatur, Mattoon 
& Southern, and the Illinois Midland. 

The Grayville & Mattoon Railroad began to be talked about as early as 
1866. One effort brought on another, and in the columns of the Mattoon 
papers, from that time down to 1872 and 1873, large-headed articles appear 
every week or so, all prophesying great results. Townships along the line of 
the proposed road gave liberally in bonds and private subscriptions, as those 


along the line of the Indianapolis & St. Louis had done, and a speedy comple- 
tion was expected. Only twenty-eight or thirty miles of grading were com- 
pleted, however, and that in Richland County, and for four or five years the 
road lay dormant. In 1874, a new company was formed, and by two years 
had the grading completed to the south line of Coles County. Work was con- 
tinued on up through the county, at first running the line to intersect the 
Illinois Central about a mile south of Mattoon. The grade was made here ; 
but afterward changed, and brought directly into the town. It was all com- 
pleted and the track laid by July 4, 1878, and on that day a grand excursion, 
under the care of J. H. Herkimer, the Receiver, was inaugurated, and a hila- 
rious day made along the route. The road has been operating since then, and 
has had a good local trade, the freight business especially being quite heavy. 
A. short time ago, Mr. Herkimer and his associate officers resigned, from various 
causes, and were succeeded by E. B. Phillips, Receiver; M. H. Riddell, Gen- 
eral Traveling Agent ; S. C. Anthony, General Clerk, and S. M. Henderson, 
Roadmaster. This road received $75,000 in bonds from Mattoon Township 
and the city ; from the former, two-thirds, and from the latter, one-third. The 
vote on this question was held in Mattoon, Tuesday, February 9, 1869 ; 444 
votes were cast in favor of the tax, and 7 against it. Whether the town and 
township are justified in such a heavy debt, in addition to several others of a 
similar character, i. e., the $60,000 for the shops, is a serious question, and one 
which conservative citizens are inclined to doubt. 

The Decatur, Mattoon & Southern Railroad was begun in 1871, and com- 
pleted to Hervey City, seven miles from Decatur, by 1873. Here, this Com- 
pany was allowed a joint use of the Illinois Midland Company's ti-ack to 
Decatur, which the courts afterward decided they were entitled to, and which 
they yet use. 

January 16, 1874, the road passed into a Receiver's hands, and the name 
changed to the present one, it being formerly known as the Decatur, Sullivan 
& Mattoon Railroad. Since that date, the Receiver has been managing it. It 
is run in connection with the Indianapolis & St. Louis Road, and is under the 
care of Mr. E. B. McClure as Manager. Mr. W. H. Lewis is the General 
Agent. Both these gentlemen reside at Mattoon, and are connected with the 
Indianapolis & St. Louis Road. 

The remaining road, the Illinois Midland Railway, runs through but a small 
part of Coles County. It crosses the township of Oakland from east to west, 
passing through the village. The road runs from Terre Ha.ute to Peoria, and 
is in three divisions, which originally were separate roads ; Avhen consolidated, 
the present name was adopted. The part running through Coles County was 
built from Decatur to Paris, under the name of the Paris & Decatur Railroad. 
It was completed in 1871, and, for a time, used the track of the Indianapolis & 
St. Louis Road from Paris to Terre Haute. When the Paris & Terre Haute 
Road was completed, in 1875, it formed a junction with that road, and, soon 


after, consolidated with it. Only about six miles of this railroad passes through 
Coles County, and that in the extreme northeast part, in Oakland Township, in 
whose history it is more fully noticed. 

While on the history of railroads, it might not be amiss to say something 
about telegraphs. They were, in their infancy, regarded as somewhat super- 
natural, as all things are apt to be when we cannot understand them ; and, when 
a line was brought through Coles County in advance of the railway, it is related 
that it was not uncommon for some of the worthy citizens to hourly gaze upon it to 
see the news flash along. Their desires were, however, not gratified. They 
couldn't see the news ; but they thought they could hear it, especially when 
they stood near a post and heard the ring caused by the vibration of the wires, 
with the air passing over them. The supposition lasted very satisfactorily until 
they found out better, and was as harmless as deceptive. 

The first operator in town was Fred Tubbs, and was succeeded by W. W. 
Craddock. They were here in 1850, at the time the railways of the State 
began their second era of construction, and have since been prominently known 
in the county. Other lines were added to the one running east and west across 
tiie county, as the railways were bujlt and the utility of such inventions became 
apparent. Now, they run in all directions, and one can talk with another, even 
though a continent be between them. Should the telephone supersede the tel- 
egraph, as it bids fair to do, those of the future will see a result almost beyond 
our conception. political and Wak record. 

In the days of Whigs and Democrats, Coles was a Whig county by several 
hundred majority, in contests where party lines were closely drawn. Upon the 
organization of the Republican party, a change came over the color of its poli- 
tics, and for a number of years it was Democratic; but, eventually, the Repub- 
licans gained the ascendency, and for several years carried the day in all impor- 
tant elections. At the present time, the political question is toned down to a 
point, that both of the great parties claim to be the dark horse. At the last 
Presidential election, the county Avas carried by the Hayes Electors by a small 
majority. In the local elections of the last few years, the spoils have been 
pretty equally divided between Democrats and Republicans. The present 
county oificers and their political faith are thus represented : Hon. J. R. Cun- 
. ningham, County Judge, Democrat ; J. F. Goar, County Treasurer, Repub- 
lican ; William R. Highland, County Clerk, Democrat ; W. E. Robinson, 
Circuit Clerk, Republican. The latter was elected by a small majority, and 
his election contested by Mr. Clarke, his Democratic competitor for the office. 
The case was tried in the County Court, and occupied the spare moments of 
Judge Adams, of that august tribunal, from December until the June follow- 
ing, when it was decided in Robinson's favor. Clarke, still unsatisfied, appealed 
to the Supreme Court, which body confirmed the decision of the County Court, 
and thus Mr. Robinson's title to the office was settled. The other county offi- 


cers — J. E. Brooks, Sheriff; T. J. Lee, Superintendent of Schools ; and John 
L. Aubert, County Surveyor — are Democrats. Such is the political record of 
the county. It is probable, however, that, in a State or national contest, with 
a full vote on both sides, the Republicans would carry the day. 

Coles County's war history is written in characters of blood upon a hun- 
dred battle-fields. Citizens of Coles have figured in every war, from the Revo- 
lution down to the great rebellion that shook the republic to its very founda- 
tion. In many of the Indian wars of the times, they have borne an honorable 
part. Upon the records of the County Commissioner's Court of 1835, we 
find the certificates of Elisha Hadden, John Parker, Joseph Painter, John 
Hart and Griffin Tipsoward, made under oath to the Commissioners' Court for 
the purpose of obtaining a pension under an act of the United States Congress 
passed in 1832. These parties made oath to their services in the armies of the 
United States during the Revolutionary war and the Avars with the Indians of 
those times. Hadden stated on his oath that he was in the battle of King's 
Mountain, in North Carolina, "against the British and Tories;" and that, 
in a battle soon after with the Cherokee Indians, he was wounded, and for 
three months lay in the fort helpless, and was then carried home to North Carolina 
on a litter. Painter testified that he was in the Revolutionary battle of Eutaw 
Springs, and several skirmishes in North Carolina. Hart, that he entered the 
service of the United States in 1776, and served under Gen. Clarke, and was 
in several battles with the Indians. Griffin Tipsoward, that he entered the 
service in Virginia, in 1775, and at the close of the war was discharged by 
Gen. Washington, 

In the war of 1812, many of the pioneers of this county had participated, 
as elsewhere noticed, and some are still living who took part in that struggle 
with Johnny Bull. In the Black Hawk war of 1832, an entire company from 
Coles County (then in her infancy) responded to the call of the Governor for 
troops. Many of them are still surviving. The officers of this company 
were : James P. Jones, Captain ; Thomas Sconce, Isaac Lewis and James Law, 
Lieutenants. In the Mexican war, notwithstanding it was considered a Demo- . 
cratic issue and Coles was a Whig county, a full company was raised and par- 
ticipated in many of the battles, among which were those of Vera Cruz and 
Cerro Gordo. The officers of the company were : W. W. Bishop, Captain ; 
J. J. Adams, First Lieutenant ; H. C. Dunbar, Second Lieutenant, and 
Charles Jones, Orderly Sergeant. Bishop and Adams are dead, Dunbar lives 
in Texas, and several of the rank and file are still living in the county. 

In the war of the rebellion. Coles County furnished quite a little army. 
The Seventh and Eighth Regiments of three-months men, each drew a com- 
pany from the county ; the Seventh a company from Mattoon, and the Eighth 
a company from Charleston. The Twenty-first (Grant's old regiment) con- 
tained many men from Coles, as well as the Twenty-fifth, Thirty-eighth, Fifty- 
fourth, Sixty-second and One Hundred and Twenty-third Volunteers and the 


Fifth Cavalry. The One Hundred and Twenty-third Regiment contained 
seven companies that were called Coles County companies. In a history like 
this, however, it is impossible to give a complete and correct record of a 
county's participation in the late war. Space will not permit. Besides, from 
the records that have been kept, it is not an easy matter to obtain the names of 
all who deserve mention. Therefore, we shall make no attempt to particular- 
ize any one, but will add that the record of Coles County soldiers is above 
reproach. Their deeds are engraved upon the hearts of their countrymen, and 
their reward is found in the happy reflection that the old flag still floats over 
all the States. And for those who laid down their lives to maintain the Union, 
and whose lone graves are fanned by Southern winds, we know of no better 
meed to their bravery, no sweeter tribute to their memory, than the beautiful 
lines from the pen of Col. Theodore O'Hara, of Kentucky, and dedicated to 
the heroes of that State who fell in the Mexican war, when their bones were 
collected and interred in the State Cemetery at Frankfort : 

"The muffled drum's sad roll has beat 

The soldier's last tattoo ! 
No more on life's parade shall meet 

That brave and fallen few ; 
On Fame's eternal camping-ground 

Their silent tents are spread, 
And glorj guards with solemn round 

The bivouac of the dead ! " 

These beautiful lines, written for the Kentucky dead of the Mexican war, 
have been adopted by Massachusetts and inscribed upon a splendid monument 
erected to her dead heroes of the late war. They are a touching tribute to the 
soldier who lays down his life for his country and sleeps the eternal sleep, 
never more to heed the call to arms until the last reveille shall sound from the 
battlements of heaven. Peace to their ashes. 


There are few individuals, and perhaps few countries, but have some dark 
pages in their histories. To err is human nature, and to say that the people of 
Coles County, or certain classes of them, have sometimes erred is but to pro- 
claim them human — not divine. The murder of Nathan Ellington by Adolph 
Monroe, in October, 1855, was a horrible affair, and, considering all the circum- 
stances, pe(?uliarly distressing. Ellington is said to have been a man of 
most excellent character, and highly respected by all who knew him. Mon- 
roe was his son-in-law. He was a young man of commanding appearance, 
fine address, and had once stood high in the community, but had fallen 
a prey to intoxicating drink. A family feud was engendered, and one 
day, in an altercation with his father-in-law, he drew « revolver and shot 
him dead. For this crime he was tried by a jury of his peers, found 
guilty of murder in the first degree, and sentenced to be hanged. The day 


of execution came, and though in midwinter (the 14th of February, 1856;, 
and the ground white with snow, a great multitude gathered at the county's 
capital to witness the fulfillment of the law. The heavens were dark, 
as if draped in the " gloom of earthquake and eclipse," and the elements seemed 
poisoned with the spirit of vengeance, as manifested by the immense crowd which 
had assembled, not only from this, but from adjoining counties. In the mean 
time, a respite of thirty days was granted by the Governor to the doomed man. 
This produced a terrible commotion in the multitude, now changed into a howl- 
ing mob, and threw it into the most insane excitement. It swayed back and 
forth from the Court House to the prisoner's cell, and resolved and re-resolved. 
The death of the fated man, in violation of law, was determined upon. His 
prison was assaulted by the mob, the officers of the law intimidated and over- 
come, and Monroe taken out of jail by ruthless hands. He was dragged to the 
valley west of town by the infuriated people, where a gallows was speedily 
erected, the doomed wretch lifted into a wagon, the rope adjusted, his limbs 
pinioned, the wagon moved from under him, and, without shrift, hurled into 
eternity. Monroe said to one man at the gallows : " I die, and if I go to hell, 
you will go to the same place, for you it was that sold me the whisky that has 
brought me to this terrible fate." What a haunting memory to cling to one 
through life ! It is scarce necessary to add that all the best people were 
universal in their condemnation of the dissrraceful affair. 

Another dark page in the history of Coles 'County was the riot which took 
place in Charleston during the stormy scenes occasioned by the late war, and 
the diversity of opinion with which the people regarded it. It is a fact much 
to be regretted that, with a record for patriotism second to no county in the 
State (as reckoned by the number of soldiers furnished), that such an event 
should have occurred to tarnish that glorious record. Doubtless both parties, 
the citizens and soldiers, were more or less to blame for the collision which took 
place between them, and in like manner responsible for the melancholy result. 
Of all the wars that have scourged the earth, a civil war is the most deplorable. 
In England's war of the roses, we have an illustration of the direful results of 
such a strife, and in our own internecine war we equaled, if we did not excel, 
the rival houses of York and Lancaster. It may be that the high-wrought ex- 
citement of the times presented an eligible excuse for the scene enacted in 
Charleston on the 29th of March, 1864, between the same people (brothers as 
it were) who saw the cause and object of the war through different 'glasses. The 
death of several persons in the streets of Charleston was the sad consequence 
of that difference of opinion. The feelings engendered by the war, which cul- 
minated in bloodshed, have long since toned down, and the participators in the 
deplorable affair (to call it by its mildest name) doubtless regret the part they 
acted in it. So, in no spirit of censure beyond a condemnation of mob violence 
on general principles, we will pass from the subject, flinging over the sad occur- 
rence the spacious robe of charity. 


In his Centennial Address, Capt. Adams narrates a melancholy occurrence 
in the township of Hickory, at or near Hickory Grove. In the winter 
of 1830-31, which is characterized in the history of Illinois as one of 
unusual severity, three men froze to death near this grove. They had under- 
taken to cross the prairie on horse-back ; the ground was covered with snow 
to a considerable depth, and the air piercingly cold. In their last extremity, 
they killed their horses, and, taking out their entrails, crawled into the warm 
carcasses, but before relief reached them they succumbed to the " Icy King of 
Terrors." The following is from the same source of information : " In 1831, 
three men of the name of Ellis were killed by lightning, in the southwest part 
of the county. The accident occurred on Wednesday, and they were not found 
until the Saturday following. When discovered, their bodies were as limber as 
that of a living person, and never stiffened like a body that meets death from 
natural causes. It was supposed that the lightning had broken the bones 
without rupturing the skin." 

Passing from the grave to the gay, from the sad to the ludicrous, it becomes 
our duty, as a faithful historian, to chronicle an event that took place in Coles 
County in 1834, which, while it had a somewhat ludicrous termination, was 
begun in earnest, by one of the parties engaged in it, at least. The circum- 
stance referred to, was a duel fought in Charleston, by Peter Glassco and John 
Gately. A difficulty had arisen between them, which blood alone could satisfy 
or settle, and, accordingly, they resorted to the code of honor to avenge their 
wounded dignity. A challenge was sent and accepted, seconds were selected 
and the weapons (big " boss " pistols) were chosen. The hostile parties met, 
with ten paces between them, and proceeded to wipe out their wrongs in the most 
approved style. The seconds loaded the pistols with blank cartridges, without 
Glassco's knowledge, however, who, it seems, was the most belligerent of the 
two, and the most deeply grieved. Finally, when all was ready, the principals 
were placed by the seconds, one, two, three, were called, and both parties fired. 
Gately fell, and his second, who had provided a bottle of pokeberry-juice for 
the purpose, ran to him and dexterously saturated his clothes with the contents 
of the bottle, thus giving him a most ghastly appearance. Glassco, petrified 
with terror, gazed at his bleeding victim, and, horrified at the " ruin he had 
wrought," exclaimed, " My God, I have killed him,", threw away his pistol 
and fled. About a year afterward, he was apprised of the fact that the 
duel was a "put-up job," and that Gately still lived, when, with the horror of 
murder removed from his soul, he returned to the county. He never fought 
another duel. 

That scourge of the human race, the Asiatic cholera, one of the gifts of the 
Old World to the new, made a visit, in 1851, to Coles County. For a time 
"it made itself exceedingly odious and repulsive," says one, "and old and 
young alike were the victims of the fell disease." As is usually the case, it visited 
certain localities only, Charleston and Pleasant Grove Township being the suf- 


ferers. In these sections, many cases occurred ; some of them proved fatal, 
"while others recovered. The greatest consternation and excitement prevailed. 
Those not sick became panic-stricken, and fled in confusion and dismay. How 
many died of the disease cannot now be ascertained. Distressing as was the 
ordeal and melancholy in its result, yet it had its humorous side. A very 
amusing anecdote is told of Hon. 0. B. Ficklin's grim fight with the awful 
disease. He was attacked in the harvest-field, rushed home and went to bed, 
sent for all the doctors in town, called his wife and children to his bedside, bade 
them good-by, and kissed them one by one, concluding with his old colored 
cook, and prepared to die with the cholera. He dropped off to sleep, from 
which he awoke, a few hours later, completely restored. Having slept off the 
natural exhaustio7i (!) of the harvest-field, "Richard was himself again." 

AVe spoke of a murder and a lynching, a little space ago. Charleston can 
boast of several other murders within her time. But we shall not go into 
details concerning them. Such incidents are better forgotten than perpetuated 
upon the pages of history. We will, therefore, pass them without further 
remark in this connection. 


Thomas Lincoln, the father of the martyred President, was among the 
early settlers of Coles County. He removed from Kentucky (where the future 
President was born) to Spencer County, Ind., in 1816, when Abraham was 
but seven years old. Here he remained until 1830, when he removed to Macon 
County, 111., and located on the North Fork of the Sangamon River, ten 
miles southwest of Decatur. He came to Coles County about 1832-33, and 
settled in what is now Pleasant Grove Township : but Abraham, having in the 
mean time attained his majority, and commenced the battle of life on his own 
responsibility, did not come with the family to this county. In after years 
however, when he became a praccicing lawyer, he often attended the courts of 
Coles County, in which cases he never failed to visit his father in Pleasant 
Grove, and, it is said, always purchased as many presents (generally of a sub- 
stantial character) as he could stow in his buggy, and conveyed them to the 
family, who were in indigent circumstances. Stuve's History of Illinois gives 
the following of President Lincoln's family : " Abraham Lincoln was born in 
La Rue (now Hardin) County, Ky., about two miles south of the village 
of Hodgensville, February 12, 1809. Here his father had taken up a land- 
claim of 300 acres, rough, broken and poor, containing a fine spring, known to 
this day as the ' Linkum Spring.' Unable to pay for the unproductive land, 
the claim Avas abandoned, and the family moved from place to place in the 
neighborhood, being very destitute. These removals occurring while Abraham 
was scarcely more than an infant, has given rise to different statements as to 
the exact place of his birth. It is said that in that part of Kentucky four 
places now claim the honor." Thomas Lincoln, the father of Abraham Lincoln. 


finally removed to Indiana, and then to Illinois, as above stated, and died years 
ago in Pleasant Grove Township. There, in a quiet little cemetery, known as 
*' Gordon's Grave-yard," without stone or "lettered monument" to mark the 
spot, sleeps the old pioneer. We give below a poem, entitled the " Grave of 
the Father of Abraham Lincoln," written by G. B. Balch, Esq., of Pleasant 
Grove, and published in many journals throughout the country, from Lippin- 
€otfs Magazine to the county papers : 

" In a low, sweet vale, by a murmuring rill, 
The pioneer's ashes are sleeping; 
Where the white marble slabs so lonely and still, 
In silence their vigils are keeping. 

" On their sad, lonely faces are words of fame. 
But none of them speak of his glory ; 
When the pioneer died, his age and his name. 
No monument whispers the story. 

"No myrtle, nor ivy, nor hyacinth blows 

O'er the lonely grave where they laid him ; 
No cedar, nor holly, nor almond tree grows 
Near the plebeian's grave to shade him. 

" Bright evergreens wave over many a grave, 
O'er some bow the sad weeping-willow ; 
But no willow-trees bow, nor evergreens wave, 
Where the pioneer sleeps on his pillow. 

" Some are inhumed with the honors of State, 
And laid beneath temples to molder ; 
The grave of the father of Lincoln, the great. 
Is known by a hillock and bowlder. 

" Let him take his lone sleep, and gently rest, 
With naught to disturb or awake him, 
When the angels shall come to gather the blest 
To Abraham's bosom, they'll take him.'' 


The geological deposits and formations of Coles County possess but little 
interest or importance, as compared to many other sections of Illinois. The 
soil of the prairies is of considerable thickness, of a deep black, or dark brown 
color, and very rich and productive. Beneath this soil, according to the geo- 
logical survey of the State, is a loamy clay, which also produces well with 
proper cultivation. The most important feature of the geology of the county, 
however, is the coal-deposit, which is supposed to underlie the county. A man 
of the name of Owens, years ago, discovered coal, and a very good quality, too, 
near where John Mickleblack now lives. Recent investigations, we are 
informed, have developed the fact that not exceeding five hundred feet below 
the surface, coal abounds in great abundance. Doubtless the time is not far 
distant when these coal-fields will become a source of industry, as well as of 
great value to the country. According to geological survey, three-fourths of 


the surface of Illinois are underlaid by beds of coal, and consequently have a 
greater area of this valuable fuel than any other State of the Union. A 
scientific writer speaks thus upon the formation and discovery of coal : '• The 
vast accumulation of vegetable matter from carboniferous plants, either im- 
bedded in the miry soil in which it grew, or swept from adjacent elevations 
into shallow lakes, became covered with sediment, and thus were transformed 
into coal. It has been estimated that eight perpendicular feet of wood were 
required to make one foot of bituminous coal, and twelve to make one foot of 
anthracite. Some beds of the latter are thirty feet in thickness, and hence 
360 feet of timber must have beqn consumed in their production. The process 
of its formation was exactly the same as practiced in the manufacture of char- 
coal, by burning wood under a covering of earth. Vegetable tissue consists 
mostly of carbon and oxygen, and decomposition must take place, either under 
water or some other impervious covering, to prevent the elements from forming 
carbonic-acid gas, and thus escaping to the atmosphere. Conforming to these 
requirements the immense vegetable growths forming the coal-fields subsided 
with the surface on which they grew, and were buried beneath the succeeding 
deposits. Nova Scotia has seventy-six different beds, and Illinois twelve ; and 
consequently, in these localities, there were as many different fields of verdure 
overwhelmed in the dirt-beds of the sea. Thus, long before the starry cycles 
had measured half the history of the unfolding continent, and when first the 
expanding stream of life but dimly reflected the coming age of mind, this vast 
supply of fuel was stored away in the rocky frame-work of the globe. Here it 
slumbered until man made his appearance and dragged it from its rocky lairs. 
At his bidding, it renders the factory animate with humming spindles, driving 
shuttles, whirling lathes and clanking forges. Under his guidance the iron- 
horse, feeding upon its pitchy fragments, bounds and tireless treads over its far- 
reaching track, dragging after him the products of distant marts and climes. 
By the skill of the one and the power of the other, the ocean steamer plows the 
deep in opposition to winds and waves, making its watery home a highway for 
the commerce of the world. 

Beyond the coal-beds underlying the surface, the county, as we have said, 
is not very rich in geology. There are, we believe, some stone-beds along the 
Embarrass River, but the quality of the stone is poor and of but little value for 
building purposes. With this brief glance at the geological features, we will 
leave the subject, referring the reader to the Geological Survey of the State 
for further information on this interesting point of history. 


The first newspaper was established in Coles County -in 1840, and was 
called the Charleston Courier. But as the township history will contain a 
more complete account of the press, we shall have little to say on the subject 
in this chapter. We wish, however, to leave on record our impression of the 


value of the files of county papers as sources of history. Their pages give 
a picture from week to week of both national and local events, which can be 
found nowhere else. Even the advertisements give much history, and we 
think there ought to be a provision made for keeping such files in the county 
and city offices. 

There are at present in Coles County six newspapers, viz. : the Courier and 
Plaindealer, of Charleston ; the Oommercial, Journal and G-azette, of Mattoon ; 
and the Herald, of Oakland. These are live, energetic newspapers, well filled 
with the news of the day (this is not an advertisement), and deserve the liberal 
support of the people of the county. 


"The proud bird, 
The condor of the Andes, that can soar 
Through heaven's unfathomable depths, or brave, 
The fury of the northern hurricane 
And bathe his plumage in the thunder's home. 
Furls his broad wings at nightfall, and sinks down 
To rest upon his mountain-crag ; but Time 
Knows not the weight of sleep or weariness, 
And night's deep darkness has no chain to bind 
His rilshing pinions." — Prentice. 

*' Time, fierce spirit of the glass and scythe," sets his signet upon the fading 
race of men, and they pass away "as a tale that is told." The "enduring 
marble" points us to the spot where sleep the pioneers whose magic touch 
changed this country from a " howling waste" to the paradise we find it to-day. 
More than fifty years have " flung their sunshines and shadows o'er the world " 
since the first white people came to Charleston Township and proceeded to set- 
tle themselves to " grow up with the country." Fifty years ! How much has 
transpired in that half-century that has come and gone since the " star of 
empire " crossed the " raging" Embarrass and paused for a moment over this 
fair region. We have neither time nor space to particularize the changes that 
have taken place in all these rolling years. Go ask the few old gray-heads 
still left how they have seen the palace take the place of the " pole cabin," the 
railway-train that of the patient, plodding ox, and the " wilderness rejoice and 
blossom as the rose." They can tell you of these changes far better than we, 
for they are things ' all of which they saw and part of which they were.' Ours 
is the duty to give the dry, historical details, and faithfully we shall endeavor 
to perform the task. ^. „„^.xm 


The first permanent settlement was made in Charleston Township in 1825. 
In that year, Seth H. Bates settled here, having removed from Crawford 
County. Jesse Veach, then a young man of eighteen, "moved" him to this 


neighborhood, and informs us that there was not a family then on this side of 
the Embarrass River. Bates was originally from Ohio, but had been living 
some ten years in Crawford County before emigrating to this. He remained 
here but a short time, however, when he sold out and removed to the Kickapoo 
settlement, in what is now La Fayette Township, where he is noticed further. 
In the fall of 1826, Enoch Glassco and his sons, Kimball, Madison and Enoch 
Glassco, Jr., came from Kentucky and settled just north of the present city of 
Charleston. They are said to have been almost as tall as the giant oaks of 
their native State — not one of them but stood more than six feet in his stock- 
ings. Enoch Glassco, Jr., is still living and resides in Charleston ; Kimball 
lives in Tuscola, and Madison died some three years ago. A daughter of the 
elder Glassco married James Y. Brown, who came to the settlement soon after. 
Mrs. Permelia Gobin was also a daughter of Glassco. In 1827, the Parkers 
came to this neighborhood and settled on what is now Anderson's Addition to 
the city of Charleston. They were of the family of Parkers mentioned in the 
general county history as settling, originally, Parker's Prairie. Benjamin 
Parker was one of the most noted, perhaps, of those who settled in this town- 
ship. He was a son of old " High" Johnny Parker, as he was called, the old 
"hard-shell" Baptist preacher. It is told of him (old " High" Johnny) that, 
one Sunday, after he had closed his sermon, he gave out an appointment " to 
preach at that place, that day four weeks, if it was not a good day for bee- 
hunting." He was a soldier in the Revolutionary war, and, as a reward for his 
services, received a pension under the act of Congress of 1832. The following 
certificate appears on the early records of the County Commissioners' Court : 

Stat« OK Illinois, ) 
Coles County, j ' 

On the 15th day of October, personally appeared in open Court before Isaac Lewis and 
James S. Martin, County Commissioners for the county of Coles, now sitting and constituting 
said Court for said county and State aforesaid, John Parker, a resident of the United States of 
America, in the county of Coles and State of Illinois, aged seventy-four years, who, being first 
duly sworn according to law, doth on his oath make the following declaration in order to obtain 
the benefit of the act of Congress passed June 7, 1832 : That he entered the service of the 
United States, under the following-named officers, and served as herein stated ; that he enlisted 
under Capt. Fields, Col. Slaughter commander of the regiment. Gen. Greene's Brigade; 
entered the service of the United States in October, 1777, and left the service in twelve months 
thereafter ; that again he entered the United States service under Capt. Callier, of Col. Alexan- 
der's regiment. That he was drafted in the latter end of 177D, and mai'ched through Winchester, 
Va., into Pennsylvania, and was stationed on a creek called Ten-Mile Creek, in Pennsylvania ; 
was in no engagements, and that he has no documentary evidence. That he remained twelve 
months each term of service, making two whole years. That he received a discharge from Capt. 
Callier, and that it is now lost. That he was boi-n September 5, 1758, in the ^State of Mary- 
land, Baltimore County; that the only record of his age is taken from his father's Bible, now 
in his possession; that he lived in Culpeper County, Va., when called into service; that 
he lived in the State of Georgia seventeen years ; thence to Tennessee, Hickman County ; thence 
to the Territory of Illinois, in the year 1815, in which State he now resides, and in the county 
of Coles. He hereby relinquishes every claim whatever to a pension, except the present, and 
he declares that his name is not on the pension-roll of the agency of any State. 

Sworn to and subscribed the day and year aforesaid. John Parker. 


This certificate is attested by Griffin Tipsoward, who was also a Revolution- 
ary soldier, and the Commissioners add their certificate, that after fully 
investigating the case, and " putting the interrogations prescribed by the War 
Department, " believe he was a Revolutionary soldier, and served as stated in 
the foregoing declaration. 

There were James, Silas, Nathaniel and Daniel Parker, who were all brothers 
of Benjamin Parker. Daniel Pai'ker was also a Baptist preacher of the hard- 
shell or ironside faith, and mentioned in the history of Edgar County as one of 
the first preachers in that county. He together, with Benjamin and Silas Par- 
ker, finally removed to Texas, where the latter two were killed by the Comanche 
Indians. They had bought a lot of cattle, and were herding them when the 
Comanches are supposed to have come upon them, drove them to their herder's 
shanty and murdered them, as when found their bodies were sticking full of 
arrows. A daughter of one of the Parkers was captured by the Indians, after 
their removal to Texas, and kept for some time in captivity. When released, 
she wrote a narrative, descriptive of her trials and sufferings while among the 
savages, which many of the people siill living in this neighborhood have read. 
Old " High " Johnny Parker went to Texas with his son Benjamin. The old 
gentleman was a soldier in the Revolutionary war, and as such. Col. Dunbar 
succeeded in getting a pension for him, as a reward for his services in fightini: 
for the independence of his country. There are still many descendants of the 
Parkers living, who are among the substantial men of Coles County. 

Charles S. Morton was another of the very early pioneers of Charleston 
Township, and one of the energetic and enterprising men of that early 
day. He was from Fayette County, Ky., within three miles of the city of 
Lexington, the home of Henry Clay. Though he came to a rich county, it 
does not equal that which he left. Fayette County is in the very heart of the 
blue-grass region, than which no finer land is to be found below the sun, and 
Lexington possesses more wealth (to the amount of population), perhaps, than 
any city in the United States. Mr. Morton came to this settlement in tho 
spring of 1829, and brought his wife Avith him to look at the country, thus con- 
sulting her taste and happiness in the selection of a home, as all good men ought 
to do. Three months later, he brought his children to his new home. We have 
said that he was an enterprising man. He kept the first store in Charleston 
Township — brought the goods with him when he came to the country and opened 
them out in a small pole cabin, where he continued business until Charleston 
was laid out, when he moved into the village, and was the first merchant 
here also. He also had the first horse-mill in the township, and his residence 
was the first in the neighborhood, perhaps in the county, that could boast of the 
luxury of a glass window, and we are creditably informed that people came for 
miles to see how a house looked with the modern improvement of a glass window. 
He built a row of pole cabins near where the Charleston post office now stands, 
which were known as the Penitentiary, and these he would let to families mov- 


ing to the settlement three months free of rent, which time sufficed, if they 
were industrious, to provide a cabin of their own. A daughter of Mr. Morton 
married Dr. Ferguson, and another J. K. Decker, Esq., and a son, Charles 
II. Morton, lives in Chicago. Capt. Adams thus speaks of him in an address 
delivered by hira some time ago: "Mr. Morton traveled down through the 
journey of life among us, bearing an irreproachable reputation for truth and 
integrity, and has left behind him children, grandchildren and great-grandchil- 
dren, all intelligent and prosperous, and scattered^^from here to Chicago." He 
died in January, 1848. Mrs. Ferguson and Mrs. Decker still can describe very 
vividly how, in their young days, they used to dance on puncheon floors and 
dirt floors and any other kind of floors, and that, too, as often as a fiddler could 
be obtained. As musicians were scarce, whenever one chanced to present him- 
self it was invariably the signal for a dance, which was usually prolonged 

." All night, till broad daylight," 

when the boys would 

" Go home with the girls in the morning." 

Col. A. P. Dunbar is another of the pioneers of Charleston, who came here 
from the " Dark and Bloody Ground." He is a native of Fleming County, 
and came to Illinois in 1828, but returned to Kentucky, where he read law and 
was admitted to the bar, and, in 1831, came back to Coles County and located in 
Charleston, and was the first lawyer to hang out a "shingle" in this city. He 
was elected to the State Legislature in 1836, when Coles County embraced 
Cumberland and Douglas Counties, and was re-elected in 1844-45, and, at this 
session, had Abraham Lincoln for his deskmate. His father, Alexander Dun- 
bar, was a soldier of 1812 and was with Commodore Perry in the battle on Lake 
Erie. Col. Dunbar's law library was destroyed by fire in 1877, since which 
time he has retired from the practice of laAV. Among the early settlers of this 
township are Levi, Samuel and James Doty, and John Bates, who settled in the 
southeast part of the town about 1830-31. They came from Crawfoi'd County, 
but were originally from Kentucky. Levi and James Doty still live in the 
township, and Samuel moved away years ago. Bates, also, is living yet in the 

Charleston Township, as well as the entire county, was originally settled 
mostly by Southern people, Kentucky, perhaps, contributing the largest delega- 
tion to the population. In addition to the names already mentioned, we have 
from the old Blue-Grass State, Thomas G. and Dr. W. M. Chambers, Isaac N. 
Craig, Edmund Curd, Alexander Perkins, John Monroe, Levi Hackett, James 
M. Miller, Richard and Thomas Stoddert, Col. Thomas A. Marshall, Hon. U. 
F. Linder, Dr. Samuel Van Meter and Hon. 0. B. Ficklin, and probably others 
whose names we have failed to obtain. The Chamberses were from Harrison 
County. Thomas came to Illinois in 1838, and settled in Charleston, where he 
still lives. He commenced his business life as clerk in'a dry goods store, and, 
in 1840, embarked in the business for himself, and continued it until 1866, 


when he established the banking house of T. G. Chambers & Co. In 1866, he 
became President of the First National Bank, which position he now holds. 
He is a public-spirited and enterprising citizen, and has always manifested a 
lively interest in the Coles County Agricultural Society, together with many 
other enterprises calculated to promote the interests of the city and county. 
He is also President of the Old Settlers' Association. Dr. Chambers gradu- 
ated as a physician in Transylvania University, at Lexington, Ky., in 1833, 
and practiced his profession in that State until his removal to Coles County, in 
1855. In 1861, he was appointed Brigade Surgeon in the Union army, by 
President Lincoln, and served in the Army of the Cumberland until 1865. He 
has been President of the State Medical Society, both of Kentucky and Illi- 
nois. Isaac Craig is a native of Montgomery County, and came to Illinois 
with his father's family in 1828, settling in Clark County. Here he remained 
until 1835, when he came to Coles County, where he has since resided. He 
was one of the prominent farmers of this township, until his retirement from 
active business. He is a stockholder and Director in the Second National 
Bank of Charleston. In the Black Hawk war of 1832, he served in the Sec- 
ond Brigade of Illinois Volunteers, under Gen. M. K. Alexander, of Paris. 
Edmund Curd was born in Jessamine County, and from there removed to 
Hardin County, Ohio, where he remained a few years, and then came to this 
township, arriving here in 1836, and entered into partnership in the saddlery 
business with John R. Jeffries, who had come to the place a short time previ- 
ous. For more than thirty years, he continued in this business. His grand- 
father removed to Kentucky from Virginia at an early day, and settled on the 
Kentucky River where the Southern Railroad now crosses it. His grandfather's 
little family consisted of fifteen children, and from them almost that entire 
neighborhood was peopled. Alexander Perkins went from Kentucky when 
quite young, with his parents, to Marion County, Ind., where he grew to man- 
liood, and removed to Charleston in 1836. He was one of the early brick 
manufacturers in the county. Hon. John Monroe was from Barren County, 
and came to this township in 1833. He read medicine with Dr. George Rogers, 
of Glasgow, Ky., but never practiced the profession. He was an active busi- 
ness man, and accumulated a handsome property. He served a term in the 
State Legislature, and died in Charleston, in 1877. Levi Hacket was from 
Scott County, and settled here in 1835, where he remained until 1861, when 
he removed to Douglas County. James M.iMiller came from Spencer County . 
to Charleston in 1838, where he still lives, a prominent merchant. Richard 
and Thomas Stoddert came from Grayson County, and may be numbered 
among the pioneers of Coles. The family consisted of the mother and nine 
children (the father having died before leaving Kentucky), who came at dif- 
ferent times from 1836 to 1838. They are descendants of the old Massachu- 
setts Stodderts. The grandfather, Benjamin Stoddert, was a Major in the 
Continental army in the war of the Revolution, and afterward the second Sec- 


retary of the United States Navy. Thomas Stoddert settled here in 1836, and 
Richard in 1838. The brothers formed a partnership in a tannery, which, in 
that line, and in other departments of business, was continued for thirty years. 
Richard is a man of considerable wealth, and is a large land-owner. He has 
held several offices, of which County Treasurer and Sheriff are the most im- 
portant. Thomas, in 1849, drove an ox-team across the plains to the land of 
gold. He still lives in Charleston, and is engaged in farming and merchandis- 
ing. Col. Thomas A. Marshall was born in Frankfort, and is a son of Hon. 
Thomas A. Marshall, for more than twenty years a Judge of the Court of 
Appeals of Kentucky. The Marshalls comprise one of the grandest old 
families of Kentucky, which has, perhaps, produced more great men than any 
other family in that proud old commonwealth, so prolific of great men. Col. 
Marshall, after settling in Charleston, resumed the practice of his profession 
(law, in which he had graduated in Kentucky), and turned his attention to 
politics. In 1856, he was associated with Abraham Lincoln, Lyman Trumbull, 
David Davis, John M. Palmer, and others, in the organization of the Repub- 
lican party. He served two terms in the State Senate, and was a member of 
the Constitutional Convention of 1847. In 1861, he became Colonel of the 
First Illinois Cavalry, and served until the muster-out of his regiment, in the 
fall of 1862. He was an able financier, and one of the first bankers in Coles 
County. Dr. Samuel Van Meter came from Grayson County, with his mother's 
family, and settled here about 1827. • He read medicine under Dr. Trower, and 
practiced the profession until 1849, when he went overland to California, the 
trip occupying five months. He remained in the Golden State a year and a 
half; then returned to Charleston, and resumed the practice of the liealing art. 
In 1857, he founded, in Charleston, the Illinois Infirmary, the fame of which 
has extended to all parts of the country. Patients came to it from the Pacific 
coast, and even from beyond the Atlantic. His partner, for a time, in this 
famed institution was Dr. H. R. Allen, now of the National Surgical Institute 
at Indianapolis. As an illustration of the popularity of the Illinois Infirmary, 
its receipts for 1868 were ^186,000. It continued in successful operation until 
1877, when Dr. Van Meter, worn out with constant care, closed it and retired 
from active business. Hon. U. F. Linder was from Hardin County, and 
removed to Illinois in 1835, and to Charleston in 1838, where he resided until 
1860, when he removed to Chicago. He was Attorney Generalof the State 
under the administration of Gov. Duncan, a man of intelligence and fine orator- 
ical powers. He died June 5, 1876. Hon. 0. B. Ficklin located in Charles- 
ton in 1837. He went to Missouri from Kentucky, with his parents, when 
quite young, and commenced the study of the law with Henry Shurlds, Esq . 
and, in the winter of 1829-30. entered the office of Robert Farris, of St. Louis, 
In 1830, he Avas admitted to the bar at Belleville, 111., having been examined 
by Hon. Edward Coles By the advice of Hon. William Wilson, he located at 
Mount Carmel, 111., where he resided until 1837, Avhen he removed to Charles- 


ton, as noted above. In the Black Hawk war, he enlisted in Capt. Elias 
Jurdin's company, and, upon the organization of the army, was appointed 
< Quartermaster, and attached to the brigade of Gen. Alexander, of Paris. In 
1834, he was elected to the Lower House of the State Legislature, and by that 
body chosen State's Attorney for the Wabash Circuit. At the election in 
1838, having removed to Coles, he was elected Representative from this county, 
and re-elected in 1842. In 1843, was elected to Congress from the Wabash 
District. His colleagues were Robert Smith, John A. McClernand, John 
Wentworth, Joseph P. Ilogue, John J. Harding and Stephen A. Douglas. He 
was re-elected to Congress in 1844, in 1846, and again in 1850. In 1856, was 
a member of the Democratic Convention that nominated James Buchanan for 
President, and one of the electors that cast the vote of Illinois for " Old 
Buck." He Avas a member of the National Democratic Convention at Charles- 
ton, S. C, in 1860 ; was present at the disruption of that body, and attended 
the adjourned meeting at Baltimore, when Stephen A. Douglas was nominated. 
In 1864, he was a delegate to the National Democratic Convention at Chicago, 
that nominated for President Gen. George B. McClellan, He was a member 
of the Constitutional Convention in 1869-70, and is at present a member of 
the Legislature from this county. 

Among the substantial citizens given to Charleston Township by the " Old 
Dominion " — the venerable mother of States — may be numbered Albert 
Compton, Isaiah H. Johnston, R. M. Coon, Dr. Thomas B. Trower, Nathan 
Ellington, Jonathan Linder, the Cossells, William Frost, Leander Gillingwater, 
and perhaps others. Albert Compton came from Fairfax County, and, in 
1833, settled in Charleston Township. He was a shoemaker, and worked at 
that trade for a number of years after coming to this neighborhood. He has 
retired from active business life, and, living in the city of Charleston, he enjoys 
in his old age a well-earned competence. Isaiah H. Johnston is almost a 
native of Coles County, having been here since he was three years old. His 
father came from Russell County, Ya., in 1830, and settled in what is now 
Pleasant Grove Township, in the history of which he is noticed among the 
early settlers. After the death of his father, he continued on the farm until 
he was twenty-seven years of age, when he opened a store in the neighborhood. 
In 1857, he removed to Mattoon, and in that city, continued the mercantile 
business until 1860, when he was elected Sheriif of the county. When his 
term of office expired, he resumed merchandising, and finally, in company with 
T. A. Marshall and John W. True, established the banking house of T. A. 
Marshall & Co., which, in 1871, became the Second National Bank of Charles- 
ton. In 1873, he became its President, an office he still holds. In 1869, he 
built an extensive porkhouse, and, in 1871, together with John B. Hill and 
Thomas Stoddert, erected the Charleston Pork-Packing House, which receives 
further notice in another chapter. R. M. Coon cannot be termed an old set- 
tler of this township or of the county, but his extraordinary experience of the 


early times will be of some interest in these pages. At the age of twenty-one 
years, he entered the employ of a stock-drover. There were no railroads 
then, and stock-trains, but the usual custom, or, rather, the invariable custom, 
was to drive all stock to market. In this line of business he drove stock from 
Ohio and Kentucky to Virginia, and to North and South Carolina, making 
thirteen trips in this capacity across the Alleghany Mountains. He came to 
Charleston in 1840, and about twenty years ago, engaged in gardening. He 
has set out eight different orchards, and has eaten fruit from the last one 
planted. Dr. Thomas B. Trower came to Illinois in 1830, and located in Shel- 
byville. He came from Albemarle County, and after practicing his profes- 
sion in Shelbyville for six years, removed to Charleston, where he still 
lives. He has held many high positions in the medical fraternity, in all of 
which he has discharged his duty with satisfaction to those interested. Not 
only is he a fine physician, but an excellent business man, an able financier and 
a statesman. He was at one time President of the Moultrie County Bank, at 
Sullivan, and Vice President of the First National Bank of Charleston. 
While a resident of Shelbyville, he served three terms in the State Legislature, 
and was a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1847. Jonathan Lin- 
der came to Coles County with his father's family previous to 1830, making 
the journey in wagons, and settled in this township. Some years later, he 
I'evisited his native State (West Virginia), making the trip both ways on horse- 
back, a distance (the round trip) of over one thousand miles. He died in 
1877, leaving one son, Jacob Linder, who lives on the old homestead. In 
1829, Michael Cossell, Jr., came to the township, and the next year his father, 
Michael Cossell, Sr., and two other sons, Isaac and Solomon, moved in. Isaac 
and Solomon are both living, the latter in Charleston Township and the former 
in Ashmore. The elder Cossell and his son Michael are dead. Nathan Elling- 
ton was one of the early settlers here. He was an early Justice of the Peace, 
an earlv school-teacher of Charleston and a man of most excellent character. 
His tragic death was deplored by all good men. He was the first County 
Clerk of Coles County, and filled the ofiice to the satisfaction of the people. 
William Frost and Leander Gillingwater settled in Charleston Township about 
the same time, and were both Virginians. They came to the settlement about 
1830—31, and both died here. Frost but a few years ago, and Gillingwater a few 
years after he came to the country. 

From the Hoosier State, Charleston Township has received some good mate- 
rial. Jacob K. Decker, James Skidmore and William Linder came from 
Indiana. Mr. Decker is a native of Knox County, and settled in Charleston 
Township in 1836. His parents were natives of Virginia, and came to Knox 
County in 1810, and were living in Fort Knox, on the Wabash, at the time the 
battle of Tippecanoe was fought. Mr. Decker married a daughter of the pio- 
neer Charles Morton, mentioned in the beginning of this chapter, and as a 
farmer and merchant has laid up a competence for old age. Mr. Skidmore 


came from Owen County (Ind.) with his parents in 1833. They first settled in 
Morgan Township, but remained only a few years, when they returned to 
Indiana. After the death of his father, Mr. Skidmore came back to Illinois, 
then went to Missouri, and finally returned to Illinois and settled in Charles- 
ton, where he still lives. William Linder came here in 1835, and died in 1843. 
He has a son, G. W. Linder, still living in the township. 

From Tennessee, the land of cotton, the township has drawn some excellent 
citizens. John Jeffries, William Collom, James Y. Brown, Isaac Lewis and 
Hiram Steepleton, came from Tennessee. Jeffries came to Crawford County 
with his parents when but a small boy. In 1835, he removed to Coles County 
and settled in Charleston, where he engaged in the saddlery and harness busi- 
ness, which he continued until November 5, 1860, the date of his death. He 
served one term as Sheriff of Coles County, was an enterprising citizen, a good 
business man, and accumulated a handsome property. James A. Mitchell and 
William Collom were from Washington County. The latter came to Illinois 
in 1829, and stopped first in Edgar County, and, in 1831, removed to Charles- 
ton. He built and kept the first tavern, a log cabin of one room, in the city 
of Charleston. He was a soldier of the war of 1812, and fought under Gren. 
Jackson against the Creek Indians ; also participated in the battle of the Horse- 
Shoe. He died August 8, 1851. Mitchell settled in Charleston in 1830, and 
was quite a prominent man in the neighborhood. He died many years ago, 
but has a son still living in Charleston. James Y. Brown settled in Charleston 
Township in 1827, and remained a resident of it until his death. Lewis 
and Steepleton settled in the town in 1827, and Steepleton died here ; Lewis 
moved to the north part of the State, where he was living the last known of him. 

Dr. Aaron Ferguson was a native of North Carolina, and in early childhood 
came with his parents to Bloomington, Ind. After attaining his majority, he 
read medicine with Dr. Maxwell, and graduated in the profession at Transyl- 
vania University, Lexington, Ky,, and, in 1830, located in Charleston. His 
wife was a daughter of Charles Morton, mentioned as one of the early settlers 
of this township. Dr. Ferguson was a close student, somewhat retiring in his 
nature, never seeking public office. He died in 1876. Charles R. Briggs 
came from Washington County, N. Y., to this township in 1839, and, after 
farming one year, located in the city of Charleston. He has made painting 
of fine stock a specialty, a profession in which he excels, as hundreds of speci- 
mens of his genius to be found in the city and county testify. He opened the 
first livery-stable in Charleston with one horse in it to begin with, and so 
increased his trade that at one time he had in his stable forty-two horses. T. 
J. Marsh came from Baltimore and settled first in what is now Morgan Town- 
ship in 1836. His first residence in the wild West was a cabin built of rails, 
ten feet square, in which he lived with his entire family for three months, when 
they removed to Charleston. He was a carpenter and builder, and erected the 
first iron-front store in Charleston. Many other monuments of his enterprise 


are to be found in the citj. George Birch, whose father is noticed among the 
pioneers of Ashmore ToAvnship, is a native of England, and came to America 
witli liis parents in 1833. After spending a few years in Pennsylvania, they 
removed to Illinois and settled in Ashmore Township, as above. He has hauled 
■vfheat to Chicago in the early times for G2| cents a bushel, and driven hogs to 
Clinton, Ind., for $1.25 per hundred pounds net. He has for a year or two. 
been a resident of Charleston Township, and by close economy has amassed 
eonsiderable property. Eli Wiley, a lawyer of Charleston, came to Illinois 
with his parents in 1826, and, after spending several years in Edgar and Clark 
Counties, removed to Charleston in 1835, where he still lives. 

The Eastins, mentioned in the county history as first settling in Kickapoo, 
as it was then called, were Charles Eastin and three sons, Van, John M. and 
Harman. The elder Eastin, after a few years, moved into Charleston Town- 
ship, and, after sevei'al other removals to different sections and neighborhoods, 
finally died in Charleston. John M. Eastin located in this township in an 
early day (about 1830) and lived for awhile with Charles Morton. He resides 
at present in Charleston. Harman Eastin went to the Mexican war and was 
killed. He married Miss Lavina Cox, when this county was included in Clark, 
and went to Darwin for his marriage license. The Eastins were originally 
from Kentucky, but had lived for a number of years in Indiana, before 
coming to Illinois. They left Lexington, Ind., in February of 1830, in 
wagons, and were nineteen days on the road. To add to the severity and discom- 
forts of the trip, there was quite a snow, which continued on the ground during 
their journey. Dr. John Carrico was a native of Meade County, Ky., and came 
here about 1830-31, and was the first physician in Charleston Township. He 
was also the first Representative from this county in the Legislature of the 
State, and died soon after his term of service expired. Hon. James T. Cun- 
'ningham, another Kentuckian, came to Coles County in 1830, and was one of 
the active and energetic men of the times. He served in the Legislature dur- 
ing the sessions of 1836-37, and was the choice of his party for Congress in 
the campaign of 1860. Dr. Byrd Monroe, also a Kentuckian, came here in 
1833, and was a man of prominence. In 1838, he was elected to the State 
Senate, an office he filled very acceptably to the people he represe;ited. Isaac 
Odell Avas among the early settlers in this township, but had first settled in 
Pleasant Grove, where he is mentioned among the pioneers of that neighbor- 
hood. A son of his is said to have been the first birth in Charleston Township. 

Col. H. R. Norfolk came to Charleston Township in 1833. He was 
born in Maryland, but mostly raised by an uncle in Cincinnati, Ohio, and mar- 
ried his wife in Natchez, Miss. She was a native of New York, and is still living. 
Col. Norfolk died in December, 1865. He was the second merchant in Charles- 
ton. Reuben Canterberry came from near Lexington, Ky., and settled in 
Charleston, in the fall of 1832. He died here many years ago, and his widow 
married again and moved out of the county. William Martin, I. Lyman and 


Gideon S. Bailey were early settlers, but of them not much could be obtained. 
Bailey married the widow of James P. Jones, and moved away from the town- 
ship. Robert Lightfoot came from Kentucky, and settled in the town in 1836, 
and was an honest, upright man in the community. He died some three or four 
years ago. 

John Yeach, the father of Jesse Veach, a well-known citizen of this town- 
ship, and a soldier of the war of 1812, settled here in 1828. He bought a 
claim of James Riley, who had settled here a year or two before. Riley was 
from Crawford County, and removed to Texas about 1833-34. Mr. Veaeh came 
from Crawford County, but was born in Maryland, had been a resident of Ken- 
tucky in the early days, and removed to Crawford County in 1814, when the 
people, for the sake of protection, were compelled to live in forts. He was some- 
time a resident of old Fort La Motte. After two years' residence in this town- 
ship, he removed into La Fayette, where he is noticed in the early settlement of 
that town. Jesse Veach, one of the honored citizens of Charleston Township, 
settled here in 1831, but his acquaintance with this section extends back to 
1825. Li that year, he " moved " a family from Crawford County to this 
township — Mr. Bates, who is mentioned as the first settler in this neighborhood. 
At the time of his first visit here, in 1825, there was not a family living on this 
side of the Embarrass River, the whole country around the present beautiful 
little city of Charleston was a wilderness untrodden by the white men. He is 
still living, a hale old gentleman for one of his years, and with an excellent 
memory of the early days and hardships of this country. H. Gregg settled 
here in 1827, but remained in the neighborhood but a short time, when he 
removed to Edgar County. 

This concludes the early settlement of the township, and a history of the old 
settlers, so far as we have been able to learn their names. Possibly, many names 
have been omitted that deserve special mention, but with more than half a cent- 
ury between "then and now," and many of the early settlers "gone home, " 
and the memories of those still remaining clouded by age, renders it impossible 
to get a history of every one. This must be our excuse for any omissions that 
have been made. 


The first mill in Charleston Township was a small horye-mill erected by 
Charles Morton, soon after his settlement in the neighborhood. After its erec- 
tion, it was patronized extensively by the people in the vicinity in preference to 
going to the mills on the Embarrass River. At this little corn-cracking estab- 
lishment the pioneers used to congregate, and while waiting their " turn," would 
amuse themselves playing marbles, running foot-races, jumping, pitching quoits 
and other innocent amusements ; in cold weather they would parch corn in the 
ashes. But with the building of other mills of greater capacity, and of water 
and steam power, horse-mills became obsolete, and, at the present date, it is prob- 


able that at least one-half of the population of Coles County never saw a horse- 
mill. After the laying-out of Charleston, Morton moved his mill in the village, 
Avhere it figured as the first in the village as it had in the township. 

The first store in the town was opened by Charles Morton the same year of 
his settlement. He brought a stock of goods with him when he moved here 
from Kentucky, and as soon as he could erect a pole cabin to shelter his family, 
he opened out his goods in one room of it; And when Charleston sprang into 
existence, he moved his store to town, where, like his horse-mill, it became the 
first store in the village. This mercantile effort of Morton's was perhaps the 
only one in the township outside of Charleston, from the first settlement to the 
present time. As the village was laid out so soon after settlements were made 
in the township, there was little necessity for stores outside of the village. And 
hence the mercantile trade centered in it in an early day. 

The first road through Charleston Township other than Ihe pioneer's wagon 
trails, was the State road from Shelbyville to Paris. It was surveyed and 
located by John Flemming, Thomas Sconce and Thomas Rhodes, according to 
the following act of the Legislature, approved January 28, 1831 : " Section 1. 
Be it enacted by the people of the State of Illinois, represented in the Gen- 
eral Assembly, That John Flemming, of Shelby County, Thomas Sconce of 
Coles County and Thomas Rhodes, of Edgar County, be, and they are hereby, 
appointed Commissioners to view, survey, mark and locate a road from Shelby- 
ville, in Shelby County, to the seat of justice in Coles County, and from thence 
to Paris, in Edgar County, to be located on the nearest and best route, doing 
as little damage to private property as the public good will permit. 

" Sec. 2. The said Commissioners, or a majority of them, shall meet at Shel- 
byville on or before the 15th day of October next, and after being duly sworn 
by some Justice of the Peace of said county of Shelby, faithfully to view and 
locate said road, without partiality, favor or affection, shall immediately there- 
after proceed to discharge the duties required of them by this act, placing in 
the prairie, through which the same shall pass, stakes of a reasonable size of 
durable timber. 

" Sec. 3. As soon as practicable after said road is located, said Commission- 
ers, or a majority of them, shall make out a report, accompanied by a map or 
plat of said road, denoting the courses and distances from point to point, with 
such other remarks as they, or a majority of them, may deem necessary and 
proper, and transmit the same to the Secretary of State. And they, or a ma- 
jority of them, shall make a map or plat of so much of said road as lies within 
the respective counties and transmit it to the Clerk of the County Commission- 
ers of the respective counties through which the same may pass, which shall be 
filed and preserved in the office of said court. 

" Sec. 4. When said road shall be located, it shall be to all intents and pur- 
poses, a State road, four poles wide, and shall be opened and kept in repair as 
other roads are in this State. 


" Sec. 5. The County Commissioners' Courts of each county through which the 
said road may pass, are hereby authorized and required to allow said Commis- 
sioners one dollar and fifty cents per day for the time necessarily employed in 
locating the said road in each of their respective counties ; Provided, that noth- 
ing herein contained shall be so construed as to create any liability on the part 
of this State to pay said Commissioners for their services, rendered under this 
act. This act to be in force from and after its passage." 

Before the laying-out of this road, the people meandered over the prairies 
and through the openings in the timber, wherever they could get through best 
and easiest. Often, when they went to mill, they would do as the Rev. Peter 
Cartwright did in the Astor House when they put him in the fifth story. He 
went to the ofiice and asked for a hatchet. When asked what he wanted with 
a hatchet, replied, to blaze his way so that he could go to and from his room 
without getting lost. So, would the people take their hatchets with them to 
mill, and blaze the trees so they could find their way back home. The same 
session of the Legislature at which the foregoing act was passed, another was 
passed requiring every able-bodied male citizen, under fifty years of age and 
over twenty-one, to perform three days' labor on the public highways, under the 
superintendence of the Supervisor of the district. An interesting feature of 
this act was, that when the labor provided in the act (three days of each able- 
bodied, etc.) was insuflScient, the Supervisor might call on " every taxable male 
inhabitant " in the district to perform labor on the road at the rate of one day 
for " every $100 worth of real and personal property he may possess in the 
county." The township, at the present day, is well supplied with roads and 
bridges; of the latter, however, there are a few eligibh sites still left, where 
they might be located with advantage to the people. 

One of the early industries of the township was a tan-yard, upon which, or 
in which, or at which, was manufactured the material for the understanding of 
the pioneer inhabitants. This primitive institution, now long obsolete, was 
opened by David Eastin, and the spot whereon it was located is now inside of 
the corporation of the city of Charleston. It finally became the property of 
Richard and Thomas Stoddert, who operated it until the people became too 
proud or too enlightened to wear home-made shoes, when they, like Othello, 
found their occupation (in that line) gone, and the establishment was closed. 
Another useful industry of those days were carding machines. John Kennedy 
built one in this township about 1880-31, which carded the wool of the settlers 
(or that of their sheep, rather) into rolls, when they were spun and woven into 
cloth, and manufactured into clothing by the industrious ladies. But these, 
then useful establishments, like the tanyards, have "gone where the woodbine 
twineth." Owen and Harman were the first blacksmiths, and sharpened the 
old Cary and barshare plows for the early farmers. These smiths were " mighty 
men," with " large and sinewy hands " and " muscles like iron bands," and left 
their imprint upon many of these rude old implements of the early husbandmen. 


The first orchard in the township was set out by Benjamin Parker about 
1830. Before the bearing of this and other orchards, set out soon after, the 
people had to content themselves with wild crab-apples and such other fruits as 
grew in the country. Strawberries, we are informed, grew wild in great abun- 
■dance, and of an excellent quality. 


The first schoolhouse in the township was built near what is called the 
Decker Springs, about a mile north of the city of Charleston. It was the type 
of the pioneer schoolhouse, which has already been described in these pages, 
and was built in 1828. John McCombs taught the first school in this humble 
temple of learning. A Mr. Collora, brother of William Collom, who built the 
first house and kept the first tavern in Charleston, was another of the early 
school teachers of this township. It would be an interesting history to trace 
the schools of the town from this puny commencement to their present state of 
perfection, but we have not the space to do so, and as we shall allude to the sub- 
ject again in the chapter devoted to the city of Charleston, we will pass on now 
with the remark, that Charleston Township is laid off in convenient districts, 
all of them having comfortable school-buildings, wherein schools are maintained 
from six to nine months during the year. None but competent teachers are 
employed, and hence the schools flourish accordingly. 

The first preaching in the neighborhood was by the Parkers, as noticed in 
the general history, several of the family being preachers of the '' Hardshell " 
persuasion. Rev. Mr. Newport was another of the early divines of that faith. 
The Methodists and Presbyterians also were early in the field, and established 
classes and societies, which have continued down to the present day. But as the 
first church in the township was erected in Charleston, the church history will 
be given under that head. 

The first white child born in Charleston Township is supposed to have been 
George W. Odell, a son of Isaac Odell, in 1830. A son of David Eastin was 
born in 1832, which was the next birth recorded in the neighborhood. The 
first wedding remembered was Dr. Ferguson and a daughter of Charles Mor- 
ton. We are unable to give a descriptix)n of the ceremonies attending this early 
marriage in the wilderness, the wedding presents, appearance of the bride, etc., 
but as she is still living, our young lady readers, who always take an interest 
in such matters, can probably learn all the particulars of her. The first death is 
not remembered, but the " well-peopled " grave-yards tell that death has been 

Charleston Township lies a little southeast of the center of the county, and 
is bounded on the north by Hickory Township, on the west by La Fayette, on 
the south by Pleasant Grove and on the east by the Embarrass River. It is 
described as Township 12 north, Range 9 east of the third principal meridian, 
and contains a few sections more than a regular Congressional township. The 


surface is generally level, with slight undulations, except along the Embarrass, 
where it is rather broken and hilly. The town is pretty well watered and 
drained by the small streams flowing to the Embarrass River, among which 
we may note Kickapoo, Riley and Cossell Creeks, and with the Embarrass 
on its eastern boundary, it lacks neither drainage nor irrigation. The Indian- 
apolis & St. Louis Railroad crosses from east to west through the north 
part of the town, thus affording excellent means of shipping the great amount 
of grain and stock annually produced. The history of the above railroad 
has been so fully given in the general county history that we shall not 
repeat it here, but refer the reader to that part of this work. 


The township and city of Charleston, taken together, are Democratic in 
politics by a small majority. Being pretty evenly divided in point of numbers, 
usually calls forth from both sides considerable wire-AVorking and "log-rolling" 
whenever an important election is pending, and neither party leaves a stone 
unturned to accomplish success ; hence, exciting episodes sometimes take place 
between them and humorous stories are told on each side. The following is 
narrated at the expense of the Republicans, and is supposed to have occurred 
about the time of the organization of that party in the State. We do not 
vouch for its truth, but give it, subject to any criticism or correction it may 
deserve. A little party was formed, consisting of seventeen individuals, to go 
into one of the rural towns to organize the sturdy yeomanry, and they 
contributed $1 apiece for the purpose of providing a lunch for the occa- 
sion, as they contemplated being out all day. One of the number was ap- 
pointed to procure the lunch, and well knowing, perhaps, the appetites of 
the party, he invested $16, of the $17 appropriated, in whisky and $1 in 
crackers. They proceeded on their mission, and, as they performed their very 
"arduous labors," had frequent recourse to the bottles of the "all-healing bal- 
sam of life and comfort." Toward evening, one of the party came to the 
" butler," with a hungry, thirsty look upon his alabaster countenance, and 
wanted " some more that 'ere liquor." He was informed that it was nearly out, 
and he would have to cut down his potations, to some extent, and take crackers 
instead. After deliberating over the matter a moment, he looked up and 
remarked, " Wh-what in the did ye (hie) git so many crackers for ? " 

The following illustrates the other side pretty well : " Uncle Billy Hughs," 
as everybody called him, was a blood-red Democrat. He lived in Pleasant 
Grove Township, and, every time he came to Charleston, was sure to get drunk, 
•on the principle that that was one of the first duties of a Democrat. One day, 
he came to town in his wagon, with two large, fine horses harnessed to it, 
and, as usual, got " tight as a tick ; " and, as he started for home, his horses 
ran away, threw him out of the wagon, in the outskirts of the town, and knocked 
the old fellow senseless. Several persons, both male and female, saw the acci- 


dent, and ran to his assistance and found him apparently dead. The ladies set 
up a lamentation, and all expressed the strongest pity ; for the old man was 
much beloved, and, aside from his love of drink, had few faults. In the mean 
time, a physician arrived, felt his pulse, and observed that he was not dead, but 
would be all right soon. Finally, his shoulders moved, his lips quivered, and, 
with a gasp, he opened his eyes and looked around. Feebly he inquired where 
he was, when some one volunteered the information that his team had run off 
and thrown him out of his wagon. " Uncle Billy" raised up on his elbow and 

looked around for a moment, and then observed: "Well, by , I am (hie) 

the best Democrat (hie) in Coles County, anyhow I " 

But those times are past, and we will observe, right here, that there is not a 
licensed saloon in Charleston Township nor city, a fact that is highly creditable 
to their citizens. 

In the late war, Charleston bore no inconsiderable part. Many of her citi- 
zens left their homes, kindred and all that was dear to the heart, and went forth 
to battle for the Union that they loved better than all things else. Several 
from this township laid down their lives in its defense, and their bones lie 
mingled with the dust of the far-off Southern fields where they met the foe. It 
is no reproach to their valor that they fell before a foe as brave as themselves. 
We give the names, herewith, of all now living in the township who served in 
the late war, so far as we have been able to get them : W. E. Robinson entered 
the army, in 1861, as Captain of Company E, Fifty-second Illinois Volun- 
teers. James M. Ashmore entered the army as Captain of Company C, Eighth 
Illinois Volunteers; wounded at Shiloh. G. M. Mitchell, in June, 1861, as 
Captain of Company C, First Illinois Cavalry — the first three years regiment to 
leave the State; promoted to Lieutenant Colonel of Fifty-fourth Infantry in Feb- 
ruary, 1862, and in October, 1863, promoted to Colonel; re-enlisted as a veteran 
in 1864, and in the fall of that year was brevetted Brigadier General. H. A. 
Neal, in fall of 1864, enlisted in Company K, First United States Heavy 
Artillery, and served until the close of the war. W. E. Adams, in 1862, as 
Captain of Company I, One Hundred and Twenty-third Illinois Volunteers, 
and served to the close of the war. A. M. Peterson enlisted in Company K, 
Twenty-first (Grant's old regiment) Illinois Volunteers, July, 1861 ; rose to 
the rank of Captain, and resigned, in 1862, on account of ill-health. Isaac Vail 
enlisted August, 1862, in Company E, One Hundred and Twenty-ninth Illinois 
Volunteer Infantry ; was Orderly Sergeant, and was with Sherman in the march 
to the sea. Charles Cleary enlisted in Company C, Twelfth Kentucky Cavalry 
( Union) ; promoted to Orderly Sergeant, and then to First Lieutenant, and was 
detailed as Acting Assistant Adjutant General ; was on Col. Crittenden's stafl", 
and served until close of the war. J. A. Connely enlisted, in 1862, as Major of 
the One Hundred and Twenty-third Illinois Volunteers ; served until close of 
the war, two years of the time as Inspector General of the Fourteenth Army 
Corps, and was on the " march to the sea." Joseph F. Goar enlisted, in 1862,, 


in Company D, One Hundred and Twenty-third Illinois Volunteer Infantry, 
and served until close of the war. Eli Huron enlisted in Company A, Fifty- 
third Indiana Volunteers ; promoted to Orderly Sergeant, and lost right arm 
in the second battle of Corinth. E. E. Clark enlisted in Company E, Seventy- 
third Ohio Volunteers, and served about two years ; and also in Adjutant Gen- 
erals office. Thomas A. Marshall entered the army as Colonel of First Illinois 
Cavalry, and served until the muster-out of the regiment. T. E. Tillotson 
enlisted in Company H, Fourth Ohio Volunteers, in April, 1861 ; assisted in 
raising a company, and was appointed Orderly Sergeant ; commissioned Sec- 
ond Lieutenant before leaving the State ; was promoted to First Lieutenant in 
1862, and to Captain in 1864 ; after the battle of Peach-Tree Creek, was 
brevetted Lieutenant Colonel by President Lincoln for meritorious service, and, 
after the close of the war, was brevetted Major by President Johnson. John H. 
Clark enlisted in Company E, Fourteenth Illinois Volunteers, and promoted to 
Orderly Sergeant. C. Swarts enlisted in Company D, One Hundred and Six- 
teenth Indiana Volunteers, in the summer of 1863. Adam Metzler enlisted, in 
the fall of 1862, in the One Hundred and Eighty-seventh Ohio Volunteers, 
served nine months, and then enlisted in the regular army (Fourth United 
States Cavalry), and served three years on the frontier. R. P. Hackett enlisted 
in Company K, One Hundred and Twenty- third Illinois Volunteers, and served 
three years ; severely wounded at Milton, Tenn., and still carries the ball. 
Christian Schytt enlisted in Company E, Thirty-second Illinois Volunteers. 
J. W. Evans, enlisted in Company K, First Tennessee (Union) Volunteers. 
Robert L. Reat, Company A, Seventy-eighth Indiana Volunteers. William 
A. Jeffries, Company C, Eighth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, three-months 
men ; re-enlisted in Sixty-third Infantry, and was chosen Second Lieutenant 
of Company K. Dr. W. M. Chambers, appointed Brigade Surgeon by Presi- 
dent Lincoln in 1861, and served until 1865. Brevetted Lieutenant Colonel, 
and then Colonel, for meritorious services. As will be seen from the above list, 
many of the men there mentioned enlisted in other States, but are now resi- 
dents of Charleston (town and city) ; while many of those living here at the 
time of enlistment, having removed to other sections, we have been unable to 
learn their names. 


In the general county history we noted the fact that considerable attention 
was being paid to the breeding of blooded stock in the county, and mentioned 
the names of several parties who are engaged in improving different breeds of 
animals, viz. : W. A. Whittemore, J. W. Wright, H. M. Ashmore and I. U. 
Gibbs engaged in breeding fine horses ; William Miller, S. C, Ashmore, 
Ambrose Edwards, Isaac Flenner, R. L. Reat and R. S. Hodgen, fine cattle ; 
and Shepard & Alexander, Poland-China hogs. The fine herds of this excel- 
lent stock of hogs, owned by Messrs. Shepard & Alexander, deserve more than 
a mere passing notice. In a pamphlet which they have published, descriptive 


of the Poland- China stock, for gratuitous distribution among their patrons, we 
make some extracts, which will be found of interest to hog-raisers generally. 
In this pamphlet, they take up the history of the hog, almost from the time 
Noah let him out of the Ark, and follow it in a concise manner to its "culmi- 
nation of perfection " in the Poland-China stock. Speaking of this fine breed of 
hogs, they say : " The Poland-China is a breed established in the Miami Val- 
ley, as early as the year 1835. The direct and careful history of some of the 
original breeds from which this splendid animal was derived, cannot be given as 
fully and as particularly as its present importance and fast-growing popularity 
demand. As early as 1820, the farmers of Ohio obtained some hogs of an 
improved breed known as the Poland, and crossed upon the common stock of the 
country, and upon this question of the Poland hog several bitter controversies 
have arisen; but that such a breed of hogs existed at that day, and long since, 
we have not the slightest doubt. * * * * ^j^g Poland hog 
used by these fiirmers and stock-raisers is described as a large lop-eared, dark 
colored hog, attaining great weight, but slow in maturing. This cross produced 
by the Poland was again crossed by the Byfield, a breed originating in New 
England; but being of mixed breed itself, produced but little change; and not 
satisfying their standard of a practical hog, they in a few years introduced the 
big spotted China, imported from England. This last was an English breed, 
the result of crosses with the original Chinese. The infu?ion of the blood of 
this spotted China produced very marked and important changes in this 
famous hog, decreasing the size and increasing the fattening qualities, refining 
the bone and perfecting the symmetry of form, etc." By other crosses, as 
given in this history, with the Wobum, Irish Graziers and Berkshires, has 
resulted the formation of a breed of hogs of the most desirable qualities, and 
since 1834-35, no new blood has been infused into this breed of Poland-China. 
Messrs. Shepard & Alexander conclude their history of this famous breed as 
follows : " They have been fully tested m all the various climates of the United 
States, and, under all circumstances, have proved themselves hardy, prolific, free 
from disease, with great action and constitutional vigor, and always bring the 
highest price as porkers in the markets. They can be made to weigh, at ten 
months, 350 to 400 pounds ; at eighteen months, from 500 to 940 pounds. 
The best average fat hogs made in the United States have been of this breed. 
One lot of forty head, raised by one man, averaged at twenty-two months, 613 
pounds. In color, they are spotted black and white, with occasionally a sandy 
tinge, varymg, however, according to the peculiar fancy of the breeder, from 
almost white to nearly black." 

Shepard & Alexander, well-known citizens of this township have made a 
specialty for some years of the Poland-China hog, and their famous herds are 
extensively and favorably known all over the country. They claim that the 
Poland China is the hog for the farmer, combining more excellence than any 
other breed of swine, having great size, good style, docility, fertility, early 


maturity, aptitude foi' taking on flesh, and great constitutional vigor. As show- 
ing that they will fatten at any age, they give the following weights of two lots 
of pigs fattened at eleven months old. Thirty head averaged 389 pounds, 
thirty head 384 pounds, and an extra lot of ten, at ten months old, averaged 
410 pounds. In conclusion of their pamphlet, they offer the following sensi- 
ble advice to farmers : ''Pork-raising at the West stands pre-eminent as a 
branch of stock-raising, and there is no better, more profitable or easier wav 
for a farmer to make his grain than by feeding it into a good breed of hogs, 
and it is time that the farmers of the West and South gave this branch of 
stock-raising the attention that its fast-growing importance demands." 

As stated in the general county history, the county Avas first divided into 
districts called election precincts, and so remained until township organization 
in 1859-60. This district was known as Charleston Precinct, and under town- 
ship organization became Charleston Township, and was originally named for the 
county-seat, which had been given in honor of Charles Morton, who, as before 
stated, donated twenty acres of land to the county for the purpose of defraying 
the expenses of putting up the necessary public buildings. The first Super- 
visor of Charleston Township, under the new order of things, was Richard 
Stoddert. At the present time, it is represented in the Board of Supervisors 
by E. B. Buck and G. M. Adkins. The Justices of the Peace of the towr- 
ship are Charles Van Derford, J. I. Brown, George Tucker and J. W. Doty. 

Having traced the history of Charleston Township from the period of i:s 
first settlement down to the present time, showing its growth and development, 
we come to notice 


Charleston is pleasantly situated on the Indianapolis & St. Louis Railroad, 
very nearly the center of the county, and 117 miles from Indianapolis, 14-) 
miles from St. Louis and about the same distance south of Chicago. It is a 
handsome little city of some four thousand inhabitants, and noted for its ener- 
getic business men, its mills and manufactories, and its excellent schooh, 
churches, and the genei'al intelligence of its inhabitants. While it claims i:o 
very extensive manufacturing establishments, yet there are several located 
within its limits, which will receive appropriate mention in the proper place. 
It is well supplied with water works, and the pure, clear water of the Embar- 
rass River is thus utilized in providing its people with a bountiful supply of 
the health-giving element. 

Charleston was originally surveyed by Thomas Sconce, the first Surveyor 
of Coles County, and laid out by Commissioners (William Bowen, of Vermilioii 
County ; Jesse Essarey, of Clark, and Joshua Barber, of Crawford) appointed 
by the Legislature for the purpose of establishing the seat of justice of the 
county. The original town embraced, as shown by the plat on file in the Re- 
corder's office, the west half of the southwest quarter of Section No. 11, in 
Township No. 12 north, of Range 9 east. It was resurveyed in June, 1839, 


bj Joseph Fowler, County Surveyor, and in this resurvey is noted the addition 
of Nathaniel Parker, of the east half of the southwest quarter of Section 10, etc. 
Since the first laying-out of Charleston, the records show some fifty additions and 
subdivisions to the original town by different individuals, giving it sufficient area, 
one would suppose, for a much larger city. It was named by the Commissioners 
who located the county seat, in honor of Charles Morton, one of the proprietors of 
the land on which it is situated, and who donated twenty acres of land for 
county purposes. In naming the place, they added the last syllable of Morton's 
last name to his first name, thus forming the word Charleston. 

The first house was built in Charleston by William Collom, who i's termed 
the first actual settler in its corporate limits. It was a small log house of one 
room, and in this spacious building he kept the first tavern in the future city of 
Charleston, then an incipient village. Such a diminutive hotel would scarcely 
supply the demand of the wayfaring men of Charleston now. The city is well 
furnished with excellent hotels. The Charleston House, with its genial land- 
lord, Dan Van Sickle, is a model in its way, and is a cheerful home to the 
weary, wayworn traveler. Dan is an old commercial traveler, and, as such, 
has been the guest of half the hotels in Illinois and Indiana, and the experience 
thus obtained is used in the Charleston House to the advantage of his guests. 
The Maples Hotel, situated near the railroad, is less pretentious, but, withal, an 
excellent house. The first brick residence was built by Col. Norfolk, about 
1835-36. James Wiley was the contractor, and superintended its erection. It 
is still standing, and being used as a residence by the widow of Col. Norfolk. 
Charles Morton was the first merchant in the village. As mentioned in the 
history of the township, he brought a stock of goods with him when he moved 
to the country, and opened them out in a cabin where he first settled. After 
the laying out of Charleston, he had reserved a choice "corner lot," in his 
donation to the county, and upon this he erected a storehouse. It was near 
the present post office. He also erected a number of " pole cabins " near his 
storehouse, in the rude style of architecture of that day. They stood all in a 
line, like the "nine little Injuns," and these he was in the habit of " letting "" 
to new-comers, three months free of rent, which time was sufficient to build a 
cabin of their own, if they were at all energetic. The second store in Charles- 
ton was kept by Baker & Norfolk, and was opened as soon after the town was 
laid out as the population of the place would justify. 

The first post office was kept by Charles Morton, and was established about 
1830-31. It was called " Coles Court House," and, after the town was laid out 
and christened, the name of the post office was changed to that of Charleston. 
The mail came from Terre Haute, via Paris, and passed on west through Shel- 
byville, Taylorville and Springfield to Quincy. It was carried by a man 
named Moke, Avho was over six feet high, and rode a very small pony, his feet 
almost touching the ground. His weekly trips were hailed as an event of vast 
importance, and everybody gathered at the post office then, just as they do now 




(except the " small boy," who was not invented then, and who is the grandest 
nuisance to be found about the country post office at mailtime in this fast age), 
eagerly looking for the longed-for letter from absent friends, although they cost 
a quarter then, payable at the office of delivery. Col. G. M. Mitchell is the 
present representative of Uncle Sam in the post office department at Charles- 
ton, and, we may add, that his duties are somewhat heavier than were Mr. 
Morton's, when Moke used to bring the mail once a week on his little pony. 

Owens and Harman were the first blacksmiths in Charleston, and are 
noticed elsewhere as the first in the township. David Eastin opened a tan-yard 
soon after the laying-out of the village, which is also noted in the township his- 
tory, as is the carding machine of John Kennedy. Albert Compton and a 
man named Hanks were the first shoemakers, and to them the people were for 
some time indebted for a substantial " understanding." The former is still a 
resident of the city, but long since retired from the shoemaking business. Col. 
Dunbar was the first practicing lawyer, and had the field all to himself for 
awhile. He is still living, but has quit the law. Drs. Carrico and Ferguson 
were the first physicians, and both now sleep in the church-yard. 

Charles Morton had the first mill in the village, which was the horse-mill 
mentioned in the township history as built by Morton, in the vicinity of his 
first settlement. When the village was laid out, he moved it within the corpo- 
ration. The first steam-mill in Charleston was built by Byrd Monroe, which 
ran for several years, and was then burned. He at once rebuilt it, and, after 
several years, having passed into the hands of the Gages, was again burned, 
when they built the large and elegant brick mill near the Depot, at a cost of 
about $40,000. The City Mills were built some two years ago, by Alvey & 
Van Meter, a large, substantial brick edifice, with all the new and im- 
proved machinery. A mill was built in the west part of town, years 
ago, which finally passed into the hands of Ashmore, and was burned some 
time afterward, and has never been rebuilt. Charleston has just cause to be 
proud of h«r mills, for but few cities of her size can boast of two more excellent 
mills than the two mentioned above. 


The first brick house erected in Charleston was the present Court House, 
which was built some time before Col. Norfolk's residence, mentioned a little 
space ago. As noticed in the general county history, the first Court House in 
Coles County was built in the south part of the town, near where the Christian 
Church now stands, and was a log structure. The present brick Court House 
was built in 1835, by Leander Munsell, of Edgar County. His agreement 
with the County Commisioners is dated December 4, 1834, and covers nearly 
four pages of the record-book. The original building was the then prevailing 
style of architecture of an old Kentucky tobacco-barn ; was perfectly square 
with the roof, running up from all sides to a point in the center. "A steeple 


to extend five feet, with a ball about ten inches in diameter, to be covered with 
gold leaf, and a spear to extend six feet above the ball with a fish or chicken on 
the top." The contract price for the building was $5,000, and, at the next 
March term of the Court, Munsell was to receive " one-half for the labor per- 
formed and material furnished, provided there are sufficient funds in the treasury 
to do it." The foundation of the house was built of the rock taken from the 
cut through the Embarrass River hills of the grade for the old Terre Haute & 
Alton, now the Indianapolis & St. Louis Railroad. This building served the 
county many years as its temple of justice without alteration; but as the people 
increased in wealth and importance, and became proud and high-strung in their 
notions, they were at length seized with an extravagant fit, and had the old 
building renovated and " rejuvenated," until the very rats, that had grown 
gray under its floors, did not know it. The building was enlarged, porticoes 
added and the entire structure modernized generally, so that it now presents a 
very attractive and imposing appearance, and is quite an elegant and commo- 
dious Court House. The court-room is in the second story, is large, airy and 
well furnished, with jury-rooms, consultation-rooms, etc., adjacent, while on the 
first floor are the offices of the County and Circuit Clerks, the County Treasurer 
and Sheriff", and also the Jail. The " square " is filled with young sugar 
maples, well set in blue grass and surrounded by a substantial iron fence. 

Charleston makes no pretensions to a wholesale mercantile trade, but its 
retail business in this line is excellent, and its merchants are live, wide-awake, 
energetic business men, who are well up to the times, with large and complete 
stocks of goods sufficient to fill all demands. But few cities of its population 
have as good a class of business houses as Charleston, many of them being of a 
style and quality that would look well in more pretentious cities. Our space 
will not admit of the particularization of the diff"erent mercantile houses, and 
we pass with this general compliment to their worth and honesty. 

The banking business was begun in Charleston as early as 1853. In the 
fall of the vear mentioned, T. A. Marshall and others established " The 
Farmers' & Traders' Bank." This bank flourished until 1857-58, when in 
the great financial crash that swept over the land in those dark and gloomy 
years, it, like hundreds of others, went down. About 1860-61, Marshall & 
McCrory commenced a private bank, which, with some changes in its name 
and partners, finally became the Second National Bank, and as such is still in 
existence. The President of this bank is Isaiah H. Johnston, and Charles, 
Clary, Cashier. 

The First National Bank of Charleston was developed from the private 
banking firm of T. G. Chambers & Co. This firm had been doing a general 
banking business since 1866, and, about 1868, together with another private 
banking firm, consolidated and formed the First National Bank, with Thomas 
G. Chambers, President, and William E. McCrory, Cashier, which positions 
both gentlemen still hold. Both the First and Second Nationals are sound. 


healthy establishments, officered by men who have a long experience in banking 
and who possess the entire confidence of the people and the community at large. 


One of the largest, perhaps the largest, manufacturing establishment in 
Charleston is the Broom-Factory of Traver & Nixon. Although it has been 
in operation but a few years, their business has increased almost beyond 
belief. They manufacture many thousand dozen of brooms annually, which 
are shipped to all parts of the country, but principally south — New Orleans 
being one of the best points, Georgia and Texas next. Three salesmen are 
continually on the road. Their business sums up about |60,000 a year ; 
seventy hands are employed at an expense of $15,000 per year. They culti- 
vate about five hundred acres of broom-corn in addition to v/hat they buy. 
Since the establishment of this factory by these energetic men, the cultiva- 
tion of broom-corn has become an extensive business among the farmers. A 
dozen years ago, there were scarcely so many acres of broom-corn grown in 
the county ; now thousands of acres are annually produced, and the business 
is increasing every year. The firm owns the Charleston elevator and broom- 
corn compress for baling and rebaling broom-corn for shipping, and are 
the only parties in this section owning such a machine. R. A. Traver, the 
senior member of the firm, is the author of " Traver's Broom-corn Cultur- 
ist and Broom-maker's Manual," an interesting work devoted to the raising, 
cutting, curing and preparing broom-corn for market, from which we make a few 
extracts, as being of general interest to our readers. Speaking of the cultiva- 
tion of broom-corn, he says: " At the present time Illinois is the acknowledged 
head-center of broom-corn growing in the United States, its rich and fertile 
prairies being well adapted to its growth and development. Chicago, Cleve- 
land and Philadelphia broom manufacturers say that the finest and best broom- 
corn comes from the section of country bordering the Illinois Central Railroad, 
between Charleston, Coles County, and Champaign City. It appears the soil 
is naturally adapted to it so as to grow a fine article of hurl and brush corn, 
just as some sections of the United States are better adapted to the raising of 
tobacco than others. Chicago has become the acknowledged broom-corn market 
of the United States, and at present controls the market. * * * 

In raising broom-corn, the first thing necessary is good land ; that is, what is 
considered good Indian corn land, and it will always pay to plow the land just 
before the planting, so that the broom-corn can get a start of the weeds. In 
fact, it never ought to be planted on weedy land. The best land for a certain 
crop is a sod, subsoiled, and then there is no trouble with weeds. The land 
should be thoroughly harrowed and in fine condition, and then the seed should 
never be put into the ground until the soil is thoroughly warm, so that it 
will come up soon and keep ahead of the weeds. * * * * 

As soon as the blossom begins to fall off, then it is time to begin cutting 


the broom-corn, and the sooner it is cut the better, so that, when dried, it 
will be a bright pea-green color, as that color commands the highest price 
in the market ; the brush also weighs heavier, and is tougher and wears bet- 
ter when made into brooms. The ditFerence in price in all of the large markets 
between bright-green and ripe red brush generally runs thus : red, per lb., 2 
cents ; green hurl, per lb., 8 cents — or in about that proportion; so it will be 
seen that it is of very great importance that it be cut and cured so as to be of a 
bright-green color." A great deal more of valuable information is given in this 
interesting little pamphlet. 

The Charleston Foundry, owned by A. N. Bain, are quite an extensive 
establishment. In 1857, he and his brother, William Bain (now dead), came to 
Charleston and erected a small frame building for a foundry and machine-shop. 
For several years, their receipts were small, and, it was not until 1863 that they 
commenced the manufacture of stoves, which they continued until their popu- 
larity and business increased to a voluminous extent, and they manufactured 
fifty-two different kinds and sizes of stoves. A trade was built up that extended 
from Indianapolis to the Rocky Mountains. House-fronts and ornamental ver- 
anda work was added to their business, and many towns in Illinois show fair 
specimens of this line of work. William Bain died in 1875, since which time 
the business has been owned by A. N. Bain alone. 

The Woolen-Mills of Messrs. Weiss & Frommel, are quite a large institution 
of the kind. It was originally established by Henry Weiss, at whose death 
Gruenther Weiss, one of the present proprietors, purchased an interest. His 
partner, Frederick Frommel, first engaged with Henry Weiss as a traveling 
salesman, and, after Mr. Weiss' death, he also purchased an interest in the mills, 
since which time the firm has been Weiss k Frommel. They do a large busi- 
ness in the manufacture of woolen goods, and are highly-respected, energetic 
business men of the city. 

The pork-packing establishment of I. H. Johnston is a large concern, and 
in the days gone by did a large business, but for the last year or two has not 
been operated to its full capacity, but during the winter season does a good deal 
in its way. 

Among the early munufacturing establishments of Charleston might be 
mentioned the brickmaking of George Tucker. He was, some years ago, the 
largest brick manufacturer in Coles County, and large building contractor ; has 
built a majority of the brick buildings in Charleston. He is a prominent Mason 
and Odd Fellow, and to him we are indebted for a history of these fraternities. 

There are several other manufactories of less note, such as plow, wagon and 
carriage factories, which do quite a thriving business, but do not manu- 
facture on a large scale. Charleston, we have no doubt, will, in time, become 
quite a manufacturing city. All that is needed is a little capital to develop the 
coal-fields, which lie but a few hundred feet below the surface. Time will do 
the balance. 



Charleston was organized as a village in 1853, and, of the first Board of Vil- 
lage Trustees, Nathan Ellington was President. In 1865, it was incorporated 
as a city, with L. P. Tomlin as the first Mayor, and the old Board of Trustees 
acting as Aldermen. The Council and city officers at present are as follows, 
viz.: Hon. W. R. Patton, Mayor. Aldermen — R. Alexander, R. A. Traver, 
Harvey Said, E. H. Clark, W. S. Coon, Robert Stewart, H. M. Ashmore and 
James Skidmore. The City Clerk is Andrew Kershaw; George Steigman, 
Treasurer ; A. C. Ficklin, Attorney ; William Jeff"ries, Marshal, and W. Good- 
man, Superintendent of Streets. The city has an excellent Fire Department, 
consisting of Engine, Hose Company and Hook and Ladder Company, well- 
organized and equipped. Water Works have been added to the city's con- 
venience, welfare and safety, which, in connection with its splendid Fire Depart- 
ment, have saved the city many thousands of dollars. The Water Works were 
built in 1875, and are of a substantial character. The water is brought two 
miles, from the Embarrass River, thus utilizing that beautiful little stream in 
another capacity than mills and navigation. 

The bar of Charleston (not the one where you look upon the wine when it 
is red, for Charleston is a red-ribbon town) stands high, and combines an array 
of legal talent that will compare with any community. Space will not permit 
particular mention of all as they deserve, hence we shall not attempt it. But 
the names of Connely, Cunningham, Ficklin, Wiley, Neal, Peterson, Adams, 
and others will be recognized as men of eminence and ability. 

The medical fraternity, too, is able and deserving of a more particular men- 
tion than our space will allow. It embraces men who stand high in their pro- 
fession, and have held high positions in the medical societies and institutions of 
the community. 


The religious history of Charleston is as old as the town itself. The first 
religious services were held under the auspices of the old Predestinarian Bap- 
tists, who, at one time, were quite numerous in the town and county, but are 
rather scarce at the present day. Once they had a church-building in Charles- 
ton, with a flourishing society and several ministers, among whom were two or 
three of the Parkers and Elder Newport. The organization, we believe, is still 
kept up, but they have no regular preacher, nor regular church services, and 
but few members. 

A society of the Old- School Presbyterians was organized June 13, 1835, by 
Rev. John McDonald and John Montgomery, with thirteen members, as follows, 
viz.: James Lumbrick, Thomas 0. Roberts and wife, Rosina Letner, Adam 
Mitchell and wife, James Mitchell and wife, William Collom and wife, Eugenia 
Campbell, Arthur G. Mitchell and wife, of whom only three are now living, 
viz.: Mrs. Esther Mitchell (widow of James A. Mitchell, afterward married 


to James Lumbrick, and again a widow), Mrs. Eliza CoUom and Mrs. Arthur 
Mitchell. The following preachers have administered to the Church since its 
organization, mostly as "stated supply "' : Rev. John McDonald, from organ- 
ization to the spring of 1843, with the exception of about one year in 1840-41, 
when Stephen A. Hodgeman preached as stated supply. Rev. H. I. Venable 
supplied the pulpit for about one year in 1844-45, when Rev. Joseph Adams 
was called, and preached from 1846 to 1849. Rev. Robert A. Mitchell was then 
called, and labored as stated supply from 1849 to the spring of 1853. Rev. H. 
I. Venable* was recalled in the spring of 1853, and continued in charge until the 
close of 1855, when Rev. R. A. Mitchell was again called, and labored as stated 
supply from early in 1856 until 1858, when he was installed Pastor, upon the 
completion of the new house of worship. He continued as the Pastor until 
April, 1870, when he resigned the charge, having labored in this Church, alto- 
gether, for about sixteen years. Rev. R. F. Patterson was then called, and 
commenced his labors in October, 1870, and continued until the close of the 
year 1873, when he resigned on account of the ill-health of his wife. Rev. 
James A. Piper was then called to the charge, and labored one year as stated 
supply, when he was elected and duly installed Pastor, a position he still holds, 
beloved by all, making the seventh minister who has served this Church since 
its organization. 

The first church edifice was commenced about 1842, and finished in 1845 — 
a frame building, costing about $1,000. The second building was commenced 
in 1857 and completed in the summer of 1858, and was dedicated to the service 
of God in August of that year. The dedicatory sermon and prayer was by 
Rev. Dr. Newell, of Paris, 111. It is a brick structure, and cost, originally, 
about |!9,000, with an additional cost of $5,000, for improvements, made the 
"memorial vear," in which the two churches — the new and the old — were united, 
thus making the sum total of the cost of building and improvements about 
$14,000. Membership, about two hundred and ten. 

The following persons have acted as ruling Elders of the Church since its 
organization, in the order mentioned, viz.: James A. Mitchell and James Lum- 
brick, elected at organization ; William Collom and Stephen B. Shellady, elected 
October 14, 1837 ; James M. Miller and Dr. R. H. Allison, elected April 26, 
1845 ; George S. Collom and James E. Roberts, elected October 25, 1851 ; 
John A. Miles, elected in 1853; John McNutt and William Miller, elected 
December 9, 1854; A. Carroll and Richard Roberts, elected February 27, 1864; 
Robert F. McNutt and T. C. Miles, elected October 13, 1866 ; Willliam E. 
Adams and T. C. Miles (the latter re-elected), March 28, 1871. 

The Sunday school was organized about 1842 or 1843, and has been kept 
up nearly, or quite all the time since, except during the winter season prior to 
the completion of the first church-building in 1845. W. J. Ashmore is the 
present Superintendent, and there are on the roll the names of about two hun- 

* None labored more than one-half of the time previous to Rev. Mr. Venable's second call. 


dred and fifty children. Mr. J. M. Miller is Clerk of the Session, and to his 
courtesy and kindness we are indebted for the interesting history of this vener- 
able Church. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church of Charleston was organized in 
1837.* Robert Lightfoot and family settled in the neighborhood in 1836, 
and Mrs. Barthenia Lightfoot, his wife, was a member of the Methodist 
Church. Being joined by parties who had recently moved from Ohio, and 
James Y. Brown and others, who were members of the society which had been 
organized east of town, they united in forming the first Methodist Church of 
this city. The name of the minister who originally organized the society can- 
not now be ascertained. The first church edifice erected was a large frame 
building, very large for that early day, and was built about the year 1839, on 
the block where Dr. Van Meter's residence now stands, and was of so frail a 
construction that it was only used about two years, when it was pulled down to 
give place to a much more elegant and durable frame building. The Church 
worshiped in this temple until 1857, when the present brick edifice was erected, 
under the direction of Rev. Timothy B. Taylor, Pastor in charge. It is a very 
neatly constructed building, two stories high — the basement containing one large 
room and two small class-rooms. The entire cost of this building, including 
the spire, was about $10,000. It was dedicated by Rev. Hiram Buck, who is 
still a leading member of the Illinois Conference. There has recently been 
added to this church property a convenient and valuable parsonage. The pres- 
ent active membership is 201, under the pastoral charge of Rev. J. B. Wolfe. 
The Sunday school was organized in 1840, and has an average attendance of 
about one hundred and fifty ; the Superintendent is Charles Clarey. 

The history of the Christian Church in Charleston is of more modern date 
than that of the societies already given. It was originally organized about 1842, 
by Elder Samuel Peppers. The first church was built in 1846-47, which was 
used for a number of years and then sold to the Catholics, and the present brick 
edifice erected in the south part of the city, a short time previous to the begin- 
ning of the late war. We were unable to obtain the names of all the Pastors, 
but of those who have administered to the spiritual welfare of the Church since 
its organization are Elders Tyler, Tully, Young and Peppers. The present 
Pastor is Elder Walter S. Tingley, formerly of Indiana, and he has in his charge 
over two hundred members. The Sunday school was organized about the same 
time as the Church. It has a large attendance, and is under the superintend- 
ence of William Wright. 

The Universalist Church is of comparatively recent organization in Charles- 
ton. The society was originally formed in 1868, by Rev. W. W. Curry, and 
the church edifice erected in 1870. The only two regular Pastors since the 
organization of the Church were Revs. Curry and D. P. Bunn. Death and 
removals have reduced the membership to thirty-six, though it has far exceeded 

*There had been an organization previous to this, one and a half miles east of Charleston, but of it we were unable 
to obtain anything definite. 


this number. The Sunday school was organized in 1870, and has an average 
attendance of eighty-seven ; Joseph Gtiffitli, Superintendent, and Neil. S. Dew, 
.Assistant Superintendent. 

The Missionary Baptist Church was organized by Rev. Mr, Riley, now of 
Paris. They have an excellent Church and Sunday school, of which Harvey 
Said is Superintendent ; but, as the minister does not reside in Charleston, we 
were unable to learn much about it. 

The St. Charles Roman Catholic Church was organized a number of years 
ago. Their first church was bought from the Christian society, and after being 
used a short time was blown down in a storm. In 1871, their present brick 
church was erected, at a cost of about $5,000, and is 60x30 feet in size. The 
present Pastor is Rev. Father C. Kuhlmann, and about sixty families worship 
at this church. The Sunday school was organized in 1871, is well attended and 
is superintended by Mrs. J. W. Dikob. 

There is also a society of the Episcopalians in the city, but they have no 
church edifice, and, we believe, no regular pastor. They keep up the organi- 
zation, however, and have occasional preaching. 


Freemasonry was introduced in Charleston at an early day. Charleston 
Lodge, No. 35, was organized October 9. A. D. 1845, A. L. 5845. The 
charter members were William D. Gage, Edmund Roach, Adam Mitchell, 
Green G. Guthrie, Thomas C. Moore, James Watson and Jacob Linder. of 
whom William D. Gage was Worshipful Master ; Edmund Roach, Senior 
Warden, and Adam Mitchell, Junior Warden. The present officers are : E. 
B. Buck, Worshipful Master ; Harvey Said, Senior Warden ; J. W. Tucker, 
Junior Warden ; Charles Clary, Treasurer ; J. I. Brown, Secretary ; H. C. 
Barnard, Senior Deacon ; John A. Ricketts, Junior Deacon ; George Burton, 
Tiler, and George Tucker and H. M. Chadwick, Stewards. The records show 
about seventy members. The Lodge sustained a heavy loss by fire some years 
ago, but has recovered from its eifects, and is now in a flourishing condition. 

Keystone Chapter, No. 54, Royal Arch Masons, was organized August 4, 
1859, by virtue of a dispensation issued by the Most Excellent Grand High 
Priest of the State. The first officers were : H. P. H. Brorawell, High Priest ; 
G. W. Teel, King, and N. W. Chapman, Scribe. The present officers are : 
S. B. Walker, High Priest; G. W. Burton, King; George Tucker, Scribe; 
W. W. Fisher, Captain of Host ; William Chambers, Principal Sojourner ; W. 
S. Coon, Royal Arch Captain ; C. J. Endsly, Third Vail ; Jo Watkins, Sec- 
ond Vail: Benjamin Dawson, First Vail ; I. Winters, Treasurer; J. I. Brown, 
Secretary, and J. A. Ricketts, Tiler, with twenty-three members on the roll. 
H. P. H. Bromwell, mentioned as the first High Priest of this Chapter, and now 
a resident of Denver, Colo., was one of the brightest and most talented Masons 
of Southern Illinois, and once served the craft as Grand Master of the State. 


Kickapoo Lodge, No. 90, I. 0. 0. F., was organized October 17, 1851, by 
Grand Master H. S. Rucker. The charter members were B. M. Hutchason, 
Elijah C. Banks, A. D. Walker, D. S. Gales and A. M. Henry, of whom B. 
M. Hutchason was Noble Grand, and E. C. Banks, Vice Grand. The present 
officers are : Moses Kershaw, N. G. ; John W. Mock, V. G., and J. I. Brown, 
R. S. Number of members admitted since organization, 250. 

Charleston Lodge, No. 609, I. 0. 0. F., was organized March 8, 1876, by 
Grand Master John H. Oberley. Ten members were embraced in the charter, 
and Dr. Denman, of Kickapoo Lodge, was appointed Special Deputy by the 
Grand Master, and instituted the new Lodge. The present officers are : E. 
H. Clarke, N. G. ; Andrew Stimmols, V. G. ; J. C. Hall, R. S. Coles En- 
campment, No. 94, was organized several years ago, and is the highest body of 
the Odd Fellows. The officers are : F. Frommel, C. P. ; John Rail, H. P., 
and J. I. Brown, Secretary. 


The following are the statistics of the public schools for 1877-78 : 

Whole number of persons in district under twenty- one 1,596 

Number between the ages of six and twenty-one 1,087 

Whole number of different pupils enrolled 754 

Greatest number enrolled in any month 690 

Least " " " " 550 

Number of Teachers employed 14 

Superintendent 1 

High school was organized January, 1871. First graduating class, June, 
1873. Total number of graduates, 125; of these, 54 are teachers, or have 
been, 4 lawyers, 3 doctors, 1 dentist, 2 druggists, 4 merchants, 9 clerks, 3 have 
died, and all are conducting themselves in such a manner as to win the respect 
and confidence of the community. The high-school course embraces three 

In pursuit of such an education, the studies of our schools serve as efficient 
means toward an end, but they are not the end sought. The higher and better 
uses of all studies are their indirect uses, the benefits that flow through their 
proper prosecution, in greater power of attention, enlarged comprehension, 
quickened curiosity, greater self-control, and wider and more far-reaching influ- 
ence over others. Our schools are striving to attain these results. They are 
divided into three departments — high school, grammar, primary. The primary 
is divided into four grades, and each grade into three classes ; the grammar 
into three grades, and each grade into two classes. 
The present corps of teachers are : 

Western Seminar^/ — Miss Mary Hampton, Principal ; Miss Ettie Allison, 
First Assistant ; Miss Emma Fancier, Second Assistant, and Miss Louisa 
Houriett, Third Assistant. 


Eastern Seminary — Miss Sallie Blankenbaker, Principal ; Miss Florence 
Moore, First Assistant ; Miss Kate Waters, Second Assistant, and Miss Anna 
Teel, Third Assistant. 

Central Building — Mrs. Nellie Bain, Principal, high school ; Miss Emma 
Bain, Assistant, high school ; Miss Kate Whittemore, third grammar depart- 
ment ; Mrs. J. T. Terrill, second grammar department ; Miss Stella Hitch- 
cock, first grammar department; Miss Sarah Gray, primary department. 

Of the present corps of teachers, eight are graduates of the high school. 
An Alumni Association was formed in 1874, and meets every June. Present 
Superintendent, Prof. M. Moore, is now serving his ninth year. 

The public-school buildings of Charleston are all elegant brick edifices, of 
modern architecture, and present a very fine and imposing appearance, partic- 
ularly that in the Central District. It was built in 1870-71. The corner- 
stone was laid in the spring of 1870, by the Masonic fraternity, and the 
building was completed in time for the session of 1871. It cost about 
$50,000 ; is well arranged for school purposes, and supplied with all modern 
improvements in the way of school furniture. 


The press of the present day may be styled " the power behind the throne 

that is greater than the throne itself." The same might be said of it that has 

been said of gold — that it is the " Archimedean lever that moves the world," 

and, unquestionably, the press of to-day is of almost unlimited power in the 

land. We sometimes wonder if the world would not cease to move were the 

newspapers all suppressed. They are one of the luxuries that we could not 

well get along without, having once known their usefulness. Think of it ' 

we read to-day the news from the capital of the Russias; from the south- 
ern extremity of the Grecian Archipelago, from Athens, from Paris, from 

London, and from the uttermost parts of the earth. It is, indeed, wonderful 

to contemplate. And, aside from this, the press is a true record of a 

nation's greatness. Every day, the history of the country is inscribed upon 

the page of the newspaper, and without its influence ignorance would reign 


The first permanent newspaper established in Charleston was the Courier^ 

now known as the Plaindealer. One or two eft'orts had been made previous to 

this to start a paper, but a few issues comprised the efibrt. The first edition of 

the Courier was issued in 1840. The proprietors were William Harr and 

William Workman. Harr bought out Workman, who afterward sold an interest 

to George Harding, now connected with the press of Indianapolis. Harding 

remained with the Courier until 1857, when he sold his interest to Harr, who 

conducted the paper until a short time after the emancipation proclamation of 

President Lincoln, when he sold it to Eli Chittenden, who changed its name to 

Plaindealer. Chittenden ran the paper for about two years, when he sold it 


to John S. Theaker, who published it till October, 1866, and sold it to Dunbar 
BrothBrs. Albert Dunbar, one of the proprietors, died in 1875, when Lucian 
Dunbar continued to publish it until in May, 1878, when he sold it to McCon- 
nell & Co., the present proprietors. It is Republican in politics, and a live, 
energetic newspaper. 

George Harding, after his retirement from the old Courier in 1857, estab- 
lished the Charleston Ledger, which he published about two years, and sold it 
to John M. Eastin. He sold it to McHenry Brooks, who published it until 
1867, and sold it to Shoaff and Underwood. About this time the name of the 
Courier had been changed to that of Plaindealer, and ShoafF & Underwood 
changed the Ledger into the Courier. Shoaff sold his interest in about a 
year to Major Miller, who now publishes a paper in Tuscola, and in about a 
year more, Miller sold to E. B. Buck, who, with Underwood, published the paper 
until about 1873-74, when Buck bought out Underwood and has published it 
ever since. Mr. Buck is an editor of considerable experience and an able news- 
paper man, and has filled the oflBce of President of the State Press Association. 
His paper is true blue Democratic, and a faithful exponent of the principles of 
that party. 

The grain trade of Charleston is not very extensive, from the fact that a 
large proportion of it is fed to stock by the farmers. Among the grain-buyers 
of the city is the firm of Messrs. McDonald and Zink, who use the elevator on 
the railroad owned by Traver k Nixon, and who, in the grain season, do a very 
large business. 

A feature of Charleston is the studio of Charles Briggs. He was the first 
house and sign painter in Charleston, and from that has taken up portrait paint- 
ing. We have seen several portraits of old citizens of Charleston, which show 
considerable talent of the artist for this kind of work. He has made a specialty 
of painting fine stock bred in this county, in which he excels. Specimen paint- 
ings of hogs from Shepard & Alexander's herds look so natural that one natu- 
rally expects to hear them grunt and squeal. 

The Infirmary of Dr. Van Meter, mentioned in another page, was, some 
years ago, one of the largest institutions in Charleston. But years of labor, 
and ill-health compelled the doctor recently to close it and retire from active 
business life. 

Mound Cemetery, Charleston's beautiful little city of the dead, is located 
about one mile west of town, and is well adapted for cemetery purposes. The 
name is well chosen, being a large mound in the center, and the land sloping 
down in all directions. The first cemetery is now in the city limits and becom- 
ing pretty well filled. Mound Cemetery was laid off, as stated, one mile west 
of the city. 



This township, named from the city of Mattoon, is the middle one in the 
western tier of townships in the county. It contains thirty-six sections of land 
— one Congressional township — and is principally prairie land. 

The Little Wabash courses through the southern part, flowing southward until 
it finds an outlet in the larger stream of that name. In the southern part, 
skirting this stream, is a strip of timber, known as the Wabash Point Timber, 
and is the locality where the earliest settlements were made. It is the only 
grove of native forest-trees, of any size, in the township. The best timber has 
long been cut away for use in the settlement of the country, what is left being 
used chiefly for firewood. 

The Little Wabash aff'ords the principal drainage in the township. Its east^ 
ern part is known as the "Divide," as the water naturally runs in opposite 
directions from that point. It is almost the highest land in Illinois. 

Away from the timber to the north, the face of the country is generally 
quite level, broken only by long undulations. It is almost entirely prairie land 
in this part, and was allowed to remain uncultivated until after the opening of 
the railroads. It was largely used for pasturage during this period, and often 
presented signs of great animation as the herds of cattle, under the care of their 
drovers, moved about over its grassy, slightly undulating surface. 

The prairies are now the chief producing part of the township. They 
easily admit of good drainage and, though to some extent rather level, are ex- 
ceedingly productive. Corn is the principal cereal grown. The others do w^ell, 
but throughout this part of Central Illinois are not the staple article of agricult- 
ure. Cattle and hogs are raised quite extensively. Mr. Elisha Linder and a 
few others have been for many years prominently engaged in this business. 
The railroads at Mattoon give a direct outlet to all the chief markets of the 
world and should maintain a constant sale for farm produce. 

A curious phenomenon exists on the farm of W. M. Champion, in the south- 
west part of this township. When digging for a well in March, 1871, after 
attaining a depth of thirty-one feet, a drill was used which was sunk a few feet 
farther, and a vein of carbonate gas struck. It was observed that Avhen the 
drill was withdrawn the water gurgled up at irregular intervals, and as a vein 
Avas supposed to be found preparations were made to wall the well. No smell 
was attached to the gas, and no thoughts of it being then entertained. From 
the peculiar motion of the water it was feared by one of the men that there 
might be poisonous gases in the well, and"bne of them went after a wisp of hay 
and another for some shavings. The latter returned first, and, lighting his 
bunch, was hallooed to by the other to " Throw it down." /. e., on the ground. 
Thinking he meant throw it in the well he did, and a frightful report and sheet 
of flame burst forth. Mr. Tremble and one or two others who were near were 
severely scorched about the face, and all were tremendously amazed. The gas 


soon burned out, but would soon accumulate. Various experiments were made 
with it. An iron tube was inserted and the gas allowed to escape in a small 
stream. When lighted it burned with a brilliant light. The well soon became 
notorious and was visited by scores of people from all sections of the West. 
Finally, Mr. Champion bethought himself to utilize the gas, and, conducting it 
by pipes to his house, soon had it in use in his kitchen to cook by, and in other 
stoves it was used as fuel. It made an excellent light, and he has all the ap- 
pliances of a city in that regard. He walled the well, and now water stands 
in it, all seasons, so that from one well he gets light, fuel and water, all without 
any tax or license. 

Attempts have been made to obtain petroleum in the township, but all have 
proved unsuccessful. Coal can be had as it was found in exploring for oil, but 
at such a depth that it will hardly pay to work. 

With this brief outline of the topographical features of the township, we 
will pass to that part of more interest to all — the 


As has been intimated, the earliest settlement in this township was made 
near the timber on the Little Wabash, in the south part of the township. 
Emigration to this part of the county came after that part along the Embarrass 
River had received its first influx of settlers, hence the locality was known 
before any came to live. 

In the summer of 1826, Mr. Charles Sawyer, a resident of Kentucky, 
came to this part of Illinois looking for a home. He remained a short 
time with the Trues, in what is now La Fayette Township, and examined the 
country to the south and west of them. Selecting a location at the north side 
of the timber, on the Little Wabash, he returned to the True settlement, 
and hired a man named Bates, for $10, to build him a cabin, while he should 
return to Kentucky for his family. Mr. Bates hired Levi Doty, a young man 
living in the neighborhood, to build the cabin, and, by winter, a very comfort- 
able home was ready for " Uncle Charley " when he should return. This cabin 
was the first habitation for a white man known to have been built in the 
bounds of either Mattoon or Paradise Township. It stood near the site of 
Mr. John Sawyer's house in Section 28, and until a few other pioneers could 
erect similar habitations, was the home of the emigrant while he was selecting 
and preparing his own fireside. 

During the interval from the completion of the cabin by Mr. Doty, and 
what few pioneers he could call to his aid, and Mr. Sawyer's return in the 
spring of 1827, one family made it a temporary home until they could build 
their own cabins. The family was that of James Nash. They were living in the 
cabin when Mr. Sawyer arrived. Some among the early residents state that 
another family, that of Miles Hart, occupied the cabin. Mr. John Sawyer is, 
however, not of this opinion. It may be that Mr. Hart remained in it only a 


few days, while Mr. Nash seems to have used it longer. Which of the two 
statements is accurate, it is now difficult to determine, but we are inclined to 
the opinion that only Mr. Nash lived in the cabin, and that Mr. Hart did not 
come until later, as is mentioned further on. When "Uncle Charley," as he 
Avas afterward always known, returned, he brought with him his two sons-in- 
law, John Young and Henry Cole, who each brought a small family. Mr. 
Young settled where B. F. Mooney now lives, and Mr. Cole immediately north 
and adjoining Uncle Charley. These three pioneers had not been long in their 
frontier homes until they were joined by John Houching, known as "Uncle 
Jack," who settled the farm now owned by Azariah Sanders. The Hart fam- 
ilies, one of whom, Miles H., has already been noticed, came about the same 
time, and joined the infantile settlement. Miles H. ^as joined by his father, 
Thomas, and his brothers Silas, Jonathan, Moses and Thomas, Jr., all of whom 
brought families but the last named, who was yet a single man. The Hart 
family settled in what is now Paradise Township, and will be found noticed 
there more fully. If they all came at once, then the assertion of Mr. John 
Sawyer, that Miles H. did not live in his father's cabin prior to the latter's 
permanent removal, is correct. These families, with James T. Cunningham 
and Jefferson Coleman came together, and were the pioneers of Paradise Town- 
ship. The entire settlement at that date was, however, counted as one. 

These persons were about all that came in 1827. They formed the first 
settlement and may be truly named the pioneers of that part of the county. 

The next year, John Sawyer, brother of Charles, located on the east side 
of the timber. About the same time that he came, George M. Hanson and 
Dr. John Epperson, the first physician in the county, arrived. Mr. Hanson 
settled the farm now owned by John E. Tremble, and the Doctor located 
farther south, just over the line in what is now Paradise Township. Though 
an early settler there, and one whose history properly belongs to that township, 
some account of him here will not be out of place. 

He w^as for many years the only physician of all this part of the country, 
often riding twenty and thirty mile^i to visit his patients. He was uniformly 
kind and faithful in his attentions to the sick, and was greatly respected. Even 
after old age came on and he earnestly requested none to call on him for pro- 
fessional advice or aid, his old neighbors and acquaintances would not give him 
up, but came again and again for him. If he could not go to the patient, they 
would ask for prescriptions and advice, and as long as the old Doctor lived, he 
could not deny them this. He remained at his old home until his death, 
which occurred only a little over a year ago. The old settlers of this part 
remember well the golden wedding which he and his faithful wife were privi- 
leged to celebrate a few years ago. 

About a year after the settlement of the Doctor and Mr. Hanson, came 
James Graham and family, Avho located a little east of Charles Sawyer. Mr. 
G. was a local Methodist preacher of commendable zeal, and a faithful, earnest, 


Christian man. He was one of the pioneer ministers in the western part of the 
county, and was a man extensively known. Soon after he settled, Elisha 
Linder arrived with his mother, two sisters and one brother, and settled south 
and adjoining Mr. Graham. Mr. Linder had been out here in 1829, and 
selected a location, remaining about two months. Early in 1831, he returned, 
planted a crop, raised a cabin, and then returned for his mother and family, 
arriving with them in October. They were from Hardin County, Ky., 
where many of those we have mentioned had lived, and, like their predecessors, 
came to Illinois to find a new home, and where they could grow with the growth 
of the county. Mr. Linder is still living on his old homestead, in the enjoy- 
ment of the comforts a long, busy life has gathered around him. 

James Nash, of whoiii mention has been made, died soon after his settlement. 
His was the first death in the community, and, for want of better tools, his 
coffin was made of split walnut puncheons. Mr. John Sawyer, Sr., now an old 
man, states that he was among those who made the coffin and dug the grave. 
He was a boy then, but distinctly remembers the circumstances. No train of 
carriages or gilded hearse bore his remains to their last resting-place. The few 
neighbors, true to one another, gathered silently at the cabin of their late asso- 
ciate, and, after a prayer, a song, and a few remarks by the good old Elder, laid 
him away in his rough coffin and lonely grave. Mr. Nash's death was the 
result of an injury received from carrying a log, with which to make a bee gum, 
on his shoulder. His death occurred on December 24, 1829. He was buried 
on Christmas Day, on a small bluff on the Little Wabash, near what is now the 
home of John Thomas, on the road from Mattoon to Paradise. This was the 
first grave dug for a white settler at the Wabash Point. One of his children 
has since been buried near him. The place Mr. Nash settled fell into the 
hands of William Langston, another early settler. It is now owned by 
William Clark. George Morris settled west of Mr. Langston's, his farm being 
the one now owned by the widow Langston. Next west of Mr. Morris was old 
Mr. Champion, father of Richard and William Champion. Further on south 
and west of the timber, in what is now Paradise Township, were the Curry s. 
Moores, Mclntoshes, Alexanders, Crosses, Brinegers and the Drakes. These 
were among the early settlers in this neighborhood, and in Paradise Township, 
where they are more particularly noticed. 

On November 11, 1830, Mr. Hiram Tremble came to the infantile settle- 
ment, pitching his camp near the cabin of " Uncle Charley." He says it was 
the common camping-ground for all, and Uncle Charley was looked upon as the 
center of the little group. He was always a true friend to all who came ; was 
a devout, earnest Christian, a Methodist, and was among the first to aid in 
planting that church at the Point. 

Mr. Tremble is a local minister in that denomination, and is now living on 
his old homestead. He has been quite active in advancing the interests of this 
part of the county ; was a contractor and builder of part of the two railroads 


centering at Mattoon ; helped build the first grain warehouse there, and was 
one of the first merchants in the town. He will be well remembered by many 
residents in his sketches of the early times here, published in the Mattoon 
Journal, under the title, " Forty Years Ago," and ft-om which we have 
obtained much of our information respecting the early days of the western part 
of the county. 

The settlers mentioned include about all who came prior to 1882. During 
this interval. Coles County was formed, and a voting-place established in this 
neighborhood. The first who came generally lived in their wagons until they 
could erect a cabin. These cabins were built of round logs, notched at the 
ends, so as to fit closely together. They were generally cut the required length 
in the woods, and, on the "raising-day," were hauled to the place selected for 
the future home of the pioneer. As fast as they were brought to the ground, 
they were notched and rolled into their place, two of the best men in the party 
acting as "end men." 

When the cabin had reached the required height, the four last, or top, logs 
were often made three or four feet longer than the rest, thereby projecting over 
their fellows. The end pieces forming the cone were made each one shorter 
than its predecessor, until an apex was reached. On this, from end to end, was 
laid a stout center-pole, projecting like its fellows three or four feet at either 
end. About two feet below it, another was placed, and on down until the ends 
of the outstretching logs were reached. These were covered with split oak 
slabs, one-half inch thick, about a foot wide and often four feet long. They 
were held in their places generally by " weight poles," /. e., poles placed over each 
" lap" of the clapboards, held in their places by short sticks placed endways 
between them. Sometimes stones were laid on the roof in addition to these- 
The cabin was now a simple pen, with no means of ingress and egress, and no 
apertures for light, save the cracks between the logs. They must not be left 
unclosed, as but little or no protection could be afforded with them open. A 
bed of " mud " mortar was made, the heart pieces of the oak, from which the 
clapboards or "shakes" had been made for the roof and puncheons for the 
floor and doors, were taken, inserted edgways between the logs and held in their 
places by pins driven into auger-holes in the logs, and all covered well with the 
mud mortar ; when thoroughly dry, the chinking and daubing completely covered 
the cracks and rendered the cabin comfortable. 

An opening for the door was made in the side of the house by cutting a 
space about three feet in width by six feet in height, leaving the upper and lower 
logs half cut through, one to form a door-step, the other a secure upper-part. 
'• Jambs " were next pinned to the ends of the logs, both to hold them in their 
places and to form a better door-frame. The door was made of split puncheons 
pinned to cross-pieces and hung on wooden hinges. The latch was made on the 
inner side of the door, and was raised from the outside by means of a leather 
thong passing through a gimlet-hole a few inches above the latch. At night, 



it was drawn in and the door was practically locked. It was always out in the 
daytime, and was considered by the pioneer an open invitation to all to enter 
and partake of his hospitality. It was, in its mute way, a sign of welcome, and 
gave rise to the popular, earnest proverb, " My latch-string is always out." This 
was exemplified by the fact that when it was withdrawn it was considered that, 
for some reason, the invitation was for the time also withdrawn. 

A window for the humble home was made, commonly opposite the door, bv 
cutting out a space about two feet square and placing therein a window contain- 
ing two or four window-lights. In early pioneer times in the West, when glass 
could not be obtained, either owing to the distance to the settlements or the 
poverty of the pioneer, greased paper answered the place of glass, the windows, 
however, having only a dimension of the width of one log, and probably two 
feet long. Sometimes, especially in schoolhouses, several feet in length of a 
log was cut out and a window made in this manner. The next thing necessarv 
to complete the cabins was the chimney or fire-place. That was always at 
one end of the cabin, aitd was often five or six feet wide and nearly three feet 

An aperture was made in the logs of the required length, and a space meas- 
ured off outside, and covered either with clay or more often with flagstones. 
Split pieces of oak were made, one end of which was placed just inside the logs 
of the wall, the other projecting outward, where it was crossed by a similar 
stick, both notched to fit closely together. The inclosure was built up in this 
manner until the required height was reached. The inside was securely covered 
with stones or a thick layer of mud, more commonly the former, to prevent the 
chimney from burning. On the top of this pen, a chimney was made of stipks 
and mud firmly cemented together. At the bottom, it was of the same size, or 
nearly so, of the fire-place, but grew narrower as it neared the top, where it was 
often not more than one foot square. This chimney, when properly constructed, 
was perfectly safe, and possessed an excellent draught. On the inner side, a 
crane was hung, to which were suspended the various pots and kettles used by 
the good wife or her daughters in their cooking. No stoves at this date were to 
be seen. Even had they been easily obtained, the poverty of the average pio- 
neer would have prevented him from obtaining one. 

The floor was laid with puncheons split, like the clapboards for the roof, 
with a frow, from a clean, straight-grained oak-tree. They were from four to 
six or eight feet in length, and were laid, commonly, on short, round poles, a 
few inches above the ground. Often the pioneer's cabin did not possess even 
the luxury of such a floor, the earth, tramped hard, answering the purpose. If 
a loft was desired, it was made by running stout poles, three or four feet apart, 
from the top of the last round of logs on one side of the cabin to the other, and 
on these were laid puncheons similar to the ones on thfe floor beneath. A lad- 
der, leading from below, stood' in one corner of the cabin, generally just behind 
the door and near the fire-place. 


The early emigrants rarely brought an extensive outfit for housekeeping. 
They were mostly poor, and in this regard were all equal. The cabin had been 
built, it will be observed, without a single piece of iron being put into its con- 
struction, pegs answering the place of nails. Where beds, tables, chairs and 
other such articles were needed, they were made. The bed was a rude, strong 
affair, made in one corner of the room, by placing an upright post about four 
feet from one wall, and six or seven from the other. Poles were laid from this 
post to both walls, slats laid thereon, whose outer end extended through between 
two logs, and on them the bed was spread. Dried prairie-grass was often used 
until feathers could be obtained. Under this bed, a smaller one was made that 
could be pulled out at night, and shoved under again in the morning. We 
have seen them in this manner, and have also seen, about two feet above the 
main bed, another made, and at the same distance above that, another, not 
unlike the berths in a steamboat. A table was made of a stout oak plank, or 
two of them fastened together with cross-pieces pegged on and supported by 
four upright posts inserted at auger-holes near each corner. Stools were made 
in the same manner, only they were small and commonly three-legged. Pegs 
were driven in auger-holes in the wall, on which the wearing apparel of each 
one could be hung, or where any article not needed could find a resting-place, 
were it something adapted to that way of support. Shelves for dishes were 
made from small split boards, placed either on pegs or inside two uprights made 
in the same way, and held to their place by means of notches. 

These were the main features of the cabin-home. Many did not possess 
as many articles as we have enumerated, and some had more, and often much 
better habitations. The luxuries of life were generally not seen the first years 
of the settlement, but appeared as the residents could obtain them. 

After the neighborhood had become established in this part of Mattoon 
Township — for by such boundaries must they be designated, even though the 
townships did not then exist — some of the young men and women concluded 
they could get along better together, and a new home was to be provided for 
them. Land was plenty and cheap, and not so much was required then to com- 
mence married life as now. A cabin, similar to the one we have described, was 
erected for the young couple, and was commonly dedicated with a dance or frolic, 
in which all the young folks of the community joined. 

When the young couple repaired to their new home, generally on horse-back 
or on foot (if by the former method, both^ on one horse), they found it ready 
for use, with its puncheon table, tripod stools, slab cupboard and wide chimney. 
It would contain a few articles of household utility given by the parents of the 
pair ; for a bride's dower consisted then of a few such articles, some good 
advice, and, mayhap, a horse and side-saddle. The young husband had an ax, 
a few other tools, a few farming implements, and, possibly, a horse. Thus 
equipped, they started in life. The young bride had no confidential friend ; 
knew nothing of milliners and mantua-makers ; did not take a fashion-journal 


or the New York Weekly to beguile leisure hours and give her foolish nothings 
to think about. She entered on life conscious of a duty, fully prepared to do 
her part, with a healthy body, vigorous, crude mind, and earnest purpose. 
Before a few years elapsed, other tripods were needed for the children that had 
come to the frontier home ; and comforts and blessings of life, though they 
entailed hardship and toil, came to the rude, cheerful home. 

As much as old people love to dwell upon these pleasant memories, we can- 
not but think there are equally brave and willing brides to-day, who, though 
they do not meet trouble in the way our ancestors found it, find it in other 
ways, -calling for as much resolve and resolution as of old, whose trials are met 
as bravely as those met and overcome by their grandmothers of the early day 
of Central Illinois. 

As soon as the old cabin-home had been established, the next care was the 
planting and cultivation of a crop. A space was cleared in the woods (as they 
had no plows that would turn the prairie sod), and, after being turned by the 
barshare plow, was planted in corn, potatoes and a few other garden vegetables, 
while a portion was sown in wheat, could any be obtained. Corn, however, 
then, as now, was the main staple. It furnished the meal for food, and, by 
boiling in strong lye, made by filtering water through wood ashes, an excellent 
and nutritious hominy was produced. Honey was abundant at this day, the 
woods abounding in bee-trees. In a year or two after the first settlers located, 
maple-sugar and molasses were additional articles of food, and most excellent 
ones, too. No molasses brings as high a price as maple-sirup now, owing to 
its scarcity ; the sugar, however, is not considered possessing the same qualities 
as other kinds, hence is not much in demand. These articles, found so abun- 
dantly in frontier life, added much to its comforts. Cornmeal could be made 
on the old grater or mortar, and, when baked as the native Kentucky house- 
wife knew how, made a most nutritious and palatable article of food. The 
appetites of the pioneers were generally sharpened by violent exercise in 
their daily vocations, and did not need any tempting viands to induce them 
to eat. 

Pork was obtained by allowing the hogs to run wild in the woods, subsisting 
on the mast then so plenty. To prevent them from roaming over the cultivated 
fields, a brush fence was made by felling a great number of small trees with 
their tops altogether in a continuous line around the field. Hogs fattened on 
the mast made good pork, and as corn was not so abundant then as now, and 
mast plenty and free, they were allowed undisturbed access to it. They often 
became in a measure quite wild when allowed to roam, and when wanted at 
killing season generally had to be shot. While young, they were kept near the 
house and securely penned, as the wolves soon evinced a fondness for fresh, 
tender pork, and did not scruple in the slightest to take all they could get. 
When the pigs were large enough to resist the wolf, they were allowed their 


Deer, bears, wild turkeys and prairie chickens provided an abundant 
supply of wild meat for the settlers. Deer were as plenty as cattle now, 
and it was not an uncommon affair, for the pioneer to shoot one from 
his cabin-door did he want a fresh venison steak for his breakfast. So 
common was the article it was not considered the luxury it is now, and was not 
thought as much a company dish as pork or beef. Turkeys grew very fat when 
the mast became ripe, and were very tender eating. Prairie chickens were not 
often eaten, their flesh not being considered very palatable. Bears, while they 
were not so plenty here as in some parts of the West, were by no means a 
rarity, and often furnished food for the settlers. Buffaloes were very scarce, 
even if any were to be found. Their bones, old settlers tell us, were thickly 
strewn over the prairies when they came, but the live animal was a rarity. ■ 

Wolves were the most troublesome animals to be found. They would kill 
the young pigs, depopulate chicken-roosts, carry off young lambs, slay their 
mothers, and all the time render night hideous with their bowlings. They were 
very numerous, too, so mnch so, that grand hunts were organized to extermi- 
nate them. Mr. Elisha Linder tells how that in one winter he killed one hundred 
of them, generally by riding them down and clubbing them, or shooting them. 
The wolf was generally a great coward, preferring to pillage at night. During 
the day they would retire to their dens on some little knoll or in the edge of the 
timber. After the country began to settle, bounties were offered by the coun- 
ties for wolf-scalps, whereby many paid their taxes. Now they are all gone 
from this part of Illinois, and should one adventurous wolf show himself, such 
a hunt would be organized to capture him, as would almost rival the hunts of 

early times. 

We have departed, somewhat, from the direct thread of the narrative, to 
notice the accidents to which the first pioneers were liable in the erection of 
their cabins, and their start in their new homes. We will now return, in part, 
to the narrative of the settlement, and note a few subsequent events. 

We had brought the story down to the year 1832. About this year, Charles 
W. Nabb, now a resident of Mattoon, came up from Lawrence County, 111., 
purchased the farm of George M. Hanson, and became one of the permanent 
settlers. Mr. Hanson went to Whitley's Point and settled on the farm where 
now Deck Dole lives. Among other old settlers of this date, may be reckoned 
David Hanson, from Virginia, who may have been a year or two earlier than 
1832; John Young, from Kentucky; William Moore, who removed first from 
Kentucky to Cumberland County, then to Coles ; James Waddill, an early 
teacher ; Barton Randall ; James James, another early local preacher ; Nathan 
Curry, who came in the spring of 1830, raised one crop, then moved to Shelby 
County, where he lived many years ; and a few others, whose names we have 
not been able to obtain. These are, however, the majority, of those who came 
to this settlement prior to the Black Hawk war. Until after that event, there 
were very few residents in the territory included in the present bounds of Mat- 


toon Township. The settlement was all one, though it extended over many 
miles of country. All were neighbors ; all were poor ; all were ambitious, and 
nearly all came to enjoy the comforts of life they expected to find as the fruit 
of their privation and toil. 

Thewinter of 1830 and 1831 was one of unusual severity. It is known 
in the annals of the West, especially in the northern part, as the " winter of 
the deep snow." The snow fell almost continuously from the latter part of 
November till late in January, covering the ground in Northern Illinois to the 
depth of nearly four feet. In the southern part of the State, it was not so 
severe or lasting, and was a little more than half that depth. The winter wa^, 
hoAvever, very cold, and as the settlers were generally poorly provided against 
any such contingencies, much suffering ensued. About the latter part of Feb- 
ruary, a warm spell came, which quickly melted the snow, covering the entire 
face of the country with water. At this juncture, a reverse of temperature 
arose, and a continuous glare of ice was the result. People could not go any- 
where with horses or oxen, as they were not able, in a majority of cases, to shoe 
their teams. Had skates been as common then as now, what glorious sport the 
boys would have enjoyed ? While this ice was on the ground, a few emigrants 
arrived, after a tedious journey over the icy prairies. Often the women were 
obliged to walk, the emigrant teams scarcely able to draAV the wagons. The 
ice was succeeded in the spring by another thaw, the like of which has rarely 
been seen since. The people were obliged to resort to various measures to 
obtain meal, fuel, meats, etc., while they were compelled to carry water and 
food to their stock, none of which could travel over the smooth surface every- 
where presented. During this time, the old mortar and grater came vigor- 
ously into, use to supply cornmeal, and many evenings did the male mem- 
bers of the family devote their energies to one or the other, generally the 
former, to supply food for the rest. Neither was an easy task. The grater was 
made by puncturing the bottom of an old tin pan with a nail a great many times. 
On the outer edges of the rough pieces of tin thus presented, the ear was rubbed 
until worn to the cob. This could be successfully done only when the corn was 
a little soft. When hard, it would shell from the cob too easily. Then the 
mortar came into use. This instrument w^as made by burning a hollow 
in a block or stump, of a sufficient depth to hold about a peck of shelled corn. 
A pestle was then made of a heavy piece of wood, that would fit the cavity toler- 
ably closely. Sometimes, to give it more weight, an iron wedge was fixed 
securely in the end. Corn would now be placed in the hole and pounded fine 
with the pestle. Ofttimes, to render the task easier, the pestle was rigged to a 
pole, not unlike a well-sweep, and worked in this way. When rigged to the 
sweep, it was a great saving of labor, and could be made much more effective. 
The meal made in this manner was not very fine, it was true, but it could be 
sifted, what went through the sieve being taken as the meal while the rest was 
made into what was known us beaten hominy. 


Before the pioneers made outdoor ovens, bread was baked in a skillet or 
on a board before the fire. Corn-bread made in this way had a peculiar relish, 
it is claimed by the old settlers. Probably their appetites had much to do 
with the relish. Mush and milk was also a favorite which even yet has not 
lost its strength. 

The season following the "deep snow " produced a very fair crop. A few 
more emigrants came to the settlement, and helped swell its numbers. No 
troubles with the Indians, who were very few, had been experienced in this part 
of Illinois, and everything here seemed in a fair way to prosperity. The 
northern portions of the State had, however, not been so fortunate in this 
regard. The Sac and Fox Indians, whose villages were near the junction of 
the Mississippi and Rock Rivers, had refused to leave their homes and remain 
beyond the Father of Waters. Black HaWk was chief of the Sac nation, whose 
principal village was on a romantically commanding site just above the mouth 
of Rock River. It had been their home for more than one hundred and fifty 
years, and was endeared to them by all the ties of home and human nature. 
By the seventh article of the treaty of 1804, the lands belonging to this nation 
were actually to accrue to the United States whenever they were sold to private 
individuals. Until such a time the Indians could remain on them and hunt as 
usual. In 1816, Black Hawk recognized the validity of this treaty ; but when, 
in 1829, some of the land in his native home was sold by the General Govern- 
ment and became thereby the property of others, he refused to recognize the 
treaty and to leave his village. Adjacent to it was a large field of nearly seven 
hundred acres which had been the common field for the cultivation of corn, 
pease and squashes. This field some of the more lawless whites seized before 
they had a right to it, and by wanton acts of cruelty to the Indian women and 
children provoked the savages to retaliatory measures. The whites also brought 
considerable whisky, which they sold and traded to lawless Indians, against the 
law and the express commands of the chiefs, which so enraged them at the 
carousals it produced, that in one or two instances the exasperated chieftains 
went to the houses of the settlers, and, knocking in the heads of the whisky 
barrels, emptied their contents on the ground. One thing brought on another 
until war was declared. The first call for volunteers was made by Gov. Rey- 
nolds early in the spring of 1831. No county south of St. Clair and east of 
Sangamon was included in this call, as it was thought the Indians could be 
easily driven across the Mississippi, where they had been for a time living. 
Black Hawk refused to go, and force was used. At first the Indians conquered 
the whites, and more calls were made for volunteers. Numbers responded from 
every part of the State. In these calls, Coles County furnished but few men, 
and the Wabash Point less than a dozen. Those that went were required to 
furnish their own guns, ammunition, horses, etc., and provisions enough to last 
them to one of the forts where the general rendezvous took place. There they 
were supplied with ammunition and food, and were attached to some regiment. 


The recruits generally went in companies under self-appointed leaders. The 
State militia law was then in force, and each man knew, or thought he knew, 
the. tactics of war. The sequel showed some ludicrous sides of human nature. 
Many brave men at home were cowards on the field, and ready to run at the 
first opportunity. It was observed, then, that the bravest were the modest 
ones, and those that commonly had the least to say about their own valiant 
deeds were the ones who merited praise. 

It might not be amiss to mention the " old muster-days," as they were 
called. They were days of a general gathering, when all able-bodied men were 
required to meet at some designated point and drill. The day began to be 
regarded as one of general frolics, rather than muster, for, as the danger 
from the Indians decreased, the need of the militia diminished, until, so 
apparent did its uselessness become, and so obnoxious to those who could not 
spare the time, that, by a common decree of the people, who ridiculed the day 
in every way they could, it was abolished by the General Assembl3^ From the 
return of the troops from the Black Hawk war down to the opening of the 
railroads in 1855, but few things occurred out of the regular course of events. 
That war settled the Indian question in Illinois, and peace, with the red men in 
her borders, was the result. They were gradually withdrawn from their homes 
in the Prairie State, and, in a few years, none were to be seen. They 
followed the course of the westward sun, and seem destined, erelong, to be 
swallowed up by the mighty race which has taken their country. 

Emigration set in anew to the West, and throughout the entire length and 
breadth of Illinois a continuous train of settlers poured in. Chicago was now 
coming into prominence, and Utopian visions of wealth began to dazzle the eyes 
of the denizens of Illinois. Before proceeding to note the rise of the improve- 
ment system and its inglorious end, we will notice two events of unusual occur- 
rence which happened, and which many of the old residents in Mattoon Town- 
ship will remember. The first of these is 


A most remarkable phenomenon occurred on the night of November 12, 1833, 
known as the " Falling Stars," which it will be well to notice here. It appears 
to have occurred all over the Western country, if not over the entire United 
States. Mr. Tremble gives a stirring account of it in his sketches, which 
we here reproduce. He says : 

" I was on my way home from a mill, west of Shelbyville, and had arrived 
at the cabin of an early friend and brother in the ministry, about four miles 
west of the town, then a village of about two hundred inhabitants. As I was 
twenty-six miles from home, and had only an ox-team, I desired the brother to 
get me up at 3 o'clock in the morning, so that I could get home that night. 
After a pleasant evening, we retired. My landlord was up at the designated 
hour, and, going out of the cabin-door, saw a sight that utterly bewildered him 


for a moment. All the stars seemed to be falling, and he at once concluded the 
heavens were falling and that the final day had come. Returning into 
the cabin, he aroused the family and myself, assuring us that the day of 
judgment had come, and for us to prepare to settle our accounts with our Maker. 
We were all up in a few moments, and beheld a sight never to be forgotten. 
The air was full of falling drops of fire, that immediately expired as they 
neared the ground. Sometimes they would alight on a leaf of a bush or tree, 
and go out with a peculiar noise, difficult to delineate in orthography. It 
sounded something like " tchuck," given with the shortest possible sound of the 
vowels. After gazing on the grand sight awhile, I asked the good lady to 
prepare me a little breakfast, while I fed and yoked my cattle. While I was 
eating my breakfast, the good minister remarked that he could not understand 
how I could eat so unconcernedly, when on the threshold of eternity. I noticed 
he was indeed in deep earnest, and sat part of the time with his head bowed 
between his knees, clasped in his hands, and apparently engaged in earnest 
thought. He arose when I prepared to go, protesting against my journey on 
such a solemn occasion, as the world would soon be on fire and the end of all 
all things be. I told him that if his conjectures proved correct, I might as 
well be out on the highway, driving my ox-team, as anywhere else. Bidding 
them adieu, I rigged my team, bestrode the near ox, and, with a flourish of ray 
whip, started. It was noAv about 4 o'clock, the air was a little cool, and a slight 
frost lay on the ground. At the start, I had nearly a mile of timber to pass 
through. The meteors were falling all around me as thick as hail or as rain- 
drops in an ordinary shower. Some of them were so large they cast shadows 
on the trees. Many of them came in contact with trees in falling, and burst, 
throwing off" a myriad of sparks, illuminating the forest all about me. It was 
the grandest freak of nature I ever beheld, and passes my poAvers of descrip- 
tion. Emerging from the timber to the prairie, the sight was even more grand 
and inspiring. A rain of fire-drops came down. All about and above me, the 
air was full of the falling sparks, none of which touched me or my oxen. They 
would frequently fall nearly to the ground on some bush, but none touched me 
that I saw or felt, though I endeavored to catch some on my hand to experience 
a personal contact. None reached the ground that I saw ; all expired as they 
neared it. The storm of fire continued with no abatement that I could see until 
the approach of day, when the light caused it to gradually disappear, just as 
the stars retire on the approach of the morning sun. 

" Just at daylight, I entered the village of Shelbyville, where I found the 
inhabitants grouped about the corners, discussing the strange wonder. Many 
appeared to be greatly alarmed. The opinion that the end of the world was at 
hand strongly prevailed. T did not stop to discuss the question with them, but 
left them to solve it as best they could, and Avent on my way. All along my 
journey homeward, wherever I met any settlers or travelers, the " fire " was 
the theme. I could not explain it, nor could they. I could only think it was 


some freak of nature scientists might some day explain ; but that the world was 
coming to an end, I did not much credit." 

These various meteoric showers have never been very satisfactorily ex- 
plained. They have occurred at different intervals for ages, and for many 
years were regarded with supernatural awe by all classes of people. It is a 
common practice among the inhabitants of any part of the earth to so regard 
any unnatural phenomenon, which they cannot readily explain. The commonly 
accepted theory among modern scientists is that they originate in certain nebu- 
lous bodies revolving in space in a elliptical orbit about the sun, the aphelion 
of which meets the orbit of the earth at the time of its annual exhibitions. 
This is in a measure verified, as the showers appeared in less brilliancy for 
three successive seasons after 1833, and agai^i in 1841, and in 1846. None 
were so brilliant by fiir, however, as the exhibition of 1833, whose grandest 
display was at Niagara, where it is said to have been of such remarkable vigor 
as to surpass comprehension. 

The fall of meteoric stones is an occurrence often noted in the history 
of the country. The appearance of comets are also mentioned, which caused 
wide-spread alarm, many preparing to meet the judgment which it was positively 
asserted they portended. That event has never visibly occurred yet, and it is 
safe to conclude comets, meteors and other irregular heavenly bodies have noth- 
ing whatever to do with it. They are now pretty satisfactorily explained, and 
only the ignorant fear them. To those who study the heavenly bodies they are 
objects of great interest and are studiously watched. 

THE "sudden freeze." 

This curious, and yet unexplained phenomenon happened on the 20th day 

of December, 1836. By many, the cold winter of 1830-31 is confounded 

with this event. A great many births, deaths and other family matters are 

""now settled as to date, by their occurrence before, at or after the "deep snow " 

or the "sudden freeze." 

The 20th day of the month referred to had been rather warm. A slight 
rain fell during the forenoon, turning the few inches of snow on the ground 
into slush, and filling the creeks and ponds with water. About the middle 
of the afternoon, a heavy cloud was noticed coming rapidly from the northwest. 
It came at the rate of twenty-five or thirty miles per hour, as was afterward 
ascertained, and was accompanied with a terrific, roaring noise. As it passed 
over the country, everything was frozen in its track almost instantly. Water 
that was running in little gullies or in the streams was suddenly arrested in its 
career, blown into eddies and small waves by the wind, and frozen before it 
could subside. Cattle, horses, hogs and Avild animals exposed to its fury were 
soon chilled through and many frozen in their tracks. Where a few moments 
before they walked in mud and slush, was now frozen, and unless moving 
about they were frozen fast. In some instances where individuals were ex- 


posed to the fury of this wave and unable to reach shelter, their lives were lost. 
One man was found afterward standing frozen in the mud, dead, and still hold- 
ing the rein of his horse in his hand. He had apparently become bewildered 
and chilled, and freezing fast in the mud and slush, remained standing. 

Mr. Elisha Linder, in speaking of this storm, says : " I was near my house 
feeding some stock, when I noticed the storm-cloud approaching. Thinking it 
would be a severe windstorm and possibly rain, as it was misting at the time, I 
started to the house. I went as quickly as I could, but the storm caught me 
before I reached the door. It was so piercing in its coldness and so strong I 
could not walk against it. The water was frozen as it blew into little ridges, 
and the mud and slush soon became as hard as stone. A good many chickens 
and other fowls perished. No little suffering was experienced by many persons 
who were illy prepared for such an unlooked-for event." 

It is related of a young man named Samuel Munson, in the western part of 
the county, who had gone, or was going for his marriage-license, that, while on 
the journey he was overtaken by the wave, and, finding he could not cross the 
Okaw or one of its tributaries, turned his horse's head up the stream and partly 
against the storm. He could not make the horse travel in the face of the storm 
and, dismounting, tried to lead him. He could not do this either. When he 
tried to mount the horse again, he found his clothing, especially his overcoat, 
wet with the rain of the forenoon, frozen so he could not mount. He threw it 
off, then hastily mounted his horse and started at a full gallop in the course of 
the storm, determined to find shelter before it was too late. Coming to a grove 
of trees, possibly Dead Man's Grove, he saw a cabin, and, riding up to it, dis- 
mounted and went in. His hands and feet were by this time partially frozen, and 
he was so benumbed he could hardly talk. He was obliged to remain there 
overnight and to postpone the wedding a day or two. 

Mr. Tremble and other old settlers who experienced this "sudden freeze," 
all give a similar description and corroborate the statements made. The wave 
came from the northwest, passing over the central part of Illinois, lower down 
in Indiana, and is last heard of about Cincinnati, Ohio, where it arrived at 9 
o'clock in the night, freezing some emigrant wagons and teams in front of a 
tavern at Lebanon, a few miles above Cincinnati, while their owners were bar- 
gaining for a night's lodging. Its width was from about where Ottawa in Illi- 
nois now is, then barely started, to a short distance below Coles County. It is 
not heard of much above or below either place. Its origin has never been 
found, to our knowledge, nor has it been satisfactorily explained that we 
know of. Iowa was thinly settled then, and as it came across its northern 
border, we have only meager accounts concerning it there. It originated some- 
where in the vast northwest, and only lost its force and fury when it encoun- 
tered a warmer clime. 

Returning again to the subject of emigration, the growth of the State and 
the internal improvements, we find Coles County, especially its western part, 


gradually filling with settlers. The scheme of building railroads and canals 
came now prominently before the people, and roused their expectations of 
future wealth and power to the highest pitch. As early as 1835, the subject 
received the attention of the Illinois Legislature, and in the message of Gov. 
Joseph Duncan to that body at the session of 1835-36, mention is made of it, 
and the General Assembly urged to act upon it. It responded in a manner 
exceeding the Governor's highest anticipations. Immense preparations were 
made, great sums of money appropriated, and work began on the Illinois & 
Michigan Canal, and on several proposed railroads, among them the Illinois 
Central and the Terre Haute & Alton. The issue of so much money, based on 
the faith of the State, and its entrance into all channels of business, had the 
effect to draw an immense flood of emigration to Illinois, all anxious to share 
in the general prosperity. Somehow, the more the money was issued, the cheaper 
it became, and the dearer everything else grew. Acts of the Legislature in vain 
tried to hold it at and above par; but it steadily declined, until it reached 16 
cents on the dollar in gold, and in some instances 14. Either the feith of the 
State was correspondingly below par or the money was cheap because it was 
too plenty. From the Solons of the day down to the most common class of 
people, all saw, in the start, wealth created out of nothing, only to see it grad- 
ually vanish before their eyes. As it declined in value, work began to stop 
here and there on detached parcels of the railroads, until finally on every rOad 
it was abandoned, and only with the wisest financiering was it kept going on 
the canal. State banks grew out of the scheme, and a currency, as fluctuating as 
varied, appeared all over the country. Merchants in New York were obliged 
to accept notes on banks in Illinois and Indiana, which they could only realize 
on by returning them through brokers to some place in the West, and get all 
they could out of them. The fall of the system and the conse(iuent depression 
of business was keenly felt all over the State. Exorbitant values had arisen 
on every class of property, and when the shrinkage occurred, the losses were 
felt. No work was done on either the Central or the Terre Haute & Alton 
Railroads in Coles County ; but the eff'ects of the rise and fall of values were 
noted here as well as elsewhere. Money was as scarce as in the earliest 
pioneer times, and for awhile it looked as though ruin would be the result. 
The prairies were, however, naturally very productive, and though emigration 
for awhile shunned the State as if struck by a pestilence, it soon began to rally, 
and before a decade of years had passed the enormous debt was safely provided 
for, and prosperity of a real kind again came over the land. 

It was not until after 1850 — more than twelve years after the first rail was 
laid on the track at Meredosia, on the Illinois River, on what is now the 
Wabash Railway — that the subject of railroads assumed a permanent, tangible 
form. In February of that year, the Chicago ct Galena road was finished as 
far as Elgin, and a train of cars made the first trip from the city on the lake to 
the one on the Fox River. From this date, the erection of other roads began — 


this time, by individuals. The State had enough of this experience, and did 
not care to venture again into such schemes. The Terre Haute & Alton was 
among those sharing in the revival, and, as some work had been performed on 
it, chiefly on the eastern and western divisions, a new company took the work, 
and, in about four years' time, had it in running order. About the same time, 
the Illinois Central, through its magnificent grant of land from the General 
Government, came to a completion. These roads, crossing in Mattoon Township, 
formed the nucleus for a new town which capitalists were not slow to take advan- 
tage of, and the city of Mattoon was the result. Indeed, they had been watch- 
ing to see where the crossing would be, and had located the town as soon as the 
question was decided, not waiting for the completion of the roads. As the his- 
tory of railroads in the county forms a separate chapter, we will only refer to 
them briefly here. 

When they were completed, much of the prairie-land in the township, and, 
in fact, all this part of the county, was yet open. It was still used for pastur- 
age, and the settlements confined exclusively to the timber. The railroads 
opened the country, however, and from that time until all was taken, it was 
rapidly settled. The growth of the country went steadily forward from the 
time of the improvement period until the late war. By that time, it was pretty 
thickly settled. Mattoon Township furnished her quota of men for the fray, 
and the city saw a regiment depart from her midst gathered almost wholly in 
the surrounding country. 

When the war closed, another season of great commercial prosperity ensued, 
owing to the sudden circulation of a vast amount of currency, based on the 
faith of the General Government. From this arose another series of fictitious 
values, and many farmers mortgaged their land to capitalists at a semi-annual 
interest of 10 per cent, expecting the '"flush times" to continue. When the 
value of money came to the recognized standard, a shrinkage in values occurred, 
causing at the present time great difficulty among many to pay debts contracted 
on the currency basis. Many farms in this part of Coles County have been 
sold to meet these claims, realizing little, if anything, more than the amount 
loaned. The effect of all this will be to divide the large farms, and, ultimately, 
it will in that way be for th^ good of the county. The people of Mattoon 
Township are all engaged in agriculture, and, if a steady purpose in this pur- 
suit is adhered to, no debts contracted beyond their ability to pay, and the 
same study devoted to that pursuit as is given to that of the law or medicine, 
abundant success is sure to crown the effort. Take it all in all, no occupation 
is so sure of a living, so independent and so safe as intelligent agriculture. 

We will now retrace our steps somewhat, and note the 


We have purposely omitted any mention of churches and schools in the 
foregoing pages, intending those subjects for a separate chapter. 


The first settler in Mattoon Township, "Uncle Charley," was a devout 
Methodist, and in hia cabin the first praise and thanks to the Giver of all good 
were heard. Many of the others who came in 1827 were "members of the 
same religious body, and, as soon as they could arrange their temporal matters, 
steps were taken toward the establishment of a church. James Graham, 
George M. Hanson, Miles H. Hart, Samuel Thompson, Barton Randall, 
George W. Rollins, and others among the early pioneers of Wabash Point, 
were in the local ministry of the Methodist Church, and all were earnest 
workers. The "circuits were large, yet these men, laboring faithfully to supply 
their own wants, and avoid being any burden on the infantile settlement, went 
regularly on their rounds of preaching. 

The places of worship at first were in the pioneers' cabins centrally located, 
or, when the weather would permit, in some pleasant spot in the woods. The 
first benches were simply split logs, the flat side dressed smooth with a broad-ax, 
and supported by stout, short sticks for legs. No backs were made. When 
not in use, the benches were piled in a corner of the cabin-yard, until the time 
of service, when they were carried into the cabin and arranged to the best pur- 
pose that habitation furnished. The most interesting time among the adher- 
ents of this church was the regular camp- meeting. That was almost always 
held in the woods, as no cabin could hold a tithe of the crowd that gathered. 
A rude pulpit or platform was made, where three or four trees aff"orded a good 
place for one, benches were made and arranged over the ground in front, and 
the place was ready. 

We have mentioned James Graham as one of the pioneer Methodist ministers 
in this part of the county. He was little a eccentric in his ways, and, withal, 
was not afraid to speak what he deemed right, even if the remarks touched 
closely on some weak brothers or sisters. A good anecdote is preserved of him 
by his colleague, Mr. Tremble, another local minister, yet living. As it illus- 
trates other modes of life, we think it well worth a place in the history of the 

Among the class of wandering tradespeople, or peddlers, were a set known 
as the "wooden-clock peddlers." These were nearly all Yankees, regarded by 
the Southern people as a trafiicking, tricky set, ready to sell a wooden nutmeg 
or any other sham. They, in turn, looked on the Kentuckians as a lazy, shift- 
less class, subsisting on hog, hominy and corn-bread, and willing tools in their 
hands. The peddlers did not scruple in the slightest to cheat them, or any 
one, whenever they could. The cheating, in their opinion, was all right ; the 
detection was what they feared. It seems these itinerant tradesmen had become 
a nuisance to the good residents of this part of the county, and had merited their 
disapprobation. Father Graham, among the rest, had suffered at their hands, 
and rather smarted under the treatment. 

Their common mode of procedure was first to canvass a district, selling all 
the clocks they could, warranting them for a year or any length of time suitable 


to their scheme. In a month or so, they would retrace their route, starting 
from where they began with one clock, pretty well regulated. It would run 
three or four days very well, and that was all they wanted. Part of the origi- 
nal agreement was to replace the clock first sold in case it did not fulfill the 
warrant. In that lay the trick. When they reached the first customer, they 
found, as they expected and hoped, that the clock did not fulfill the contract, and 
they at once replaced it with the one they had, charging a small fee for the 
transfer and repair. Taking the clock they obtained here, they went on to 
the next place, where the process was repeated, and so on till the end of the 
route. For a few days the clocks went all right, and every one was delighted. 
But after awhile, when they, too, began to keep all sorts of time, the settlers 
began to grumble, and on comparing notes, discovered the cheat. The lesson, 
however, did not always bear fruit, as erelong they were caught on the wooden 
nutmeg, gilded jewelry and kindred appliances. They, like every one else, 
seemed often to forget that nothing good can be obtained for less than its value, 
however plausible the arguments in its favor may be. 

While Father Graham was holding one of his camp-meetings, he was some- 
Avhat disturbed by one of these itinerant merchants, who not only being a cheat 
in business, was also a worthless character, and, as such, disturbed the meeting. 
Father G., after vainly endeavoring, by private means, to reform or get rid of 
him, determined to use decisive methods with him. At the morning service on 
the Sabbath, the good minister, in his prayer, closed as follows : 

" Lord, thy servants have been wonderfully annoyed by the bad actions 
and wicked conduct of a fellow known all over this camp-ground as ' Wooden- 
Clock Peddler.' Lord, if it is possible there be mercy lor such a wicked 
wretch, may he find that mercy to-day, so that he repent of his great wicked- 
ness, turn about and do better. But, Lord, if he is, as he appears to be, a 
doomed wretch, why suff"er him to stay here as a hindrance to Thy great work ? 
Lord, may he see that ' discretion is the better part of valor,' and leave 
forthwith. But, Lord God, if he will not leave, kill him a little on the spot, 
and save us from all wooden-clock peddlers forever. Amen ! " 

"If ever I saw," says Mr. Tremble, "the eyes of a congregation turned 
in search of an object, in was the eyes of that congregation, when they arose 
from their knees at the close of the prayer." But the " wooden-clock peddler " 
was seen only in the distance making rapid strides for some other locality. He 
was seen no more on that camp-ground. 

Enough adherents to this denomination had arrived by the year 1832 to 
warrant the erection of a house of worship. A site was chosen near the pres- 
ent Capp's Mill, and the people gathering together erected a log church. This 
was rather a primitive affair, and for awhile served its purpose. The settlement 
formed a kind of nucleus around which gathered three churches, not to speak of 
those in Mattoon. This fact, in a measure, caused the Church here to disband, 
and gather into three others, all out of the township, save one, which again. 


about five years ago, erected the brick church, known as the "Little Wabash 
Methodist Church." It is near the creek of that name, about four miles south- 
west of Mattoon. It is a very comfortable church, while near it Avas built a neat 
brick parsonage. The congregation numbers now about one hundred members. 

Among the early settlers were several professing the Baptist and Cumber- 
land Presbyterian creeds. The former of these built a church in Paradise 
Township, the first church there. It is referred to in the history of that Town- 
ship. The Cumberland Presbyterians have maintained pretty regular services 
since their emigration, commencing before 1830. They have attended church 
at Paradise generally until lately and did not build a church in Mattoon Town- 
ship until about 1873, when they completed a very neat frame edifice, at an 
expense of $1,600, which they now occupy. Theirs and the Little Wabash 
Methodist Church are the only two houses of worship in the township outside 
of Mattoon. 

It has been rather difficult to determine the first year school was taught in 
the Wabash Point settlement, and by whom. There was probably a school 
taught in a cabin in the winter of 1827-28, or the next spring. Mrs. Elisha 
Linder says she recollects going to a school, she thinks, the next summer, and that 
James Waddill was the teacher. Mr. Tremble says in his sketches, that about 
1831, Ujicle Jack Houching, with a few other neighbors, undertook to burn 
brick, and built a small cabin for the benefit of the hands, just north of Mr. 
John Thomas' spring. The brick project proved a failure and the cabin was 
abandoned. The settlers not long after appropriated the cabin for school pur- 
poses and fitted it for that purpose. Long slab seats, puncheon floor, and a 
writing-desk from "end to end" at one side, were put in, the fire-place made 
safe, and, taking out one of the side logs, covered the place left with greased 
paper, and the house was ready. The teacher, Mr. Tremble, too, thinks was 
James Waddill. He was paid so much per scholar, the idea of taxation for 
education not then prevailing. The price per scholar depended on the number 
of scholars promised. If twenty-five or thirty were subscribed the price was 
generally $2.50 or $3 each. The teacher commonly " boarded 'round," a 
practice not now indulged in. Teachers were always hired by the quarter — 
three months — and when they were not paid in money, accepted common 
articles of barter. Capt. W. E. Adams, in his Centennial Address, refers 
to this school as follows: The first schoolhouse in that section was a 
cabin, built in 1830. Before it was occupied as a school, a man named 
Ledbetter moved his family into it. Soon after this, George Hanson went down 
to order him out. Ledbetter, however, was master of the situation, and chased 
Hanson oS" with a meat- ax. Hanson, in his fiight, stubbed his toe and fell 
down, and in his fall Ledbetter split the back of his coat-tail open with the ax. 
After school had been held in this cabin a term or two, it was removed to the 
old log church, built on the site of Capp's mill or near it, and referred to in the 
history of churches just noted. This school was, it must be borne in mind, in 


Paradise Township. School was kept here, or in the cabins, until about 1844 
or 1845, when the first schoolhouse, built expressly for such purposes, was 
erected in Mattoon Township. That was about the dawn of the present school- 
system of Illinois. It had been agitated as early as 1827, renewed in 1835- 
86. and a few subsequent Legislatures, but so distasteful was the idea of tax- 
ation to the southern portion of the State, that not until 1844-45 did the first 
permanent school law come into force. 

This schoolhouse was used until the present one, erected during the war on 
its site, superseded it. It was not alone possessor of the field long. Other 
parts of the township began to fill rapidly witli settlers, especially when the 
railroads were opened, and, as necessity required, houses were built. The open, 
ing of high schools in Mattoon gave additional facilities for instruction, which 
have, in a measure, been well improved. 


We have incidentally noticed the grater and mortar, and described their 
modes of use. Following these primitive mills, we will notice those that suc- 
ceeded, viz., the hand and horse mills. The hand-mill was quite an improve- 
ment on the hominy-block. It consisted of two small circular stones, 14 or 16 
inches acros the face, and made something like the millstones of to-day. The 
lower stone was made fast to some timbers, with a hoop bent around it and pro- 
jecting some three or four inches above, forming a receptacle for the upper stone. 
This had a hole in the center, through Avhich the corn was dropped by the hand, 
and was made to fit the under stone as well as the tools of the day could dress 
it. Near the outer rim, a hole was drilled into it about 1 J inches across, and of 
the same depth. Into this an upright was fastened, its upper end secured in 
the ceiling, or to some immovable piece of timber. The lower stone had a |- 
inch hole, drilled from 2 to 3 inches in depth, in the center, and a round piece 
of iron driven firmly in. Its top projected about the same distance above. The 
top formed a pivot, and by the aid of a flat piece of iron, was cut to a half 
circle, with flanges on each end, so as to fit the notches cut in each side of the 
" runner." This iron was placed in the " eye " of the upper stone, generally 
called the "runner," with the concave side down. Its under side was so 
notched as to fit the pivot and balance, so that when forced around it kept its 
place. These simple arrangements completed the outfit. When meal was 
wanted, a measure of shelled corn was placed near, from which the corn was 
dropped in by the left hand, while the stone was turned by the right. It was 
given a rapid motion, and, if heavy, both hands were used, and an attendant 
dropped the corn into the center hole. At one place, the under stone was 
sometimes made slightly sloping, and a spout inserted in the iron rim surround- 
ing the stone, through which the meal was forced as it was ground. 

It will be observed by the reader, that this kind of mill is spoken of in the 
Bible, only that the handle was commonly a foot or more in height. It is as old as 


the world, almost, and, in ancient times, was almost always operated by women. 
The Savior referred to the custom of women grinding at the mill, when He said, 
" The one shall be taken and the other left." 

The horse-mill was simply the hand-mill made too large and heavy for one 
person to turn, and was rigged something after the manner a common circu- 
lar sweep is now made. To this a horse or mule was hitched and driven in a 
circle. It was often rigged with a pulley made of a leather band, and thereby 
given an increased motion. The hand-mill was also rigged with cogs and bands, 
and arranged so two or four men could turn it with a crank. It was toler- 
ably hard work, but it was often the case that, when properly rigged in this way, 
a bushel of grain could be ground in forty minutes. 

After the horse-mills came into use, the hand-mills were largely abandoned. 
They were too slow when a better way was known, and gradually came to be a 
a thing of the past. 

It is not stated that any horse-mills were built in Mattoon Township. The 
older parts of the county had them first, and to them the settlers were accus- 
tomed to go. Many of the old settlers now living, well remember getting up at 
3 or 4 o'clock in the morning, preparatory to getting early to the mill, hopino- 
to get there in advance of any one else, only to find, perchance, a whole " string 
of wagons ahead of them," as they express it, and being obliged to remain a 
day or two awaiting their turn. No water or steam mills were built in Mattoon 
Township till after the city was started, when they were erected there. As 
their history properly belongs to the history of the city, the reader is refer-red 
to that, where the subject, as concerns this township, is concluded. 


The first mail facilities enjoyed in this part of the country were indeed quite 
meager. Letters were few and far between, while newspapers were a rarity. 
The postage, was, in the early days of post-routes, governed by the distance the 
letter was sent, ranging from five to twenty-five cents. After the express com- 
panies started and began to carry them at a cheaper rate, the Government low- 
ered the cost from time to time until the present rate was established. The first 
post office, says Mr. Hiram Tremble, for the Little Wabash Point settlement 
was established at George M. Hanson's, who drew up a petition for one, obtained 
the necessary signatures and sent it on to Washington. Capt. Adams states 
also, that this was the first post office in the county, and that it was established 
by George M. Hanson, who was the Postmaster. The office was named Paradise, 
in memory of Paradise Post Office iuVirginia, in the county where Mr. Hanson was 
born. These two were the only post offices of that name in the United States. 
The office was located here in 1829, and remained with Mr. Hanson about two 
years, when it was removed to the State Line Road, just then being opened. There 
it was kept by Mr. William Langstou, who had what was known as the " Relay 
House," i. e., where the stage-horses were changed. This stage-road, or, more 


properly. State Road, had formerly been a trace or trail, simply a bridle-path, 
and led from Charleston to Shelbyville and on to Vandalia, the old State capi- 
tal. At first the mail was carried on horse-back, and made a weekly trip. 
The road passed through Mattoon Township, a little north of the present 
village of Paradise : hence, when the post office was removed to Mr. Langs- 
ton's, it was still in Mattoon Township. It remained at the " Relay House " 
about two years, when it was taken to a little embryo town located on the 
Houtchin Farm, called Richmond, where G. W. Nabb had quite a store, in 
which the office was kept ; Mr. Nabb, Postmaster. The office remaiiicd there 
till the Alton & Terre Haute Railroad was completed and Mattoon founded. 
There is considerable dispute among the old settlers concerning this post 
office and its frequent removals. We have given Mr. Tremble's recollections, 
which some pronounce correct, while others think a little differently. It 
seems impossible to reconcile all the statements regarding it. The subject is 
further treated in Paradise Township. 

After the stages began running, the mail was changed to a bi-weekly, then 
to a tri-weekly, and when the railroad came, to a daily mail. The old stage- 
coach was as much an improvement on the modes of travel preceding it, as the 
railway of to-day is an improvement on the coach. It was generally quite 
gorgeously painted, were made secure, and would carry just as many passen- 
gers as could get inside and on its top. This propensity to crowd stages has 
given rise in this day to the trite proverb, " There is always room for one 
more in a stage." They were drawn by four horses commonly, but in times of 
bad roads six or eight would be hitched to it. The driver was perched on top 
in a comfortable seat at the front, and nearly always had a passenger with him. 
In times of good roads and fine weather, the driver's seat was often sought, as 
it gave such commanding views of the country. When the fierce prairie 
storms abounded, and winter set his icy hand on everything, it required a brave 
man to face the contest. Not unfrequently drivers perished at their post in 
unusually severe weather. The most interesting time was probably in the 
spring, when the ground was thawing out. The. soil of the prairies would 
sometimes freeze two or three feet deep, especially in low, wet places, conse- 
quently the thawing-out process reached down that depth, where it com- 
monly met the perpetually wet undersoil, producing what was termed, in 
the common parlance of the day, a road with "no bottom." Then it was, 
indeed, interesting to the passengers. First one side of the coach was 
down, then the other, alternately pitching the passengers right and left. 
About as soon as they got used to this mode of travel, the fore wheels would 
go suddenly down to the axle, and a forward lurch of the passengers followed. 
As they came up, the hind wheels went down, and a retrograde movement 
on the part of the passengers was the result. Relief from this alternate 
pitching arose only when an eminence was reached, or when the passengers 


Sometimes exciting drives occurred, especially when the driver wanted to 
give a team " all the running they wanted." He would ply them with the 
whip, and keep them at a full gallop until completely broken of their desire to 
run away. If the road was a few inches deep in mud, the condition of the pas- 
sengers, unless securely inclosed, can be well imagined. They came out of the 
race considerably sprinkled with the prairie soil. These days of the stage con- 
tinued till the opening of the railroads in 1855, when they it farther west, 
only in time to be obliged to give way to the fleet iron horse, destined in time 
to entirely supersede it. 


From the first settlement until society became established, the settlers were 
generally a law unto themselves. They were too remote from the county seat 
before Coles County was erected, and settled disputes among themselves. They 
were exceeding honorable in their dealings with each other, and rarely did occa- 
sion require of them recourse to law. When it did, the punishment was sure 
and swift. They abhorred the petty vices, stealing, lying, etc., and would com- 
pletely ostracize any one found guilty. As all were poor and mutually depend- 
ent on each other, they were strict in their observance of the right, and would 
aid one another to the farthest extent of their ability, did he show any disposi- 
tion to try to do for himself. At every house-raising all did their part ; all 
wanted to, and should any one evince a disposition to shirk, he was made to feel 
his dependence whenever he wanted any help from his neighbors. Mr. Trem- 
ble says he does not remember of but one theft occurring in the neighborhood 
from the date of its first settlement in 1827, till after the first election in 1831. 
The theft and its punishment were characteristic of the times, and will suffice as a 
good illustration for the " court proceeding " of the day. 

One of the settlers had killed a beef, and, to secure the hide, bent down a 
small sapling, attached the hide to the top branch, and allowed the tree to 
spring back to its place, bearing the hide aloft, far out of the reach of wolves 
or any other species of thieves. He never once thought of any person stealing- 
it, and hence allowed it to remain in the tree-top over night. The next morn- 
ing it was gone. By what means, he coiild not determine, but he felt sure 
nothing but a human being could have secured it. He sent word to a few of 
the neighbors, and soon word was all over the settlement that a theft had 
occurred; something so unusual, that all left their work and gathered at the 
settler's cabin, determined to find the off"ender and give him his merits. By 
some means, the hide was tracked to its place of concealment. The guilty man 
was now to be apprehended, in case they c6uld find him. He had been sus- 
pected, it seems, from- the start, for, in a scattered community like this, every 
one was pretty well known, and two citizens were deputed to search his 
premises. They returned in an hour or so, with the information that they 
could not find him, though they had given the cabin and its contents a thor- 
ough examination. The settlers were not satisfied, and a second search was 


instituted, in which all took a part. Under the bed, a puncheon was found 
displaced, and a lot of rags and old quilts substituted. Removing these, tlie 
thief was discovered between the floor and the sill of the cabin. He was at 
once brought forth, and a trial held. The tears of his wife and children could 
not avail now : the pioneers were determined to punish theft whenever found. 
One among their number was appointed Judge, another Sherift", another Prose- 
cutor, and a fourth, counsel for the defense. The trial was held under a large 
elm-tree in the east side of Dry Grove. Everything was conducted decorously, 
and, at its close, the prisoner was sentenced to receive thirty lashes on his 
naked back, at the hands of the Sherift' — and that at the close of the next two 
hours. Court was held about a mile from the prisoner's cabin, and, before the 
execution of the sentence was carried into eft'ect, he begged to be allowed to see 
his family. This was granted, and the Sherift' ordered to see him safely home 
and back. On the way to his cabin, he was informed by the officer that if he 
would leave the country that night, '■ hook and line." with the promise never 
to be seen in those parts again, he would let him escape. The Sherift' informed 
him that he must, however, run for life, for as soon as he started he (the 
Sherift") would shout at the top of his voice, " Stop thief! Stop thief!" By 
this time, they were out of sight of the Court, and the Sherift", pointing one way, 
remarked, '' That's your course," and away he went at the top of his speed. 
The Sheriff" appeared to be after him, yelling with all his might. "" Stop thief ! " 
The Court, of course, heard, and, immediately forgetting its dignity, started, 
pell-mell, in pursuit. The prisoner, however, had the start, and made good his 
escape. He was joined by his family afterward, and was never seen again in 
these parts. He had, doubtless, learned a lesson he never forgot, and. it is 
hoped, one he heeded. It was, undoubtedly, part of the plan to allow him to 
escape, but to so thoroughly intimidate him that others would heed the lesson. 

Whether the trial was just in its conclusions or nut, and its mode of action 
commendable, can hardly be doubted, in the condition society then existed. 
Even were such methods adopted now, so thoroughly prompt and decisive, it is 
hardly an open question but that it would sometimes be better. After the 
county was organized, the processes of civil law were carried out, and, from 
that date down, we are not informed of any impromptu courts and court pro- 

We have thus fiir narrated the leading events in the history of Mattoon 
Township. The history of its organization is given in the general county 
history, and, as it did not occur until four years after Mattoon village was 
established, we will proceed directly to the history of the city, and, in like 
manner, note its important events. 

The town is the outgrowth of the crossing of the two railroads, and dates 
its beu"inning from tiiat occurrence. When the original surveys for the rail- 
roads were made, it was predicted that a town would grow up at their crossing; 
but until the exact location of the routes was determined, no one ventured to 


purchase the ground and prepare for the expected village. It was at one time 
thought that the crossino; would be made about two miles north of the site of 
Mattoon, and a town, to be called Arno, was laid out there by David A. Neal, 
of Massachusetts, owner of the land. The survey was made by John Meadows, 
March 14, 1855. 

The routes of the roads were pretty certainly established by 1852, and in 
that year a company of persons, prominent among whom were Elisha Linder, 
Ebenezer Noyes, James T. Cunningham, Stephen D. Dole, John L. Allison 
and John Cunningham, purchased Section 13, in Township 12, and concluded 
to plat thereon a town. Two years elapsed before this was done, during which 
interval, Davis Carpenter, Usher F. Lrnder, H. Q. Sanderson, Harrison Mes- 
ser, Samuel B. Richardson, W. B. Puell, Josiah Hunt and Charles Nabb 
obtained an interest, and, by direction of all these persons, a town was laid out 
on December 12, 1854, by John Meadows, then County Surveyor. It must be 
borne in mind that the grant of land given by the Government in aid of the 
Illinois Central Bailroad (a full history of which appears elsewhere), included 
only alternate sections in the belt, and that, to equalize the I'evenue from the 
remaining sections, the price was doubled. These men, then, paid for Section 
12 $2.50 per acre, which, considering the location, was certainly cheap enough. 

No sooner was the survey made than preparations for building began. Men 
did not wait for a sale of lots, but went to the proprietors and selected such lots 
as they desired, began building on them, with the understanding that they be 
allowed them as their choice on the day of sale ; that then they really be con- 
firmed in their purchase. The first building brought on the town site w^as an 
old structure moved here from La Fayette Township by Blueford Sexton, and 
used as a kind of lodging-house, boarding-house and toolhouse. Anything that 
would in any way shelter a person w\as acceptable, and Avas, as they termed it, 
"better than nothing." On the 28th day of March, 1855, the next spring 
after the survey. Mr. R. H. McFadden raised the first house erected on the 
site of Mattoon. It stands on its original site, on the south side of First 
street, just east of the Illinois Central Railroad track, and is now occupied by 
Mrs. Cartmell. The house, when built, contained two front rooms, one of 
which was intended for a store, and in it Flemming & Sexton opened the first 
stock of goods offered for sale in the town. This was done early in April, and 
by that time several other buildings were in course of erection. Afterward, 
Cartmell and Dr. Camp had a small drug store in the room, and when Mr. 
Noyes built a small brick store west of the railroad, the stock was moved there. 
Dr. Camp was deaf and dumb, and lived awhile in one half of Mr. Cunningham's 
warehouse, built on the north side of the Terre Haute & Alton Railroad, before 
the sale of lots,occurred. The pioneer drug store was closed out in the little brick. 

Two days after Mr. McFadden raised his house, an enterprising individual 
set up a little board shanty a short distance south of him, and began selling 
whisky and other compounds. 


James M. True opened a store soon after. John Allison built a small land 
office ; Ebenezer Noyes a small brick building on the ground now occupied by 
Mr. Tremble's house, on West Charleston street ; John Cunningham, a ware- 
liouse, in the eastern part of town, near where the car-shops are now situated. 
Michael Toby and others erected dwellings, and the lively times of frontier 
Western towns Avere indicated on all hands. Mr. Toby says he had been here in 
the fall before, looking over the ground, and decided to locate. In the winter, 
probably in January, he and a number of others met in a little shanty made of 
sod and plank, and placed near the crossing, then only located, where they ex- 
amined the map of the new town and selected lots. They were all known as 
"Improvement lots." paid for by putting so much improvement on each lot, 
for which, as yet, the plat not being acknowledged and recorded, no deeds 
could be made. He went back to the Kickapoo timber, where he was living, 
and, before spring, had erected two barns for some of the residents there, and 
had the timbers for his house ready. He came again to Mattoon when the 
building began, and, that summer, assisted in erecting a good many structures, 
as well as building his own house. 

The sale of lots was extensively advertised by means of hand-bills sent all 
over the country. The 15th day of May was the day set, and on the 14th, 
the proprietors went to Charleston, where they acknowledged the plat before 
Eli Wiley, a Justice, and had it recorded. 

On the next morning, a construction-train came over from Terre Haute, 
that railroad being completed this far, bringing a great number of buyers. All 
the people from the surrounding country came on horse-back to see the cars they 
ha<l heard so much about, and which so many had never seen. 

The auctioneer was Samuel Adams, of Terre Haute. During the sale, 
various races occurred between fleet horses and the locomotive and between one 
anotiier. Foot-racing, wrestling, leaping and other things of such hilarious 
nature were indulged among the attendants who came to see, while not a few, 
especially among the ladies, were compelled to stand and hold their horses, 
there being no places to hitch, and no places, except in the unfinished houses, 
to find seats. The sale passed off very satisfactorily, a large part of the lots 
finding purchasers. Great expectations existed on the part of the majority of 
the purchasers: a large town, predicted they, would some day grace the high hill 
on which the city is built. All Western towns partook of the same spirit, but 
all were not successful in reaching their anticipations. The embryo village was 
by this time named. In casting about for a suitable synonym whereby it should 
be known to the world, the proprietors took into consideration the advantages 
accruing from the railroads, which had, indeed, been the cause of the town, and 
determined in some way to perpetuate their construction. The contracting firm 
for the Terre Haute & Alton road was Phelps, Mattoon ^: Barnes, of Spring- 
field, Mass. They had been extensive contractors, having built, in the previ- 
ous decade, the Rome & Watertown, the Buffalo cS: Corning and the Watertown 


■k Potsdam Railroads. The second partner, Mr. William Mattoon, was very 
actively engaged here when they were building the Terre Haute &; Alton Road, 
and became quite well known along the line. In honor of him, the city of 
which we are writing received its name. He and Messrs. Dawsen and Messer 
were, in 1857-58, engaged on the towers of the suspension bridge ar Cincinnati, 
and for a few years after, Mr. Mattoon was actively engaged in such pursuits. 
About 1859, he began to spend the most of his time at home, on his fine farm near 
Westfield, where he lived the remainder of his life, devoting himself to the raising 
fine stock. His herds of fine Devon cattle are said to have taken more pre- 
miums that any other herd in the United States. Mr. Mattoon died a few months 
ago. He will always be remembered by the old citizens here, whose city, as 
well as a street in Springfield, Mass., will perpetuate his memory. 

After the sale of lots on May 15, the greatest activity prevailed here in 
the erection of houses. Lodging and boarding were very hard to get. Every 
one was "full," and accommodations of every kind were brought into use. 
Labor was high, as it always is such times, and laborers flocked to Mattoon to 
share in the prosperity. Work on both railroads was carried on, and num- 
bers of men found temporary homes here. The inevitable results followed. 
Whisky was brought on by unlawful persons, and a saloon started. To the 
credit of one or two of the contractors, it is to be said, they gave some of the 
saloon-keepers so long a time to leave — they left. But the temptation was strong 
and whisky, in one way and another, would come. It seems to be the inevitable 
follower of all frontier towns, and Mattoon was no exception to the rule. 

Though the town had now a few stores, several houses, and a great many in 
the course of construction, it lacked that commodity of all towns, a hotel. 
Messrs. Sanderson and Carpenter, two of the original proprietors, were, however, 
preparing to supply the deficiency. As labor was high here, they had the tim- 
ber all framed and put in readiness at Terre Haute, and on Sunday, June 30, 
1855, erected the first hotel — the Pennsylvania House — in the town. It stood 
on the south side of Broadway, just west of the present Mattoon National Bank, 
occupying part of the ground now used by that building. It was already to 
put together when it arrived, and before night the frame was up. It had, how- 
ever, been constructed like man}' another building, a little weak, and after the 
third floor and the rafters were finished, the structure gave way, letting that 
floor and the rafters down upon the second. Props and braces were imme- 
diately applied, and the disaster remedied. Not a few of the people expressed 
their disapprobation at the erection of the building on the Sabbath day, while 
some afiirmed the falling of its upper storv was a judgment sent on the builders 
for desecrating the day. The building probably fell because it was poorly con- 
structed. Many persons stoutly affirm that this hotel was raised on the Fourth 
of July. All were agreed that it was raised on Sunday. The writer of these 
pages, with several others, made a calculation, based on an invariable rule in 
mathematics, and found that the Fourth of July in 1855 came on Wednesday. 


It was also found correct by several tests. The fact was then developed that it 
was raised on the Sunday previous, and opened with a big dinner on the Fourth. 
Tlie hotel opened with a good run of custom, and for many years did a good 
business. Old people well remember it, and in its day it did an important work 
in the growth of the town. It gave way, finally, to the demands of trade, and 
the erection of better buildings, and was removed to give place to the present 
biick houses occupying its site. 

While on the subject of hotels we will notice some of the subsequent ones 

The same summer the Pennsylvania House was built, another hotel, known 
as the Union House, was constructed on the ground now occupied by the Opera- 
house. It was erected by a man named Bain, and was used for the stage office 
until the connection between each railroad was finished. This hotel was not 
completed till fall. It was known as the Kentucky House, and was kept by 
Mr. W. H. K. Pile, and after him by John Davis. Like the Pennsylvania 
House, it became a favorite stopping-place and enjoyed a good reputation, and 
it. too, like its predecessor, gave way before the march of improvement and is 
among the things of the past. 

In the spring of 1857. Mr. Morgan Griffin came to Mattoon to superintend 
for a Mr. Radcliff, of New York, the building of the Essex House. Mr. Ebene- 
zer Noyes, owned the most of the original plat of the town lying west of the 
Illinois Central Railroad, and gave Mr. R. the lot on which to erect the house. 
He was also to build brick business houses on the reiiiainder of the block to 
the west end of the street. Mr. Noyes had about this time purchased Section 
14 from the Railroad Company, intending to lay it out in lots. He had 
purchased for his brother. Dr. Frank Noyes, Section 15, in 1852, and had 
platted that in large lots. Between him and the proprietors of Section 13, 
the original plat of the city, arose an estrangement, resulting in his pur- 
chasing Sections 14 and 15, and platting them. The residents have always 
noticed the "jog," or set-oif in the streets running west frcm the end of Broad- 
way. This was done when Mr. Noyes had the plat made. In the extreme 
efforts made between the East and West Towns to secure the center of town, 
considerable " Avire-pulling " was indulged, resulting in not the best of feeling. 
This, however, existed more between the proprietors, in their endeavors to 
further their own interests, than between the people, who cared more for a suit- 
able location than anything else, leaving the ascendency of either side to reg- 
ulate itself. In the erection of the Essex House, Mr. Radcliff failed to carry 
out the plan, and, after the walls were built, it came into the possession of Mr. 
Noyes, who completed it, built the rear addition, opened it to the public in 1859, 
and managed it several years. Mr. Daniel Messer, the present landlord, assumed 
charge in 1869. The house has always been a prominent stopping-place, 
situated as it is at the junction, and being occupied by the depot and ticket- 


The hotels of after years may be briefly noticed. When the Essex House 
was built, it was the third brick building in town, others, however, began to 
appear, when the war of the rebellion came, stopping almost all operations until 
after its close. The other hotels erected are the City Hotel, the Everett House, 
now unoccupied, and the present Dole House. This latter is situated on the south- 
east corner of Broadway and First street, and was begun in 1868, by a stock com- 
pany. Not long after, the Dole Brothers obtained control, and completed it in 
1871. ft was opened as the Mattoon House, under the management of John 
W. Ha.wley, now of the Everett House, St. Louis. As the Dole Brothers were 
the principal builders of the hotel, and, as it was opened by them, the name 
was changed in honor of them. On the 15th of March, 1877, Stubbins 
Brothers took charge of it, and, on the 18th of December, lfe78, purchased the 
building. They have remodeled and improved it, and have secured a large 
part of the traveling public. A few other small hotels and boarding-houses 
complete the list. None, however, but the Dole, Essex and City Hotels are 
run upon the regular hotel plans, and these three may be said to transact the 
principal business in their line. 

Going again to the early history of the time, we find the summer of 1855 
one of great activity. Conley and Hitchcock opened a store among those that 
we have mentioned ; the post office was established, and Mr. True made Post- 
master, with Mr. Thomas E. Woods as Deputy ; a small schoolhouse was 
erected on East Broadway, and the life of Mattoon, in its various phases, was 
fully begun. Mr. McFadden and others yet living in town, state that, before 
the building season had closed, upward of one hundred buildings were to be 
seen, all of which were occupied that winter. 

Through the winter, school was maintained in the small frame house 
alluded to. Religious services were conducted, principally by the Baptists, in 
each other's houses, or in the schoolhouse, while a few ministers of other 
denominations came to see what could bo done for their churches, and occasion- 
ally held meetings in some of the houses, or in the schoolhouse. The railroads 
were woi'king to complete connections between the two incomplete ends, and 
the continued, active life of the town hardly abated any for the cold weather 
experienced. Before the holidays, the Terre Haute & Alton completed the 
remainder of their line, and, by January 1, 1856, trains were running from 
Chicago to Cairo, over the Illinois Central. 

Some of the business houses were built in the northeast part of town, tiot 
far from where Mr. John Cunningham had his warehouse, and where a stren- 
uous effort was made to secure the center of the business portion. Here Mr. 
Cartmell opened a small drug store, with Dr. Camp, the first disciple of Escu- 
lapius in the town, as partner. The inexorable law of business could not be 
broken here, and the center of town insisted on remaining near the railroad 
crossing. The holders of property in the eastern part of the village saw this» 
finally, and gave way to the stern demands of trade. 


The next spring, building began anew ; business houses, dwellings and 
shops began to appear. The first permanent brick store in town was erected 
for True and Cunningham, by Mr. Michael Toby, then a builder, and, before 
winter, it was ready for furnishing. It is yet standing on the southeast corner 
of Broadway and Second street, and is now occupied by the meat-shop of Mr. 
John Hunt. It was the only brick built that season. Several stores were, 
liowever, erected, and more dwellings commenced, all of which were not com- 
pleted before winter came ; a few other shops were built, and Mattoon was 
coming to the front among Western towns. Another most important addition 
iippeared in June, an adjunct that all Western towns demand, and that all 
get nearly as soon as they are started. We refer to the newspaper. In June, 
of that year, the Grazette appeared, setting forth the merits of the town and 
advertising its advantages. This was started by Mr. R. W. Houghton, on the 
Tth day of June, and, from its columns, considerable is gleaned respecting the 
joung city, which is given in extracts from the paper published in the sketch 
of the press, further on in the narrative. The editor thinks the population of 
Mattoon can safely be put down at oOO persons, and is certain of that number 
in an issue a year after. 

That summer, the Baptists erected a small frame house of worship, and, 
during the winter, held regular services therein. They allowed other denomi- 
nations to use the little church when they had no minister. The small frame 
schoolhouse had become entirely too small now for the increased juvenile popu- 
lation, and a larger and more comfortable brick structure took its place. It, 
however, was not erected till 1857 (some assert, one year later), and in the 
interim, the winter of 1856-57, school was taught in a room over Mr. True's 
store and in parts of some unfinished buildings. 

In the spring of 1857, ground was broken for the Essex House, which, 
when completed, was the largest and finest house in town. It was not, how- 
ever, finished for two years. Its history has already been given, and neeil 
nut be repeated here. 

This summer, the Methodists and Cumberland Presbyterians organized con- 
gregations, and began to hold meetings in each other's houses, in empty store- 
rooms, or in a small hall that had been completed. A year or so after, 
they erected their houses of worship, and were joined by other denomina- 
tions, the history of whose operations is given in connection with that of their 

In May of this year. 65 votes were cast for tlie incorporation of the town 
and 25 votes against the measure, making a total of 00 voters in the town 
limits. Assuming the usual ratio of voters to the population, this would give 
Mattoon fully as many inhabitants as the editor of the G-azette predicted, a 
year before, in his first issue of his paper. 

In June, of this year, the limits of the town were greatly extended by the 
addition made by Mr. Ebenezer Noyes. He, as has been noticed, purchased 


Section 15 for his brother, in 1852, at the land-sale when the original plat of 
Mattoon was purchased, and had this laid out in acre tracts. Some of these 
had now been sold, as "great expectations" were fully indulged in b}'- the 
inhabitants of the embryo city. He purchased Section 14 from the Central 
Railroad, at a good price per acre, as the officers of that corporation were fully 
alive to the prospects of Mattoon and the nearness of their section of land. 
As has been intimated, Mr. Noyes and the proprietors of the east side of town 
could not agree ; and, when he platted Section 14, he made a "jog" in all the 
streets, and gave new names to those running west. Hence, when Broadway 
reaches the western limits of the old plat, it suddenly turns northward and 
sioes on west under the name of Western avenue. All streets in this addition 
conform to this rule, and cause no little wonderment on the part of strangers 
who do not understand the cause of the difference. 

The life of Mattoon from this date on down to the war bears with it but 
little history. Several churches were erected ; a good schoolhouse built in each 
ward, an account of which appears in the history of. education and religion 
further on in these pages ; a few brick stores were built ; one or two mills and 
an elevator or two appeared ; a bank opened : dwellings were erected in all 
parts of town, and its life varied but little from the regular growth of all 
Western towns. 

In looking over the files of newspapers of this period, the Grazette being 
joined by the Journal, several interesting items are gleaned. 

We learn that a fire company was organized in March, 1861, and that the 
Council appropriated flOO for buying three dozen buckets and other appli- 
ances. The following were the officers of this company : Ebenezer Noyes, 
President ; H. F. Kelley, First Director ; P. J. Drake, Second Director ; 
Carson Knight, Secretary ; Edw. A. Thielens, Treasurer ; B. N. Skelton, 
G. F. Bateman and John Nabb, Standing Committee: Rufus Noyes, Mes- 

Whatever service this or any succeeding fire company performed is not recorded 
by the papers. It is a fair inference, however, that this, or whatever companies 
succeeded it, did their share in putting out fires. The city has never been well 
supplied in this respect, and to-day no organization exists, nor is there any pro- 
vision made to support one. A fire starts, and is simply allowed to burn out. 
An expensive fire department might not be advisable ; but an organization 
could be supported by volunteers, a hook, ladder and bucket brigade be easily 
kept up, and much valuable property saved. It is argued that it is cheaper to 
let the buildings burn, and get the insurance. That will be practically demon- 
strated, some time in a dry season, if a fire starts in the west end of town, 
and, fed by a strong west wind, burns out the entire business part of Mattoon. 
It has been done in other towns, and may occur here. 

While on this subject, it might be interesting to note briefly some of the 
principal conflagrations that have occurred here. 


In tht' sketches following these pages, some account of the destruction by 
fire of mills, elevators and such structures is given. Here we will notice what 
pertained to the residence and uusiness portion. The papers chronicle the 
destruction, on Sunday morning, January 1, 1866, of a house owned by Mr. 
E. Regan, whose loss was nearly $5,000 ; his insurance a little over $3,000. 
The same fire destroyed the stock of Mr. Fitzgerald, a baker and confectioner, 
whose loss was $2,300, but whose insurance was $4,300. Everharty & Co. 
lost $500, less the insurance of $300 ; while others lost, in the aggregate, 

The Journal of September 4, 1867, records the loss of Hart & Co.'s livery- 
stable, on August 26, with all its contents, including seventeen horses, eight 
carriages and buggies, and a mow full of hay. The loss was fully $6,000. on 
which only a small insurance was carried. Many of the horses belonged to 
citizens of the city. The fire spread from the stable to Col. H. L. Hart's 
residence, immediately south, which was also burned. Fortunately, the wind 
blew from the north, keeping the flames away from Broadway, else the loss 
might have been dreadful. 

The same issue of the Journal records the destruction, on the Wednesday 
night before, of the residence of Mr. Ephraim Orr, in the northeast part of the 
citv. The Journal states that the buihling was known as the " Cartmell House," 
built by Mr. Edward Cartmell in 1855 ; also, that in it Gen. True kept a stock 
of goods and the first post office in Mattoon. Gen. True was Postmaster, while 
the editor, Capt. T. E. Woods, was Clerk, and Deputy. The loss on this 
building was about $1,500. 

Under date of November 9, 1867. the Journal chronicles another destruc- 
tive conflagration — this time, the large agricultural warehouse owned by Ebene- 
zer Noyes. It was probably set on fire by sparks from a locomotive passing at 
night, and it was some time before it was discovered. Two of Mr. Noyes' sons 
narrowly escaped burning, as they were asleep in the building at the time, and* 
did not awaken until near too late to save themselves. One of them, Eben, 
was badly burned before he was rescued. The building was a huge three-story 
frame, and made a great light. The loss on the building was $6,000, and on 
the stock was $3,000. The insurance was about $5,000. leaving a large loss. 

Other prominent fires were the destruction of John Cunningham's elevator, 
the elevator just north of the Essex House, a mill or two, nearly all of which 
are mentioned in a chapter devoted to that subject. 

Last winter, during the excessive cold weather, five serious fires occurred, 
almost one after the other. As no organized effort toward the extinguishment 
of fires exists, they were allowed to burn out. The same occurred in the month 
of February, wlien Mr. Walsh lost his dwelling. 

Aside from the calamity of fire suffered in Mattoon, the place has, once or 
twice, been visited by severe storms, one of which deserves mention. In Sep- 
tember, 1864, a great storm occurred, occasioning a very serious loss of prop - 


erty, and, in some instances, several persons injured. The JournaL of Sep- 
tember 28 gives the following account of the storm : 

" This place was visited, on last Friday evening, by one of the most terrific 
storms ever known in this part of the State. Dense, reddish-black clouds made 
their appearance, a little north of west, about 3 o'clock, and in less than ten 
minutes the storm burst upon us in its wildest fury, tearing down awnings, 
blowing down and unroofing buildings, and scattering about everything mova- 
ble. The flying dust was so thick and the darkness so great, that one might 
-well imagine that the very clouds had descended to the earth and lifted every 
particle of loose earth. The damage in town was great,,yet we do not suppose 
it more than equals that in the country, where houses were unroofed and fences 
and corn leveled to the ground in great number. The following is the list of 
the principal injuries, as far as we have been able to learn, within the corpora- 
tion limits : 

"• IM. E. Church, two-thirds unroofed and windows and plastering much 
broken. Damage, about $1,500. 

'' Smoke-stacks of Thomas Jennings" woolen-factory and T. Alexander's 
flouring-mill blown down. 

•• Mr. Hutton's new two-storv frame house, partly finished, leveled to the 

'• Fence to Smith & Jones' lumber-yard blown down and thousands of feet 
of lumber and shingles blown away and broken up. 

'• Shed, formerly warehouse to Monroe's store-building, blown down. 
•■ The new brick of Dole Brothers was much damaged, the window-facings 
of the east and south sides and several feet of the wall being blown down. 

•' The wooden awnings in front of Wilson, Bro. & Co., P. J. Drake and two 
or three other establishments on the east side of the Illinois Central Railroad, 
torn from their fastenings and hurled into the street. 

" In the west part of town, Mr. Cullom's house was twisted oft" the founda- 
tion, nearly all the furniture broken, and William Waggoner's house was 
wrested from its foundation and badly smashed up. 

" John Walkup's new two-story house, unfinished, moved from its founda- 
tion and badly injured, as was also the residence of J. Vallandigham. 

" The smoke-stacks of Muchmore & Co.'s planing-mill and Jones' flouring- 
mill were blown down, and it was with great diflUculty the planing-mill could be 
prevented from burning. 

'• Chapin & Pilkington's lumber-yards badly scattered, and much lumber 

" The houses of P. Hennessy and R. M. Bridges were both leveled to the 

" The Essex House was badly damaged, all the chimneys and two-thirds of 
the iron roof of the north side .^tripped off", and the whole upper story exposed to 
the furious rain which followed. Sheets of iron ten feet long were carried more 


than a hundred yards, one of which was hurled through the show-window iw 
Mr. Drakes store. 

" The stairway leading to the second story of Francis & Drake's store, 
which was on the west side of the building, with a high board fence on the 
north and a two-story brick on the west, was lifted from its place and hurled 
back nearly twenty feet, the wind having sucked down and lifted it out. 

'' Chimneys, out-houses, stables and fences were blown down by the score 
all over town, and a number of windows broken by flying fragments. Thirty 
or forty feet square of the roof of the M. E. Church was carried, rafters and 
all, completely over the residence of Mr. Ellis, just east of the church, and 
fell a little south of the church, mashing down over seventy-five feet of fencing, 
knocking off" a chimney and breaking twenty-four panes of glass out of his 
windows. About twenty feet of the roof was taken nearly one hundred yards 
almost due south of the church. 

'• In the countrv nine miles west, the two-storv residence of James Munson 
was moved from its foundation and badly racked, and that of Jesse Armentrout 
entirely demolished, as were several other buildings in the same neighborhood. 
Corn fields and fences were all leveled, and in many fields scarcely a blade is 
left, and even the corn is blown off" the stalks. 

" The residence of Thomas Meredith, three miles west, was also blown over 
and one of the corner-stones moved ten feet. 

" The track of the storm seems to have been almost directly west to east, 
and about nine miles wide, having left its terrible marks all the way from Hills- 
boro to Paris, over one hundred miles. We understand that the M. E. Church 
and several other buildings were unroofed at the former place, and from the 
Paris Beacon and Blade we learn that a part of the steeple of the M. E. 
Church was blown off", falling through the roof and damaging the building about 
$1,500. The Presbyterian Church was also severely injured, many other 
houses blown down, and much other damage done at that place. 

'' We have not learned of much damage being done at Charleston and other 
towns along the line, but have no doubt it has seriously injured all towns lying 
in its pathway. " 

A few other storms have sv/ept over the prairies of Coles County in the 
years since it was settled, but none so fierce as the one recorded are mentioned 
in its annals. 

We must not omit a mention of the part the city took in the last war. Mat- 
toon and its surrounding populace were largely in fixvor of a subjugation of that 
part of the Union favoring its dismemberment, and many of her bravest citizens 
left home and dear ones to protect a nation's honor, and save the flag all loved 
so well. The war of the rebellion opened in 1861. The first company to 
respond to the call for troops from this part of Coles County left Mattoon on 
April 15, 1861, for Springfield, where they were to be mustered into service 
and to be attached to their regiment. Before their departure, they were served 


with a sumptuous dinner at the Pennsylvania House by Mr. McKee, the pni- 
prietor, and were presented with a flag by the ladies of Mattoon, and each officer 
Avith a bible and each private with a testament by the Masonic orders in town. 
The committee of ladies who presented the flag was composed of the following 
persons : Misses Kate McMunn, Mollie Tobey, Helen Messer, Sarah Aldrich 
and Mrs. Maggie Duncan and Mrs. McKee. Mrs. L. Villie Malone made the 
presentation speech to the boys, who responded through Lieut. Edward True, 
as Capt. James Monroe was then in Springfield. 

Capt. Monroe, while at Camp Yates, on April 25, was presented by his 
friends, through C. Knight, with a fine sword. 

" On Tuesday, May 14," says the Journal of that year, " a regiment was 
organized and sworn in by Col. Grant, a camp established and named Camp 
Grant." No allusion to the famous man who afterward led the armies of the 
Union is made. His prowess had not yet developed. 

The regiment remained here, drilling for some time, but as soon as it was 
fully ready it was sent to Springfield and from there to the service. 

While the regiment was encamped near Mattoon, the town was generally 
rather lively. Soldiers, out on a short pass, not uncommonly got rather too> 
much whisky in them, and, in that condition, were not always what they should 
be. Civilians known to be favorable to the Southern States were not unfre- 
quently compelled to subscribe to oaths or other declarations, not at all in con- 
formity with their sentiments. No riots occurred in Mattoon, as in Charleston, 
or, at least, none worthy of record, and, as the veil of peace is now drawn over 
all these scenes, we do not care to lift it, but think that they, as well as several 
tragedies occurring in Coles County, are better forgotten. 

We will now retrace our steps somewhat, and, in a measure, note some- 
thing of the municipal life of Mattoon. The city was incorporated under the 
general law of the State, in June, 1857, when 65 votes were cast in its favor, 
and 25 against. It continued under that organization, states our authority — 
an advertising sheet issued by Jerry Toles, an insurance and real estate agent. 
May 1, 1866 — until 1859, when a city charter was obtained from the Legis- 
lature, which, as amended, was in force when the aforesaid sheet was published. 

From an examination of the newspapers of 1860 and 1861, we learn that 
an election was held in Mattoon on Monday, April 1, 1861, under the provis- 
ions granted in the new charter during the winter previous. From the 
provisions of the charter, we learn that the word " Town " shall be changed to 
" City," and " Trustees " to " Councilmen." Evidently the advertising sheet 
of Mr. Toles is a little premature in its statements. As he issued his sheet for 
advertising purposes, it is natural to suppose he desired to clothe Mattoon with 
the title of a city as early as possible. The town charter was liberally 
amended in 1859, but no city created, as is shown in the charter quoted. 
This charter, in its second article, provided that " members of the City Council 
shall have had six months' residence, be a hona-jide freeholder at the time of 


his election, and shall have paid a corporation tax in said city during the pre- 
ceding year. Whenever he ceases to be a freeholder in said city, his oflfice 
becomes vacant. 

The election was ordered to be held annually thereafter, on the first Monday 
in April, when a President, six members of a City Council, City Clerk, Treas- 
urer and Street Supervisor should be elected. 

All persons were entitled, by the charter, to vote for State officers who 
" have paid a corporation tax to the city during the year immediately pre- 
ceding the election, and have resided in the corporation ninety days previous to 
the election, were entitled to vote for city officers.'" 

The Police Justice and Constables were each to be elected for four years. 

The tax and labor collected from persons on the west side of the Illinois 
Central Railroad was to be distributed there, while that on the east side 
was to be distributed there. The Gazette, in its first issue after the elec- 
tion, gives the following account of it : " Below we give the result of 
the municipal election on last Monday. We did have some conscientious 
scruples as to publishing the particulars of the bungling affair, but, since we 
heard of the double election which our Paris neighbors held on the same day, 
Ave have concluded that the Parisians can't ' poke fun at us ' over our blunders, 
and, consequently, we may as well publish." 

The new city charter as amended — declaring who were and who were not legal 
voters, which clause did put a flea in somebody's ear — very mysteriously got lost 
while in the President's keeping, just at the time when the first election under it 
was to be held, and as it was the only legally attested copy of the charter in the 
possession of the Board, as a matter of course the opponents of the new fran- 
chise took the opportunity to annul the election. After sweating and quarrel- 
ing on the morning of the election till nearly 11 o'clock, the Board having 
declared the election postponed, the '' sovereign " people concluded to have an 
election of their own. An election was therefore immediately called, clerks and 
judges of election duly appointed, and the voting began. The voting was, 
of course, done indiscriminately as far as having paid taxes was concerned. 
The following is the result : 

For Police Justice, James T. Smith ; Police Constable, James L. Taylor ; 
President, James Monroe. City Council — T. C. Patrick, Samuel Smith, D. 
M. Turney, L. Chapin, D. C. Higginson and C. A. Powell. Clerk, B. N. 
Skelton ; Treasurer, A. Hasbrouck ; vStreet Supervisor, B. F. Keely. 

The vote for and against license was small. For license, 80 ; against 
license, 77. 

Mattoon remained Under this form of government, with various alterations 
made as the city grew, until the last week of February, 1879, when at an 
election the charter was so changed that the city passed under the general in- 
corporation law of the State, and under that law is now governed. The prin- 
cipal changes relate to the election of officers, many of which are now ap- 


pointed, and to the redivision of the city into wards. This latter move is now 
agitated, but it is not likely to be adopted for some time. The governing power 
still rests in the Council, and in place of the people electing several subordinate 
officers, that body appoints them. 

Thus far in this narrative, we have omitted any mention, save incidents, of 
mills, manufactories or the general business of the city, as well as its churches, 
schools, newspapers and societies, leaving them for separate articles. In this 
way more complete, and, at the same time, more condensed, descriptions can be 
given, and also in a better and more explicit manner. They show much of the 
history of the city, but are not given with that view being intended for the ob- 
jects they treat. 

We shall, therefore, leave the narrative of the city and devote the remainder 
of this history to the subjects we have mentioned. 


John Cunningham's elevator, built in the spring of 1855, before the sale of 
lots, was the pioneer of such enterprises in Mattoon. It was, as time event- 
ually proved, too far from the natural center of town, the railroad crossing, and 
was finally abandoned. Four or five years after, Mr. Cunningham built a sub- 
stantial brick warehouse north of the railroad crossing, on the west side of the 
Central track, and just south of where Moneypenny's mill now stands. This 
was quite a firm building, and was one of the best to follow in chronological 
order the Essex House. It stood till Sunday 'night, March 19, 1865, when it 
was destroyed by fire. It appears to have been the principal elevator in town 
until it was destroyed. 

The elevator of Jennings & Co., still standing, comes next in the annals of 
the town. It was built about the close of the war by the present proprietors, 
who are the oldest grain merchants in Mattoon. One of them and Mr. H. M. 
Tremble, built a small warehouse where the express office now stands — the 
second enterprise of the kind in town. It was a small building, and was used 
as such for a few years and then removed. South of it stood the old pork- 
house of O'Connell & Co., brought from near Cincinnati, the pioneer enter- 
prise of that kind in the city. It was burned after a few years of service. 
!N^ear it was the large well over which the city and Central Railroad had such 
a vexatious lawsuit. The controversy over the well was finally settled, and it is 
not at present regularly used. 

Just before Mr. Cunningham built his brick elevator, Luther Miller moved 
an old porkhouse from Terre Haute, Ind., and set it up north of the proposed 
site of Mr. Cunningham's elevator. About 1861, the porkhouse came into the 
hands of Hudnot & Co., who remodeled it, and opened a hominy-mill in the 
building. This they operated with varying success until 1864, when the 
building came into the control of Cox & Miller, who again changed its interior 
and opened a plow-factory in it. This was conducted for two or three years, 


when Capt. Hinkle obtained possession of the building, and opened a corn- 
meal mill in it. This enterprise ho continued two years, when he I'etired, and 
the present parties obtained control. Mr. Moneypenny now operates the 
meal- mill and has a very fair trade. 

The Pacific Mill, noted in the papers as the pioneer mill of Mattoon, is in 
the southwest part of town, on the St. Louis Railroad. It was built in 1862, 
by Charles Jones, who operated it four years. It remained idle then for more 
than a year, when it was purchased by Ira and D. D. James, who re-opened it 
and operated it until the summer of 1878, when, the business not proving 
profitable, they discontinued it. The mill is now idle, but yet in the hands 
of the Messrs. James. 

Cox's Mill, a little west of Money penny's mill, is at present unoccupied. 
It was built by Steadman & Demuth, in 1869 or 1870, who operated it two or 
three years, when it came into the possession of Hiram Cox, the present owner. 

James' Elevator was built in 1868, by Ira and D. D. James, who have been 
more or less connected in the grain trade in Mattoon many years. They have 
controlled their own elevator until their failure in 1874, when it and the Pacific- 
Mill, operated by them since 1866, went into possession of Greer & Co., for 
whom they now operate the elevator. 

The City Mill — sometimes called Union Mill — was built in 1862 and 1863. 
by T. C. Alexander & Co., at an expense of $12,000. They operated it 
until 1864, when Col. J. Richmond purchased one-half interest in it, which 
he sold, in 1867, to Mr. Curtis." Under his control, it was run till February. 
1875, when Col. Richmond and J. H. Clark bought the mill. In the fall. Col. 
Richmond purchased the entire concern and has been operating it since. It is 
the principal flouring-mill in the ,city, and does the majority of grinding for 
the country about Mattoon. 

It might be well before leaving this subject to notice a few of the elevators 
and mills that have been destroyed by fire. Mr. Cunningham's elevator has 
already been noticed. A large elevator was' built just north of the Essex House 
by Richai'ds & Co., about 1860. It stood only a few years, when it was entirely 
consumed by the relentless element. It was at once rebuilt by the same firm, 
who sold it to Day, Sprague & Co., who did business there till about 1873, when 
the same calamity befell it. No attempt was made to rebuild the third time. 

About the same year it burned, the Watkins Mill was erected, just west of 
the foundry, b^i^ James Watkins. After running it about two years, the mill 
caught fire, and, in spite of its unusual facilities for extinguishing fives, it suf- 
fered the fate of some of its fellows. 

These mills are the principal ones erected in the city. A few others have 
been built, but, proving unprofitable, were in a few years converted to other 

The first machine-shop or foundry was built by James Wolfe, in 1863 or 
1864. He kept it about three years, and sold to Charles Pomeroy, who con- 


tinued it till the Lenox Foundry was built, in 1872, when he moved it away. 
This latter foundry was built by William Lenox, the present proprietor, the 
year referred to. It is the only enterprise of the kind in town, and has a very 
fair custom. 

The largest machine-shops in Mattoon are those operated by the Indianapolis 
& St. Louis Railway. They were built here in 1870, and were brought to 
Mattoon on a guarantee of that city of a bonus of $60,000 in bonds. The 
vote on this question was held on April 4, 1870, and was decided by 517 votes 
in favor of the appropriation to 10 against it. The bonds are payable in three 
equal installments, one-third in ten years from the date of issue ; one-third in 
fifteen years, and one-third in twenty years. The shops were removed from Litch- 
field soon after the bonds were guaranteed, and have since been operating. 
They are in the northeast part of the city, on ground donated them, occupying 
several acres. 

From a statement of the Master Mechanic regarding their capacity and 
operations, the following items are taken : 

The machine-shops are 110x204 feet, with eight repair-pits. The jjower- 
room, 40x50 feet, adjoins this building. The store-room is also adjoining, and 
is 40x60 feet in size. The car-shops are 85x204 feet in size, with six repair- 
tracks, and, with the machine-shop, get their power from an 80-horse power 
engine. The blacksmith-shop is 50x150 feet, has sixteen fires and is furnished 
with one 1,500-pound steam hammer. The boiler-shop is 50x80 feet, and has 
three repair-tracks. The paint-shop is 44x228 feet, and has two repair-tracks. 
There are twenty-one stalls in the roundhouse. It is furnished with one of 
Greenleaf's Machine Works turn-tables. The transfer-table is 27x180 feet, 
and connects with the tracks leading into the different shops. The tank and oil 
room is 40x40 feet, has four water-tubs, with a capacity of 60,000 gallons eacli, 
filled from a reservoir one-half mile south of the works. The buildings are all 
of brick, with slate roofs, save the paint-shop, which is of frame. 

All are heated by steam save the paint and blacksmith shops. The shops 
in their arrangement are unsurpassed in the West, and turn out nothing but the 
best of work. Over two hundred men are employed here, in addition to nearly 
one-half that number employed in the repair-shops at Terre Haute and East 
St. Louis. The monthly pay-roll at Mattoon is about $23,000, the material 
used each month costing about one-half that sum. The money distributed at 
these shops is in a measure nearly all spent in the city. Could other factories 
be induced to come here, and by their work aid in affording employment and 
business, Mattoon would be greatly benefited by it. 

A few other factories have been in existence here. We refer more particu- 
larly to the woolen-factory, operated from the close of the war until 1868 or 
1869, and which, for awhile, had a good trade. The brick building is now idle. 
It certainly ought not to be so. If not wanted for the purpose for which it 
was built, other use might be made of it and the property made to pay some 


revenue. When people learn that small things, closely attended, are profitable, 
the large farms about Mattoon will disappear, more attention will be given to 
details, and tlie remedy for hard times will come of its own accord. 

The other and remaining industries of Mattoon are various shops of all 
kinds found in all towns. To describe them is unnecessary here. They came 
with the first house in the place and will remain while it lasts. 


The first bank in Mattoon was established in 1858 or 1859 by James T. Cun- 
ningham, John Cunningham and Thomas A. Marshall, and 0. B. Ficklin, of 
Charleston. It was founded, under the existing laws of that day, as a private 
bank, did not issue notes, and confined its business mainlv to loaning money- 
It occupied a room in a frame building, where Kahn's clothing store is now 
situated. It continued until the financial depression occasioned by the failure 
of so many State banks a year or two after it was started, and, owing to this 
suspension, was obliged to close its business. In the fall of 1862, Pilkington & 
Green opened a bank in the building vacated by the former bank, using their 
safe and fixtures. This they continued until January 1, 1864, when the firm 
was changed to Pilkington & Co., the members of the firm being Mr. 
Pilkington. C. G. Townsend and W. B. Dunlap. The bank was removed two or 
three doors west of its former location, and under the new management con- 
tinued till May 1, 1865. The national banking system had now been devised, 
and it was decided to organize a national bank. A number of wealthy gentle- 
men met, subscribed the necessary funds, purchased the business, fixtures, etc., 
of Pilkington & Co., and as soon as the arrangements were perfected, 
opened the First National Bank. It was opened on the above date — May 1 — 
with a capital of $60,000, with the privilege of increasing to $200,000. That 
fall, their present building was completed, vaults were put in and a time-lock 
placed on the safe. The Directors were C. M. Dole, William Miller, Samuel 
Smith, J. C. Dole, I. R. Herkimer, Hiram Cox, Alcaizo Eaton, L. Chapin and 
S. W. True. Mr. C. M. Dole was chosen President ; Mr. True, Cashier, and 
Mr. Dunlap, Teller. Mr. True resigned the cashiership early in January, 
1879, and Mr. Dunlap was elected to the vacancy. He remained in this posi- 
tion until January 1, 1874. When the Mattoon National Bank was organized 
in July, he was elected President. He resigned the Cashier's place to engage 
in the real estate and loan business, as he desired a more active, outdoor busi- 
ness. He was only nominally Pi-esident of the Mattoon National Bank, draw- 
ing no salai'v, and after a few years' work in the position, he sold his stock in 
this bank, and went entirely out of the business. When he left the First 
National Bank, Mr. C. G. Weymouth was elected to the Cashier's office, hav- 
ing been promoted to that position from the Teller's place. No change was 
made in the bank's otficials until the spring of 1878, when Mr. Dunlap was 
again elected to the Cashier's place, which he still holds. Mr. J. E. Steele is 


Teller. Mr. Dunlap was elected President of the bank, but declined, and 
Mark Kahn was chosen. He held the place until January, 1879, when he 
resigned, and William B. Warren, of Terre Haute, was elected. 

The capital stock was reduced to $50,000 not long since, that amount 
being abundant for all purposes; all doubtful paper was thrown out and 
properly charged, and now the bank is in an excellent condition, with a large 

The next bank established in town was by Hinkle & Champion and Mr. M. 
B. Abell. It began business May 1, 1866, under the name of the Merchants' 
and Farmers' Bank, in a room now occupied by Craig & Craig as a law office. 
It continued business till a few years ago, when it failed, and closed. Mr. 
Dunlap, as Receiver, wound up its aflFairs. 

The last bank, the Mattoon National, was organized July 1, 1874, with the 
following officers : W. B. Dunlap, President, and James H. Clark, Cashier. 
The Directors were E. B. McClure, J. Richmond, John Rapp, Moses Kahn, 
G. T. Kilner, M. Walsh, T. C. Patrick, Joseph H. Clark and W. B. Dunlap. 
Two of the Directors afterward sold their stock— W. B. Dunlap and M. 
Walsh, and two, Moses Kahn and John Rapp, died. The stockholders met 
and elected S. B. Gray, J. F. Drish, S. Isaac and A. J. Sanborn in their 
places. W. B. Dunlap sold his stock in November, 1877, and retired from the 
Presidency. The Directors elected Joseph H. Clark to the vacancy, elected E. 
B. McClure Vice President, and chose W. A. Steele as Cashier and George 
Robinson, Teller. These officers are yet in the bank. It has' an abundant 
capital, a large surplus, and is doing a good business. When the Merchants' 
and Farmers' Bank suspended, this bank lost some money through the failure 
of some of its borrowers, who were obliged to suspend owing to the failure of 
that bank. These losses and all doubtful paper have been charged up, and 
now only the best of paper is held. This bank and the First National are the 
only two in town, and are all its trade will justify. Both are well backed, and 
are careful to conduct only a legitimate banking business. 

An examination of the amount of business performed at the various railway 
offices in Mattoon shows a good average with all towns in Central Illinois. Up 
to the war, the business of the town was all the time on the increase. For the 
first years of that conflict it fell off, owing to many men being taken from various 
pursuits of life to enter the array. As the war progressed, business again 
.revived, and building, which had in a measure ceased, was renewed with great 
vigor. When the war closed, business of every kind experienced a forward move 
seldom equaled. It was in a measure unhealthy and too rapid for permanent 
benefit. For awhile after the war closed, buildings went up in Mattoon — this 
time of a substantial character — with something like the days of its earliest exist- 
ence. When the re-action came, Mattoon experienced it keenly. From the 
books of the two railways of Mattoon, the trade of the town, we take the following 
table of the shipments from October 1, 1866, to October 1, 1867, as compiled 


from reports published in the Journal of February 1, 1868. The agent of the 

Tnilianapolis & St. Louis Roads reported : 

N u mber of horses 

Nunibei- of mules ■ 

Number of sheep Y*^^ 

Number of hogs L),800 

Number of cattle 3,440 

Bushels potatoes 18,000 

Bushels wheat 2o,438 

p . , ^,.„ 164,180 

Bushels corn ' 

V, X ^ ,. -21,800 

Bushels oats ' 

Bushels barley '^'J'^*^ 

Bushels rye "'^'^ 

Tons of hay '^^'^ 

Barrels of hominy ■±,oo-y 

Barrels meal '^''"^"^^ 

Barrels flour *^^ 

Barrels tallow 

Barrels vinegar 

Bundles of pelts 

Bundles green hides 

Bundles dry hides _ " „ 

Pounds of wool • ^ '^••*'*" 

Pounds miscellaneous 17,100,453 

The agent of the Illinois Central reported : 

Number of horses 

Number mules 

Number cattle '''-"^^ 

fc) ft t' 7 

Number hogs , "'. 

Number sheep 

Bushels of corn 324,o01 

Bushels wheat '''^■^'* 

Bushels oats 29,518 

Bushels barley ^^'^^"^ 

Barrels of hominy ' 

Barrels meal ^'^'^^ 

Barrels flour 

Barrels vinegar 

Car loads of hay ' 

Car loads of poultry 

Bushels of potatoes l-2,y82 

Pounds miscellaneous 2,551,805 

The same number of the Journal says that there are in number the follow- 
ing business houses : 

Hotels J* 

Banks " 





Flouring-mills " 

Vinegar- woi-ks 


Hominy-mills •^ 

Dry goods stores 1" 

Drug stoi-es " 

Clothing stores ■* 

Furnishing stores '■ 

Furniture stores '' 

Hardware stores '^ 

Leather store ^ 

Stove stores ^ 

Music store ^ 

Groceries ^'* 

Agricultural stores ^ 

Wagon-shops "^ 

Plow-shops ^ 

Blacksmith-shops " 

Carpenter-shops * 

Harness-makers ^ 

Coal offices " 

Saloons ^" 

Restaurants • " 

Bakeries '^ 

Shoe stores ^ 

Lumber-yards '^ 

Marble-shops ■' 

Art galleries ' 

Livery -stables * . 

Express offices ^ 

Jewelry stores ■' 

Brewery '■ 

Tailors : ^ 

Milliners *' 

Draymen -'* 

Dentists ' 

Lavyyers " 

Physicians ^-' 

The editor states that much building is going on ; that the hotel — Dole 
House — is contemplated ; also, two churches, and that the prospects are favora- 
ble for a large city — something every hamlet in the West confidently expects, 
and cannot understand why outsiders do not see such a result is inevitable. 
The element of hope enters largely into American character, and is nowhere 
more strikingly exhibited than in the average editor's opinion of his own 

The Journal, further on in this article, gives a valuable table of heights of 
towns in Central Illinois. It is worth reproducing, and we give it entire : 

'• Mattoon is 740 feet above the level of the sea, 158 feet above Chicago 
and the lake, and 458 feet above the rivers at Cairo. We are just one foot above 
Champaign, 66 feet above Pana, 176 above Decatur, 19 above Bloomington and 
142 above ^Galena. There is only one point between Chicago and Cairo higher 
than Mattoon, viz., Monee, about thirty-five miles south of Chicago, which is 
54 feet higher than our city, being 794 feet above tide water. There is 


not a point on the St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute Road so high as our city by 
many feet.'" 

From the foregoing statement, it will be observed that Mattoon is, in a measure, 
a '-city set on a hill." If she follows the injunction of Holy Writ, she will 
doubtless let her light shine. This can be done in more ways than one, not 
only in a Scriptural sense, but in a material one, by showing an activity in 
business and solidity of purpose that will count in the future. 


To show the life of the Mattoon post office, we subjoin^the following state- 
njents : 

The second Postmaster was H. L. Taylor, the next Joseph Brady, who- 
was followed by R. W. Houghton, M. W. Wilcox and J. H. Clark, the present 
occupant. He was appointed May 5, 1869, and is now serving his third term. 
When Mr. True was Postmaster, there were four daily mails, now there are ten. 
There are about 700 letters daily received, in addition to the papers, periodicals 
and miscellaneous packages. 

The sale of stamps for the year 1878 amounted to $5,726.91. The amount 
of money-orders issued for the week ending February 8, 1879, was $546.08. 
Those paid amounted to |2,034.28. As many more orders are paid than issued, 
Mr. Clark holds a balance of $2,000 in the New York office to draw against to 
make up the deficiencies. Some idea of the business of the office can be 
obtained by computing, from the amounts given, the business for a year. 
When we remember the few mistakes occurring, we can truly marvel at the 
excellency of the post office management. There are 1,100 open boxes and 
211 lock-boxes. ' The income from the boxes is about $800 per year. 


It has been already noticed in these pages that a church was built in Mattoon 
the second summer of its existence. That pioneer church is yet standing, and 
is still used for the purpose for which it was erected. 

It was built by the Baptists — "• Old Line," as they are commonly termed here 
— in the summer of 1856. After their disbanding it was sold to the United 
Brethren, when they organized a congregation in town (having been in the 
country previously), and was used by them until their disorganization. Then it 
went into the hand^ of Michael Tobey and J. S. Mitchell, as Trustees, by whom 
it is yet held. The Calvary Baptists had made, during this time, several unsuc- 
cessful effijrts to organize a congregation, but not until January, 1876, were they 
able to effect a permanent union. Early in that year, they met in Mr. U. T. S. 
Rice's office, and by him were organized as a congregation. There were but 
seven members. These were Mr. and Mrs. Rice, Jonathan A. Tuffts, wife and 
daughter, S. K. Sanders and George Clark and wife. Soon after, they were 
joined by Mrs. Joseph and Mrs. Sinsebaugh. 


For three years, they met for divine services in a hall over Hasbrouck's hard- 
ware store, Mr. Rice being leader a good part of the time. Not long since, they 
leased the old church built in 1856, which they now occupy. Their member- 
ship has nearly quadrupled since the organization. Their present Pastor 
is Rev. W. S. Dodge. 

The First Missionary Baptist Church, the oldest congregation of this 
denomination in the city, was organized December 25, 1863, with twenty-eight 
members, prominent among whom were Mr. and Mrs. Roach, Mr. and Mrs. 
Baker, Mr. and Mrs. Hays, Mr. and Mrs. Davis, Mr. and Mrs. Newcomb, H. 
J. Streator and wife, and Mr. and Mrs. Frazer. 

The organization was eflFected in .the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, 
where they continued to meet for nearly a year. They then leased the old 
church, and used it one year ; then Cartmell's Hall ; then to a hall over South's 
store ; then to Union Hall, in which place the first steps were taken for 
the formation of the present Calvary Baptist Church by several of the members 
withdrawing for that purpose. 

In 1870, the congregation built their present house of worship, and have 
been holding regular services therein since. From the date of the establishment 
of this church to the present time, more than three hundred members have been 
connected with it. It is the nucleus around which have grown the churches at 
Willow Creek, ^tna, Kickapoo, and one other congregation. 

Rev. J. W. Riley, who was present at the Recognition Council, January 
30, 1864, has been the Pastor, with the exception of six years, when he was at 
other places. During this interval, the pulpit was filled with supplies nearly 
every Sabbath, and services regularly sustained. 

The Cumberland Presbyterian Chureh was organized in the summer of 1857. 
In the spring of that year, Rev. Joel Knight, a minister in this denomination, 
began preaching in Mattoon, one Sabbath in each month, in the Baptist Church. 
On the 23d of August, twenty-seven persons, professing adherence to the doctrines 
of this Church, met and organized themselves into a congregation, and signed 
articles of confederation. The following is the original roll of membership: 

Alexander Montgomery, H. Clay Warthon, James S. Cunningham, Ed^v. 
W. Cartmell, Sarah A. Mount, M. Craig, R. D. Montgomery,* J. W. Rankin, 
Washington Engle, Mrs. Lucinda Montgomery, Mrs. Sarah Montgomery, Mrs. 
Eliza Craig, Edw. Hall, W. H. K. Pile,- Mrs. N. I. Pile,* Mrs. Scintha 
Mount, John J. Walkup, Mrs. Margaret A. Montgomery, Mrs. Mary E. Mont- 
gomery, Jefferson M. Hall,* Mrs. Amanda J. Hall,* James Kelley,* Mrs. 
Mercy Kelley, Rev. Peter Duncan, Mrs. Manning Duncan and Mrs. Nancy E. 
Morrison. Of these, but six are now connected with the congregation. 
Thirteen have removed, and eight have died. 

On the 27th, the congregation met and elected Alexander Montgomery, H. 
Clay Warthon and Edw. Hall, Elders, and W. H. K. Pile, Clerk. 

* still a member. 


At the fall session of this Presbytery, the congregation was taken under its 
care, and Rev. Joel Knight employed to preach one-fourth of his time, and, for 
two years,' services were held, most of the time, in Cartmell Hall. 

On February 27, 1858, James T. Cunningham, H. Clay Warthon and W. 
H. K. Pile, were chosen Trustees, and during the following spring. Rev. 
George 0. Bannon, from Kentucky, preached for the congregation. Rev. 
Peter Duncan was also employed, and while here, in 1860, his death occurred. 

On November 1, 1859, Rev. J. W. Wood began his work in this church, 
preaching each alternate Sabbath. He remained one year, and was succeeded 
by Rev. James Ashmore, who filled the pulpit until the fall of 1861. 

In the spring of that year, preparations were made to build a house of 
worship, and in June, the corner-stone was laid. The address on this occasion 
was delivered by Rev. J. W. Wood, assisted in the ceremony by the two minis- 
ters who had succeeded him here. The church was not completed, owing to the 
breaking-out of the war, and other matters, until 1865. It was dedicated in 
1867, by J. B. Logan, D. D. 

In the summer of 1862, Rev. S. R. Roseboro was called, remaining eight 
months. The records of the congregation do not show any progress from this 
time until the close of the war (1865), nor the names of the ministers. In 
March of this latter year. Rev. Mr. Wood was again called, and remained until 
March, 1866. In June, 1857, Rev. T. K. Hodges began preaching, remain- 
ing one year. In December, 1868, Rev. W. S. Langdon came. On the 12th 
day of October, 1869, he died, in his room in the basement of the church. He 
was taken to St. Louis, Mo., for interment. Rev. E. J. Gillespie was called to 
the vacancy, and remained two years. He was followed by R. W. Hooker, who 
stayed nine months. In April, 1875, Rev. A. B. McDaniel came. He remained 
one year. In June, 1876, Rev. R. J. Beard was called. He remained two 
years and three months. In November, 1878, the present Pastor, Rev. E. M. 
Johnson, began his ministry. 

From the time the congregation was organized until February 17, 1879, 
there have been 348 members received. Of these, -35 have died, 168 have been 
dismissed and gone, and 145 remain. 

The church is a convenient brick structure, on East Broadway, and has 
been in continual use ever since its erection. 

The Christian Church was organized in March, 1859, with seventeen mem- 
bers, of whom one only, Mr. Zack Robertson, is now connected here. The organi- 
zation was effected by Elder John Mathes, of Bedford, Ind. Services were held 
in halls and the members' houses, until 1860, when they erected their present 
church. The growth of the congregation continued uninterrupted until 1870, 
when between thirty and forty members, living principally on the West Side, 
withdrew from the church and established a congregation there. They erected a 
small frame church, and continued as a separate body until 1878, when they 
re-united with the old church, from which time there has been one organization. 


The small house of worship on the West Side is now used as a mission 

Since the establishment of the Christian Church in Mattoon, fully five 
hundred members have belonged to it. Many of them are now, however, 
removed to other places, some are dead, and some fallen away. There are now 
nearly two hundred members. 

The principal Pastors have been Revs. Black, Frazier, Adams, Streater, 
Lucas, Stewart, Roberts and Mason. The present minister is Rev. E. J. Hart. 

The German Evangelical Association was organized in 1868, with seven 
members, by Rev. Matthew Keiber. For the first three years, they met in a 
hall in the west part of town, and were supplied by ministers from other parts 
<^f the circuit. In 1870, they began the erection of their present house of 
worship, which was completed and occupied the next year. It is a small frame 
structure in the southwest part of Mattoon, convenient for the members. 

The congregation has increased but little in its membership, the removals 
and deaths equalizing the accessions. They are yet unable to support a regu- 
lar ministry, and are supplied every other week by Rev. M. Kahl, the minister 
in charge of this circuit. 

The Unitarian Church was organized December 22, 1867. After holding 
meeting in the members' houses and in halls, for a few years, the church dis- 
banded and services were discontinued. In 1872, another efibrt was made and 
a new organization effected, mainly through the eiforts of Rev. J. L. Douthit, of 
Shelbyville, and a few of the old members who still adhered to the principles of 
this denomination. They began the erection of a very neat brick church on West- 
ern avenue, which structure they completed the next year. Their first regular 
minister was Rev. George A. Dennison, who came in the spring of 1873, and re- 
mained two years. Since his departure, they have been supplied occasionally only, 
and have not maintained regular services. They are at present without a pastor, 
but an effort is being made to revive the work here and build up the church. 

The colored residents of Mattoon sustain two churches, the oldest of which is 
the Methodist. This was organized in the spring of 1866, with about a dozen 
members, by Rev. Smith Nichols, the present Pastor. That summer, a frame 
building was purchased, remodeled, and made into a comfortable church, and is 
yet used. The membership has more than doubled, and the prospects of this 
congregation are good. Rev. Nichols remained with the church from 1866 to 
1868. He was succeeded by Revs. Alexander, Knight, De Pugh, Hand and 
J. T. Neace. He is now serving his second pastorate. 

The Colored Baptist Church was organized in 1871 or 1872. It, not long 
after, obtained a small frame building, which it has since used as a church. It 
is in the western part of town, where most of the people dwell. Regular 
services are now held, both colored churches supporting good Sunday schools. 

The Church of the ImmaculateConception — the Catholic — stands in the north- 
west part of Mattoon, and is the only one of that denomination in the. city. It 


was organized soon after the building of the railroad began, and has since been 
sustained. The membership is quite large, as it includes all baptized persons 
in the Church, of whatever age. Following the policy of the Catholic Church 
at large, this congregation established a parochial school soon after it was organ- 
ized. Their present school-building, contiguous to the church, was erected in 
1865. The school is under the charge of the Ursuline Sisters, and draws many 
children from the public schools. This is clearly evidenced in the reports of 
tlie Superintendent of the West Side schools. 

The Presbi/terian Clmrch was organized on May 27, 1860, with twenty 
members. They were Mrs. Mary E. Bridges, Mrs. Martha M. Bridges, Mrs. 
Betty Johnson, AV. E. Smith, John A. Forline, David Forline, Mrs. Betty Dora, 
Rae M. Bridges, Mrs. Rebecca Boyd, Miss Frances A. Boyd, Miss Orphio E. 
Boyd, James Boyd, D. T. Mclntyre, Miss Cyntha Vanzant, ilobert Campbell, 
Mrs. Robert Campbell, Mrs. Margaret Keely, Mrs. Martha A. Smith, Mrs. 
Martha J. Vanzant and Mrs. Mary E. Boyd. The meeting to organize was 
held in the old Methodist Church, in the northeast part of town. Rev. J. 

W. Allison and Rev. = McFarland appear to have been the first preachers 

here, both of whom, with Rev. Samuel Newell, of Paris, and Rev. R. Mitchell, 
of Charleston, assisted at the organization of the congregation. Afterward, 
Dr. A. Hamilton was elected Pastor, and the erection of a church determined. 
Prior to the organization of this Church, the New-School Presbyterians had 
effected an organization, and were using halls, or churches of other denomina- 
tions in which to hold their meetings. The Old-School Presbyterians com- 
pleted their house of worship in 1864, dedicating it Sabbath, July 31. The 
dedicatory sermon was preached by Dr. Hamilton, the Pastor. In the after- 
noon. Rev. Venable preached, and in the evening, Rev. Hendricks. 

The congregation grew well during Dr. A. Hamilton's pastorate, extending till 
January, 1866, when, owing to failing health, he resigned. The pulpit was 
filled by supplies till September, 1870, when Rev. W. B. Noble was called as 
Pastor. He remained till April, 1872, when he resigned, and was succeeded, 
the following January, by Rev. Henry W. Woods, who was installed May 6, 
1873. He occupied the pulpit till the spring of 1875, when he was succeeded 
by the present Pastor, Rev. James L. McNair. A short time after the erection of 
the church, in 1864, the New-School Presbyterians built a house of worship on the 
East Side — the Old-School being in the West — and continued worshiping there. 
In the autumn of 1871, these two branches of the church were united — hav- 
ing been separate over forty years — and one congregation in Mattoon was the 
result. At first, both houses of worship were used, but, a vote being taken, it 
was decided to use only the West Side house, and, soon after, the East Side 
church was sold to the Congregationalists, who now use it. The West Side house 
of worship was used without any alteration until two or three years ago, when 
owing to the increased growth of the congregation, an addition was built to the 
east end, and the seating capacity very much enlarged. 


The Co7igregationalist Church is the outgrowth of the union of the Old and 
New-School Presbyterians, in 1871. Many members in the New-School branch 
favoring the Congregational mode of woi'ship and discipline, organized a church of 
that body, and raised some $800 to aid in the attempt. The building erected by 
the New School Presbyterians was soon after purchased, and has since been 
used. The Council of the Congregational Church met on March 10, 1872, and 
regularly constituted the Church. On the 1st of the following January, Rev. 
N. J. Morrison, then just released from the Presidency of Olivet College, Mich- 
igan, was called to the pastorate of the Church. He remained only six months, 
resigning to accept the Presidency of Drury College, Springfield, Mo. In 
October, 1873, Rev. A. L. Loomis was called to the pulpit. He remained 
until May, 1876. During his residence, a revival occurred, greatly increasing 
the membership. The next Pastor was Rev. P. P. Warner, who came in Jan- 
uary, 1877, and remained until August 15, 1878, when he resigned. He is now 
publishing a paper in Aledo, 111. He was succeeded by the present Pastor, 
Rev. A. M. Thorne, in October. 

The Methodist Epucopal Church was organized in 1857 with about twelve 
members. Thev met at first in dwellino;s and halls until about 1800, when 
they erected a very substantial house of worship in the northeast part of the 
city. It was then expected the center of the town would be here ; but future 
revelations dispelled this idea, and in 1870, it was determined to erect a larger 
liouse of worship and in a more convenient place. The present church was the 
result. It cost about $12,000, and is a very neat building. The congrega- 
tion is now quite large, and sustains an excellent Sunday school. 

In addition to the churches enumerated, others, now abandoned, have ex- 
isted. Some few societies exist, but of so passive a nature, they are omitted. 


The schools of Mattoon form a chapter in its history equal in its impor- 
tance to any part or parcel of the city. Cotemporary with the start of the 
town, a school was provided, and, before the cold of winter came in l^he year 
185'), a small frame schoolhouse was built in the eastern part of town on 
Broadway. The efforts of the principal proprietors of the infantile village 
were strenuous, indeed, to secure the center of town there, and built the school- 
house where the greatest part of the population was expected to be. A school 
was taught in this small frame, hardly as large as an ordinary country school- 
house of to-day, during the winter of 1855-56, and so great was the influx of 
population that the little room was crowded to its utmost. School was taught 
here but one term, as far as we have been able to find out. The room was too 
small, and was hardly used longer. The school was, of course, a subscription 
school. If any public money was obtained it was only a small amount, for the 
idea of supporting schools in this part of Illinois entirely by taxation, was not 
yet well entertained. The next year, another similar school was "kept," as 


we are told in an unoccupied room, and, the following winter, over True's store 
and in some unfurnished house. The recollection of old persons is not very 
good on this point ; they were more interested in '' corner lots," than to notice 
very closely just where the schools were (for one room could not contain the 
pupils, and any one could teach who could get a room and some pupils). The 
next year — summer of 1857 — a very comfortable brick structure was built in 
the northeast part of town, not far from where the first Methodist Church stood. 
This second schoolhouse was a decided improvement. It would seat many 
more pupils than its predecessor, and though " private " schools began to 
flourish, it held its way. It began to receive considerable aid, enough at least 
to conduct it through the winter term, from taxation, steadily growing in favor. 
The private schools, as they were termed, came rapidly into use in the early 
history of Mattoon, and continued with more or less force until a few years 
ago. The most noticeable of any of these was started on quite an extensive 
plan, even going so far as to obtain a charter. We refer to the Male and Female 
Academy. It was in truth two institutions, known more extensively as Mat- 
toon Female Academy and Mattoon College. The former was intended for 
young ladies, the latter for young gentlemen. Referring to the papers for the 
period of their commencement, we find they were chartered February 21, 
1863. On March 24, 1864, the Trustees met and organized, elected a President 
and chose teachers. The Mattoon College does not seem to have been put in 
very extensive working order, and in a short time appears to drop out of notice. 
The great obstacle in the way of both these institutions was a lack o*f means. 
Neither had any money to work on, and the town was too young and too poor 
to endow them. They began in 1858 or 1859, and worked some time before 
receiving their charters. In December, 1861, Prof. W. W. Gill resigned the 
care of the seminary, which had at all times the largest patronage, and was 
succeeded by Rev. D. F. McFarland, who leased the Harris Building and 
opened school on the second day of the month his predecessor left. He con- 
ducted it some time with reasonable success, but, failing to make it profitable, 
left. It was afterward uiider the care of Mrs. C. E. Gill, who continued it 
some time. Owing to an inability to support the school, and the erection of 
new and better ward schools, with their increased facilities for education, their 
free tuition and freedom to all, the academy and all private schools were gradu- 
ally abandoned, and now none are sustained. 

The public school continued along in the brick building referred to, with 
little change, save the gradually improved methods of education, and the division 
of the school into two or more grades, as circumstances allowed, until a new 
house was erected on the West Side, about 1861 or 1862. This divided the 
schools and assisted greatly in properly classifying them. The building on the 
West Side was erected by that ward and put under an entirely separate control. 
The two schools were made independent of each other, and have continued so 
to this day. The building on the West Side was an improvement on its prede- 


cesser of the East Side. It was a ver;y commodious brick building, contained 
four rooms, was supplied with a bell, improved seats, blackboards and all the 
machinery of the modern schoolroom of the day. It occupied the entire block, 
affording the children plenty of room in which to play. It was used without 
alteration until the spring of 1871. By that time, it had become too small for 
the increased demands of the growing city, and a new one was decided upon. 
The membei-s of the Board of School Trustees that spring were B. C. Hinkle, 
J. M. Riddle and J. M. Hall. Under direction of this Board, the present house 
was erected. The old one was simply remodeled and enlarged, and fitted with 
still more advanced furniture. It contains five rooms, and a commodious hall in 
the third story. Here the high school receives instruction, and here are many 
of the entertainments. When this building was erected, a small one-roomed 
building was constructed a little west of it, for the use of the colored children ; 
but finding it impracticable to educate them thus, and failing to provide them 
equal advantages with the others, they were admitted to the graded school, and 
the building erected for them moved to the school-yard and used for primary 

From the report of the Superintendent of this school, the following facts and 
items are learned : 

Number of persons under twenty-one years of age 1,041 

Number of school age , 7*'6 

Monthly enrollment for the year 3in 

Average attendance for the year 256 

The small enrollment is to be accounted for in part by the great number of 
children attending the Catholic school. 

The school is divided into four departments, viz, primary, intermediate, 
grammar and high school. The primary department has three grades. In. 
each of the other departments, the pupils are divided into three classes, desig- 
nated as Class A, Class B and Class C. The teachers are : P. H. Deardoff, 
Ph. M., Principal ; Miss Maggie Ewing, Assistant in the high school ; Miss 
Nannie Myrick, intermediate ; Miss Jennie D. Riddle, third primary ; Miss 
Minnie Jennings, second primary, and Miss Annie Riddle, first primary. 

The brick building on the East Side continued in use until the erection of the 
present one, in 1865. It became apparent, however, before that date that better 
accommodations would have to be provided, as the house used was by far too 
small, even when aided by one or two rented rooms. It was decided to borrow 
110,000 on city bonds, and an election was ordered to be held October 26, 1864. 
At that time, there were 421 children in the district of lawful school age. The 
bonds were voted for by a majority of 80 votes, and soon after the site was 
selected and work on the new building begun. It was completed in November, 
1865, and opened for school on Monday morning, February 5, following. It 
contains five rooms, and a large hall in the third story, similar to the one on the 
West Side, and used for similar purposes. 


The town continuing to grow, this building was found inadequate to supply 
school room for the increasing school population of the East Side, and another 
building was erected in the southeast part of town in 1877 and 1878. It con- 
tains four rooms, and is under the care of the Superintendent at the other 
building. From his last report, we gather the following statements : 

Number of children under twenty-one years of age 1,427 

Enrollment of school age 944 

Average enrollment 658 

Average attendajice 529 

Ten teachers are employed, whose wages, including that of the Superin- 
tendent and janitor, amount to $4,740, for eight months of school. The 
teachers are: C. W. Jacobs, Principal; Miss Lizzie Dorland, high school; 
Miss Carrie Riddle, Miss Eva Lowe and Miss Lillie Osborn, grammar school, 
sixth, seventh and eighth grades; Miss Helen Patterson and Miss Lavina 
Ewing, intermediate department, fourth and fifth grades ; Miss Mollie Phillips, 
primary department, and Miss Julia Pulsifer, Miss Ida Woods and Miss Mary 
Oushman, same department, in the first, second and third grades. Grouping 
the school statistics, we have : 

Number of children under twenty-one years 2,468 

Enrollment for the year 1,710 

Attendance for the year 785 

Assuming the first number given to be one-third; the second, one-fourth, 
and the third, one-eighth, we have a population of about six thousand in the 


On Saturday, June 7, 1856, Mr. R. W. Houghton issued the first number 
of the Mattoon G-azette, the initial copy of newspapers in the city. It was a 
seven-column, four-page paper, one of the original copies of which is now in 
possession of Mr. Leonidas Chapin. a resident of the western part of town, 
and who highly prizes this relic of early days. His regret now is that he did 
not preserve the entire files of the paper. 

Li glancing over this old copy, many interesting items are gleaned. In 
his "salutatory," Mr. Houghton says: 

" We design publishing a good family newspaper — one whose information can 
be depended upon as reliable. In politics we are independent — committed to 
no party." 

After giving his reasons for this stand, he says: "There are many matters 
of vital importance to our moral advancement, our educational system and the 
agricultural interests of this mighty people which demand the attention of the 
press, giving a broad field for operation outside the political arena." 

He goes on to say that he will give particular attention to commercial and 
agricultural reports, and adds, '"we have now launched our bark, weighed 
anchor, and hope to accomplish the voyage, even though we have occasion- 
ally to contend with tides and adverse winds." 


Speaking of Mattoon in an editorial, he notes its geographical position, its 
railway facilities, its markets and the good country about it. He says the 
town is a " stripling of less than a year's growth, and taking into consider- 
ation the difficulties of procuring building material, and the unusual sickness 
of the last season, its growth has been rapid. A great many buildings are 
now in course of erection and many more are projected." 

Commenting on the prospects of the village, the paper proceeds: "We 
know of no place which ofi'ers greater inducements for the improvement of 
capital than this. Houses of all kinds are in demand at the landlord's rates, 
and everything else demands good prices. No branch of business seems to 
lack customers. In fact, we have all the elements necessary for the building- 
up of a good inland town, in conjunction with a firm determination on the 
part of the inhabitants to make it thrive. 

Farther on, he says : 

" We have now eight or ten good stores, nearly all kinds of mechanics, 
several warehouses, two good hotels, a printing office, and a population of from 
four to five hundred." 

Referring to railroads, the editor writes : 

•' We understand that the Superintendent of the Illinois Central road has 

decided on the construction of a Y and side-tracks, freight-house, etc., on the 

east side of the road, north of the T. H. & A. road. The latter company, we 

are informed, intend laying a side-track on the south side of the road, in the 

east end of town. The tAvo companies, in conjunction, intend to build a 

respectable passenger-depot on the opposite side of the track from the T. H. &; 

A. freight-house. ' 

. . . ♦ 

He hopes that this will soon be done, as he intimates there is an urgent 

necessity for it. The erection of the Essex House, the next year, probably 

put an end to such intentions. 

The editor quotes from the Indianapolis Daily Sentinel the nomination of 
James Buchanan, of Pennsylvania, as President, and Breckenridge, of Ken- 
tucky, as Vice President, in the Democratic Convention at Cincinnati. He 
also notices the election of Directors for the T. H. & A. Railroad, as reported 
by the Paris Blade, and the robbery of the post office at Vincennes, Ind., 
quoted from the Gazette of that town. After giving a few other general 
items, he proceeds to fill the balance of the second page with advertise- 

A. Francis informs the citizens of Mattoon that " he is now opening at the 
store opposite and nearest the depot, another choice stock of spring and summer 
goods, of almost every kind and description, and that he will keep on hand con- 
stantly the best brands of flour." 

Norvell & Brother announce that they have just opened a " saddle and 
harness shop, west of the Central Railroad, over the Crazette office," and that 
their terras are " exclusively cash." 


A. Engle announo€« the " Mattcx>n House now open, and that he is ready 
to rei'eive the patronage of the public, and afford them a home, at reasonable 
terms. ' 

Thomas McKee advertises that " the Pennsylvania House has recently 
changeii hands, and has been very much enlarged and otherwise improved bv 
painting and papering it throughout." 

Mr W. H. K. Pile says that "the Kentucky House, at the comer of 
Second and Broadway, will furnish supper, lodging and breakfast for §1, and 
that he will give one meal for 35 cents." 

H M. Tremble & Son '' announce to the public that they are receiving dry 
goods of every description, hardware and cutlery, groceries, boots and shoes, 
clothing, cordage, carpenters' tools, farming utensils, rich and fashionable bon- 
nets : all of which we offer for sale cheap for cash, or in exchange for corn, 
oats, wheat, rye, rags, butter, eggs, tallow, beeswax, and, in short, everything 
in the produce line, at market prices." 

S. Knight & Co. deal in lumber, shingles, lath, timber and dressed lumber. 

Conley «k Hitehcoi'k have the largest advertisement of anv firm. Thev 
report uew^ style prints, new style poplins, sugars and other groceries, summer 
clothing, boots and shoes, and everything to be found in any other store. Thev 
give market reports, from which we learn prices paid then for different articles 
bought and sold. Wheat is reported from ^1 to ^1.50 per bushel ; corn, from 
12| to 15 cents ; oats, 20 cents ; potatoes, ^1 and ^1.25: timothy-seed, §2.25: 
eornmeal, 25 cents per 100 lbs.; butter, 12| ; eggs, 10 cents per dozen ; coffee is 
14 cents p«r pound ; sugar, from 10 to 15 ; bacon is reported from 7 to 10 cents 
per pound,^beef at 7 and 8 cents ; chickens are worth i$1.50 and 32 per dozen; 
rye is worth 50 cents and 60 cents per bushel ; hay, §6 per ton ; whisky. 85 
cents per gallon, brandy ^.50. w^ine $4 and gin $2.50, when bought by the 

This description includes almost all noticed in this first issue of the paper, 
referring to Mattoon. The i-est of the paper is devoted entirely to foreign 
matters — no local items noticed. Probably Mr. Houghton did not have time 
to gather any. He appears to have all his paper but one page printed else- 
where — probably in Terre Haute, as much of the advertising is from there, and 
some of it is inserted twice. The paper is quite creditable for the start, and 
we are sorry that no second copy was preserved so its advance could be 

The G<jzette was announced to appear every Saturday, and carefully fulfilled 
its contracts. Mr. Houghton, who had been a printer in Terre Haute, and had 
published a paper in Greenup until thfe county seat was removed, continued 
with the Gazette until autumn, when he sold to Dumas J. Van Deren, and 
returned to a farm near Greenup. He remained there and in the town till the 
spring of 1857, when he moved again to Mattoon and purchased the Gazette of 
Mr. Van Deren. He conducted the paper till the fall of 1859, when he sold it 


to Mclntyre <fe Woods and removed to a farm near Majority Point. Shortly 
afterward, Mr. Woods sold his interest to W. P. Harding, and the firm of 
Harding k Mclntyre, who took charge of the G-azette. Mr. Houghton returned 
the third time to Mattoon after raising one crop, and again secured an interest 
in the (xazette. He subsecjuently enlisted in the One Hundred and Twenty- 
third Illinois Volunteers, and lost his life in an engagement on the 18th Septem- 
ber, 1863. When he went to the arrny, the paper continued under Mclntyre 
& Harding's control, the latter gentleman as editor until February 1, 1861. 
July 19, 1865, Mr. Mclntyre sold to J. 0. Harding, and the G-azette came 
under the charge of Harding Brothers. 

When the war broke out, J. 0. Harding enlisted first in the Sixteenth Indi- 
ana, afterward in the Seventy-ninth Illinois. He was taken prisoner and 
confined in Libby eighteen months. On his return from the war, he came 
again into the Gazette office on July 19, I860, with his brother. The firm 
of Harding Brothers managed the Gazette until June 20, 1866, when the 
junior member sold his interest to Mr. C. B. Bostwick, and Harding & Bost- 
wick conducted the paper until May 29, 1867. At this date, Mr. Harding sold 
his interest to Mr. Bostwick, who managed the Gazette until July 10, 1867. 
A radical change in the paper occurred at this date. The Democratic party 
had for some time been desiring a paper, and when Mr. Bostwick sold, it was to 
a committee of prominent citizens of that political party. They changed the 
name to the Mattoon Democrat and its politics to their own. They employed 
Charles W. Dunifer as editor, who remained but a few months, when he was suc- 
ceeded by a Mr. Crouch, who remained in charge only two or three months. 
The adventure not proving a success, the committee desired to sell. They 
found a purchaser in the persons of Taylor k Bowen, who changed the name to 
Mattoon Clarion. They, however, were not able to pay for it, and, soon after, 
the establishment was sold at Sheriff's sale, and the materials moved to 

When Mr. Bostwick sold in 1867, he contracted to stay out of the printing 
business five years, and, the time expired, he returned and concluded to 
revive the old Gazette. He and George B. McDougall purchased a new outfit, 
and, on the 16th of August, 1872, they issued the first number. They also 
opened a job office in connection with their paper, and soon had a good business. 
They continued together until January. 1874, when Mr. McDougall sold his 
interest to Mr. Bostwick, who has since conducted the Gazette. It is a 
large-sized, eight-paged paper, and has an excellent reputation and circulation. 
The office is fitted with a good steam-power press, two job presses, power paper- 
cutter, ruling machine, and all the material necessary for doing all ordinary 
commercial book and blank Avork. 

The Journal was established November 1, 1865, by W. 0. Ellis. He, in 
his editorial " salutatory," defines his intended position ; refers to the fact of 
the late war; to his position regarding it ; to the desire he entertains for peace ; 


to the cause of education, which he hopes to see fostered in the town ; to the 
growth of trade and the encouragement of manufactories, and to the general 
advancement of the city wherein he has cast his lot. 

The editor notices the fine weather of that fall : the discharge of the Thirty- 
third Illinois, at Vicksburg; the granting of 8,000 pardons by the President, 
and the fact of there being 20,000 still on file. Many other items of State 
and national news are given ; a liberal patronage of advertising appears, and, 
all in all. the paper evidently was issued after a careful canvass was made. 

Some one gives a history of the inception of the Mattoon Business College 
and Female Seminary, and, through successive numbers, concludes arguments 
in favor of their firm establishment in the city. 

The Journal starts out evidently well prepared for work, and shows a dis- 
position to maintain and elevate its standard. Mr. Ellis continued as editor 
and proprietor until June 23, 1866, when he sold an interest in the paper to 
Capt. Thomas E. Woods. Two weeks before, the Journal was considerably 
enlaro-ed and improved, showing the year's adventure had been successful. 
Capt. Woods, in his " salutatof-y " to the readers of the Journal, says he is 
here ao-ain among the people he had formerly known when he conducted the 
Gazette, and later, when he had wielded the pen in the sanctum of the Charles- 
ton Courier, before that journal, as he thinks, apostatized. He alludes to the 
fact of his late connection with the war, fairly closed, and avers that, having 
tried both the pen and the sword, though the former may be " mightier, 

it is less swift." 

The current news of the day are given ; a good local column is maintained, 
while general ne>vs appears. Mr. Ellis remains with the paper, Capt. Woods 
acting as editor. 

The Journal was run under this arrangement until the fall of 1869, when 
Capt. Woods purchased the entire interest, and assumed exclusive control. He 
conducted the Journal alone until March 1, 1876, when he associated with him- 
self his brother, Winfield Woods, and the paper was conducted by Woods 
Brothers until January 1, 1879, when Capt. Woods received an appointment in 
the Treasury Department, at Washington, and Avent there. He is still con- 
nected with the paper, however, and furnishes much of its editorial matter. 

On January 1, 1879, William F. Purtill, who has been connected with the 
papers of Mattoon as a general printer and foreman for several years, and has 
been for a lontr time with the Journal, obtained an interest, and now the paper 
is conducted by Woods & Purtill. It began in 1874 to issue a daily, which it 
maintains with commendable enterprise, and which is an important factor in 
the life of Mattoon. It had been run as a tri-Aveekly two or three years prior 
to the daily ; this was, however, abolished when the daily was founded, and the 
weekly issue resumed. 

The third paper in Mattoon, the Commercial, is the outgrowth of the Rad- 
ical Republican, a paper started early in December, 1867, by Mr. Ebenezer 


Noyes. When the Gazette was sold by Mr. Bostwick to the committee of 
Democrats, Mr. Noyes determined to establish a strong Republican paper in its 
stead, purchased materials and opened an office on the north side of Broadway, 
west of the railroad, in the room now occupied by 'Squire Robb. He employed 
Charles Robb as printer, and assumed the editorial charge himself. He made 
the paper what its name implied, and was not at all afraid to freely express his 
views. He was assisted by Mr. Chittenden in his editorial work, who had the 
main control in the business office and as a gatherer of news. James Williams 
was soon after also engaged in the printing department. 

Mi*. Chittenden did not remain long in the office, and the entire editorial 
and reportorial duties devolved upon Mr. Noyes, who took in his sons to aid 
him. They continued the Radical Repuhlican until sometime in 1871, when 
they sold the paper to Mr. A. Bookwalter, who changed the name to Commer- 
cial. He continued it until the fall of 1872, when he suspended. He soon 
after sold the office to Mr. R. Sumerlin & Sons, who moved it to its present 
location. Their first paper appeared on October 8, 1872. Under their man- 
agement, the paper was made the organ of the Democratic party, and was con- 
tinued by them until August, 1876. Mr. Sumerlin sold the paper at this time 
to a stock company, and went to Florida. The company appointed Mr. A. 
Sumerlin, who had been in the office with his father, editor and manager, 
and, under this management, it is still continued. The Commercial is a four- 
page paper, issued weekly, and has a good circulation among its constituents. 

The office is very well supplied with material, and a general printing and 
job office maintained in connection with the paper. 


Masonic — Godfrey de Bouillon Commandery K. T., No. 44. Instituted 
October 28, 1874. First officers : E. A. Thielens, E. C. ; F. K. La Fever, 
Gen.; J. B. Ayer, Capt. Gen. Present officers: Michael Meller, E. C. ; G. 
W. Shaw, Gen. ; G. W. Clark, Capt. Gen. ; C. G. Weymouth, Recorder. 
Regular conclave the second and fourth Fridays of each month. 

Mattoon Royal Arch Chapter, No. 85. Instituted October 26, 1865. First 
officers: James